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(Vrc ^^rh 


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arcfiaeological SJoumal* 




Cfir fltcfiarologfeal in0titute ot Gftrat Stitato anto irrlatiK^ 






GARDENS. jfe^. 



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AP?^ IS ?896 

Thi CiimAL GoxxiTTU of the AfiooiKOLoaiOAL Ivrairun desire that it should 
be distinctly understood that thej are not responsible for an j statements or opinions 
expressed in the Arehaeologieal Joomal, the authors of the serera] memoirs and 
Gommnnications bemg alone answerable for the same. 

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Bemarks on Medisaval Architeotnre in the East Bj the Rev. Johh Loud 

Petit, M.A., P.S.A. 1, 248 

The Antiquities of South Jutland or Sleswiok. Bj J. J. A. WoBa^AJ, Director 
of the Maseom of Northern Antiquities at Copenhagen. Translated, with 
the eonourrenoe of the Author, by Oh. 0. August Oosoh, Attach^ to the 
Danish Legation 21, 96, 181 

The Ancient Tombs of Nicaragua. By Predbriok Botlb, F.R.a.S. . . 41 

Contributions to the History of MedisDval Weapons. Jousting Vamplate of the 
Sixteenth Century, from the Royal Artillery Museum, Woolwich. By 
John Hxwitt 51 

Signet of Q. Cornelius Lupus. By C. W. Knra, M.A. T- • • .79 

Dorsetshire Nnmismatics : the Ancient Mints, with Notices of some Medals 

connected with the County. By Edward Hawkins, F.S.A. . .122 

Queen Elizabeth's Procession in a Litter to Celebrate the Marriage of Anne Rus- 
sell at Blaokfrian, June 16, 1600. By OioaoB Soharf, F.S.A. .131 

The Campaign of Aulus Plautius. By Edwin Quest, LL.D., Master of Qonvil 

and Caius College, Cambridge 159 

Address delivered to the Section of PrimsBval Antiquities at the London Meet- 
ing of the Arch»ological Institute, July, 1866. By Sir John Lubbock, 
Bart., F.R.S., ftc. 190 

Notice of a Sepulchral Slab discovered on the Site of the Hospital of the Holy 
Innocents, Lincoln. By the Rev. Edward Trollopb, M.A., F.S.A, Pre- 
bendary of Lincoln 212 

Contributions to the History of Medi»yal Weapons, &c. Hand-Mortar of the 
beginning of the Seventeenth Century, from the Royal Artillery Museum, 
Woolwich. By John Hxwitt 218 

Caesar's Camp, Wimbledon. By Waltxr H. Trboxllas . .261 

Notes on Recent Discoveries at Carthage. By the Rev. Qretillb J. 

ChssteRi RA 270 

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Notices of Roman Pigs of Lead found at Bristol, and of MetaUorgical Belies in 
Cornwall, in other parts of England, and aUo on the Continent By 
Albebt Wat, If .A., F.S.A 277 

Supplementary Note on the Memoir by Mr. Worsaae on the Antiquities of Sles- 

wick; (p. 108, ante) . . . 291 

Obiginaj. DOOUICIKTB : — 

Charter of Henry TIL to the Franciscans at Greenwich, and an inedited 
Seal of the Warden i The Charter oommunicated by Joixph Bubtt, 
and the Seal by the Rev. James Qrayxs, M. A ... 54 

Indulgence granted to John Dod and Matilda his wife by the "Minister" 
of the House of Trinitarians, Knaresborough. From the muni- 
ments of Whitehall Dod, Esq. . . . .145 
Early Historical Document among the muniments of the Town of Ax- 

bridge. By Edward SmBKS, T^ce^Warden of the Stannaries . 224 

Document dated 1286, relating to Waltham Abbey Church. Communi- 
cated by Joseph Bubtt, Assistant Keeper of the Public Records . 298 
Proceedings at Meetings of the Archaeological Institute: — November, 1865, to 

July, 1866 60, 149, 281, 299 

Abstractof Accounts, 1865, audited May 28, 1866 157 

Annual Meeting held in London 804 

NonoEB OF Abchjeolooical Poblioatioks 287 

Abohajbologioal Inteluobnoe 78, 158 


Page 57, line 12, afUr << quatrefoik " ijM or dnqfoils. 

Page 96, line 6, /or '< about 200 a.d." rtoA 200 A.O. 

Page 191| line 5 from foot of the page, fw " point " read part. 

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Chorbh near Athena ; from a drawing by Waa Petit ... To face 1 

' Tomb at Wady TafjB, and domed buUding on the Nile . . To face 8 

" near Tangier; and another tomb at VadyTafa S 

Rnined Btmcture near Assouan ^ 

Moeque in Constantinople . . . . ' 5 

Church on Mount Pentelious, and plan of ditto 7 

Church near Athens 8 

*" Interior of a Church near Athens To&oe 8 

^ Church in Corfu, and plan of ditto 9 

, east window, and east window of another church near Corfu . .10 

Church at Daphni, and interior view of ditto To face 11 

in Athens, and interior view of ditto 12 

" Tombs of the Caliphs, Cairo ... . ; 14 

^ Tayloun Mosque, Cairo, and details of columns .... To &oe 15 

Tomb of a Sheik at Ibreem, and plan of ditto 17 

near Sabona, and plan of ditto 18 

^ Interior view, Coptic Convent, Menunde, and Convent in Old Cairo To &ce 18 
Coptic Convent, Menunde, and Interior of Dome, Old Cairo . . . .19 

(The Tnstitttte is indebted to the liberality of the Rev. J. L. Petit, who 
has most kindly contributed the whole of the forogoing illustratioDR, 
thirty in number.) 

Wooden Coffin, found in a barrow, Sleswick 32 

, Bronze Dagger and a Wooden box found, ibid, ... 83 

^ Portion of a Skull found, ibid., also a fragment of Woollen cloth To face 3i 

^ Wooden Cup turned on the lathe, found, ibid, To face 35 

* Jousting Yamplate of the Sixteenth Century ; four examples To face « 51 

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JoQsfcing Yamplate, RojrI Artillery Moseam, Woolwich, Exterior and Interior 

View Tofaoe 52 

(These two remarkable illustrations are from drawings executed with 
great care and skill by Mr. Walter H. Tregellas, who baa also, with 
Mr. Hewitt, kindly contributed towards the cost of the woodcuts.) 

Seal of the Warden of the Franciscan Friars, Qreenwich 57 

Signet of Q. Cornelius Lupus ; the Gallic Mars, firom a ooin of Constantine, and 

Combat between Romans and Gauls, from an intaglio • To face 79 

(These three illustrations haye been kindly contributed by Mr. C. W. 
King, author of the accompanying Memoir.) 

Roman Spur, Bodum ; and Roman Bronse Cup from Forballum . .100 

Bronze Helmet, and Silver Helmet, both found in the Thorsbjeig Moss, 

Sleswick To face 101 

Silver Helmet^ Thorsbjeig Moss, side view, and crown of ditto . 101 

Golden Hair-Ring, found at Straarup, Sleswick 106 

Brooch, found at Skrave^ Sleswick, and fhigments of rings of electrum 

To face 118 

f]X>m Eolluna, and portion of a Brooch from Galsted To face 119 

Throe Gk>lden Bracteates, found in Sleswick 120 

Golden Brooch, found at Skodboig, ibid, To face 120 

Procession of Queen Elizabeth to Blaokfriars To face 181 

(This illustration has been kindly supplied by John Murray, Esq.) 

Antique Glass Paste, found at Rome 155 

Map illustrating the Campaign of Aulus Plautius .... To face 159 

(This valuable Map has been presented by Dr. Guest, in illustration of 
his Memoir read at the Meeting of the Institute in London, 1866.)' 

Brooch found in the Danevirke, and two views of a Pendant Ornament, 

found, t&ui 182 

Three Viking Swords of Iron, found in Sleswick .... To face 1 83 
Brooch of GUt Bronze, obverse and roverse, and Silver Brooch, ditto, found in 

Sleswick To face 183 

Stirrups found in Sleswick, two cuts .183 

Driving Saddle, from Als, Sleswick To face 184 

Urn, from F5hr, Sleswick 185 

Runic Monument at Yedelspange, Danevirke To face 186 

Stone Monuments, Island of Amrom, and in Bleking ... To face 186 

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Sepulchnd Slab, found near LSnooln .... . . To face 214 

(This woodcut has boon kindly contributed by the Rev. Edward 

Hand-mortar, in the Royal Artillery Moaeum, Woolwich ... To £ftce 218 

' Grenadier of the Foot Quarda, 1785 To fi^e 222 

^ Moaque of Sultan Ealaoun, Cairo To &oe 248 

Ground Plan 248 

" -: Capital of Column, and Detaila of Aroh . .245 

•^ TwoViewa To face 246 

Dome of a Mosque at Cairo 247 

Moaque of Sultan Haaaan, Cairo 247 

Minaret at Ramleh 249 

"^ Tomb near Jeruaalem, general iiew, and detaila .... To face 250 

Oblong Tomb in the centre 250 

Ground Plan, and View of another Tomb . 261 

Elevation, and Detaila 252 

*^ Romaneaque Pendentivea, Jeruaalem, and Moaque of Caliph Walid, Damaacua 

To face 258 

Great Moaque, Damaacua 254 

*^ Late Roman Cornice, Moaque of Caliph Walid, Damaacua To fjBice 254 

Moaque, and other Buildings, Damasoua 255 

"^ Subterranean Church, near Pompey'a Pillar, Alexandria, and Ground Plan 

To face 257 

Circular Temple, Baalbec 257 

Early Christian Catacomb, Alexandria, and Ground Plan 259 

(Theae illuatrationa of Architecture in the Eaat, twenty-seven in number, 
have been moat kindly oontributed by the Rev. J. L. Petit, in addi- 
tion to thirty that accompany the previoua portion of his Memoir, 
in thia volume.) 

*" Csesaz^a Camp, Wimbledon To face 261 

Cruciform Barrow, near Hereford 268 

■ , BanweU, Somerset, two plana 269 

Architectural Ornament and luaoription, from Carthage 271 

" Inscribed Stone found at Carthage To face 272 

Greek Inacription on a Leaden Font, ibid 274 

Plan of Cisterna, t5iJ. 276 

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Roman Pig of Lead found at Bristol 277 

^Inscription 278 

Two Stamps on a Cake of Metal found at Battenoa . . . . .288 

Block of Tin found at Trereife, Cornwall 285 

(This woodout has been very kindly presented by Kr. J. T. Blight, F.S.A., 

Pig of Lead found at Basle, and Inscriptions on ditto 289 

Sword found at Bildaomose in Fyen (Scandinavian Antiquities — ^Late Iron 

Age) To face 292 

^- Bromse Fibula, and Tweesers, Lincoln To face 80^ ^ 

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Caurch at the foot of Lycobettis. near Athens. 
From a drawing by Miss Petit. 

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Et|e ^rct|aeolo0ical JfournaL 

MARCH, 1866. 


Br the Rer. JOHN LOUIS PETIT, M.A., P.8.A * 

A SHORT tour in the East, even if it comprises but a few 
of the places and objects usually visited by travellers, and is 
not extended beyond the regular beaten track, may yet, I 
think, enable us to form general ideas, not very far from 
correct. And I will at once premise, that the remarks I am 
about to make are the result of a very limited sphere of 
observation ; that I have only visited buildings to which 
any traveller may have easy access, and not a very great 
number of these ; and in all cases my examination has been 
of a verj' cursory nature. I say this to prevent any general 
observations I may make from being taken at more than 
their worth. 

I intend in my present observations to notice the points 
of diflFerence between western and eastern mediseval archi- 
tecture, and hope on a future occasion to advert to their 
points of resemblance. 

In speaking of eastern architecture I shall not consider 
myself as confined exclusively to Mahometan architecture ; 
for, although the spread of the Mahometan religion must 
have aflfected the style, I question if it made it essentially 
diflFerent from what it would have been had such religion 
never been introduced. Perhaps we may attribute to it the 
prevalence of geometrical patterns in surface ornament ; and 
that graceful feature, the minaret, owes its existence to the 
requirements of Mahometanism ; but on the whole I am 
inclined to look at the Mahometan architecture of the East 

* The Central Committee acknowledge with gratification the renewed kindness 
and liboralitj of the author in presenting the numerous illustrations of this memoir, 
chiefly executed from hia own drawings. 

No. 89, 

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rather as ^ phase of the general Oriental style, derived from 
or related to the Byzantine, than as a separate style in 

We cannot but be struck with the fact, that during the 
period of the development of church architecture, and its 
maturity, .in Western Europe, the dome was very rarely 
exhibited as an external feature. Where it was employed 
as a roof to part of the church internally (a practice common 
in Romanesque work, but much less so in the more advanced 
Gothic), it was generally, if not universally, concealed, alto- 
gether, or in part ; sometimes by a square tower, sometimes 
an octagon, having a timber roof, covered with tiles, slates, or 
lead. Even in Aquitaine, where many churches are altogether 
roofed with domes, the external appearance of the building 
does not differ in any way from those which have vaulted or 
timber roofs ; we know nothing of their constiniction till we 
see the interior. Now in the East the dome shows itself 
externally, and in such a manner as to be the predominant 
feature. Sometimes indeed it is only plaster, but in many 
cases it is of hard brick, covered with cement, and beauti- 
fully ornamented : many such, belonging to ruined or 
deserted mosques, are still perfect. They are evidently 
designed with great care, and are extremely graceful and 
elegant in their form. 

But it has also struck me that a curvilinear or polygonal 
ground plan is much more rare and exceptional in the East 
than the West ; and although the European round churches 
may be derived from the Church of the Sepulchre at Jeru- 
salem, I suspect that neither the church which occupied the 
site of the present rotunda enclosing the sepulchre, nor the 
mosque of Omar, or dome of the rock, the outer plan of 
which is octagonal, is by any means a typical form of 
Eastern architecture. It may be, however, that this preva- 
lence of the rectangular, and rarity of the curvilinear, or 
polygonal ground plan, is rather Mahometan than Christian, 
for the church at Bethlehem has apsidal transepts and 
choir ; and the internal apse is to be seen in conventual 
churches both in Egypt and Syria, though sometimes dis- 
guised externally. 

Several of the mosques in Cairo have irregularities of plan, 
which may be attributed to the nature of the site, by which 
obtuse or acute angles may be introduced, as in the magni- 

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ficent porch of the mosque of Sultan Hassan, which stands 
obUquely to the rest of the building ; but setting aside such 
occasional deviations, I think it will be found that the plans 
in general externally are rectilinear, and present only right 
angles. I say externally, for the small recess in the wall, 
showing the direction of Mecca, is, I believe, mostly semi- 
ciicular. I should add that the small building over the well, 
which commonly occupies the centre of the open court of the 
mosque, is in some cases octagonal. 

The tombs of the Mahometans, or rather, I should say, 
the chapels or coverings over their tombs, seem universally 

Near T«uigicr, 

to be square in their plan, and covered with a circular dome. 
I do not remember to have seen any that were circular in 
plan, like several in Italy, or 
polygonal, like that existing 
in Ravenna. Such square ^ ,^ 

tombs, covered with cir- 
cular domes, appear at 
Tangier, all through Egypt 
and Nubia^ about Jerusalem 
and Damascus, and, I have 
no doubt, through large 
tracts of country. They 
vary in size from six or 
seven feet square, to struc- 
tures equal to the largest 
mosques. Some have no 
more ornament than a limekiln or furnace ; some are 
enriched with the most intricate and elaborate ornaments ; 
some are pierced on each of their four sides with arches, 
round or pointed ; others have only a single entrance. 

At Wady Talk 

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They may stand alone, or"in"groups in cemeteries ; they may 
have chapels or^chambers attached to them : or may form the 

Near Absouoil 

principal and most conspicuous part of fine mosques ; ' but 
all agree in their construction — the square building, covered 
by a dome resting on pendentives. 

Whatever country may claim the invention of the dome, 
I suppose it would not be easy to point to earlier examples 
of an established date than some in Europe. But these are 
supported by substructures of the same plan, or polygonal, 
resting on the ground, as in the Pantheon^ or on arcades or 
colonnades, taking a ground plan of the same form ; as S. 
Costanza and S. Stefano, in Rome. I should question whether 
at the period of these buildings the pendentive was used in 
Western Europe. I have a sketch of part of the baths of 
Caracalla, in which a semidome appears over a large arch ; 
but I cannot ascertain whether the spandrels take the form 
of pendentives, or the arch is one of double curvature. If I 
rightly understand a cut given in Mr. Fergusson's chapter 
on Sassanian architecture, the Romanesque pendentive, or 
arch thrown over the angle of the square, must have appeared 
in the East before it was used in Europe, or at least earlier 
than any known example. The constructive elements of 
Byzantine architecture must have been in great measure 
derived from the East ; or why should the Roman style, in 
its change to the Mediaeval, have taken so diflFerent a form 
in the East from that of the West ? The most striking, and 
the earliest example of the B3'zantine pendentive we know 
(namely, the pendentive formed by part of a dome larger 

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than that it helps to support), is, I suppose, S. Sophia; 
though doubtless the experiment must have been previously 
tried on a smaller scale, and it is possible that some earlier 
examples still exist. 

Though I have nothing new to say on the Byzantine 
style, it may not be amiss to notice a few specimens, since it 
may be considered as a connecting link between the Western 
and Eastern styles ; and I shall dwell more upon compo- 
sition and general effect than on detail, which, as well as 
pictorial decoration, has been efficiently handled by others. 

When I was in Constantinople I visited some of the old 
churches, now turned into mosques ; but I fear that my 
guide (a Greek) was not at home in their old names, so that 
I cannot here designate 
them correctly. It was 
nearly a week before 
he found out for me the 
Theotokos (of which an 
elevation is given in Mr. 
Fergusson's chapter on 
the Byzantine style), 
having taken me into 
several other buildings 
to which he gave that 
name. The mosque, 
of which I give a cut, is 
that evidently which in 
Mr. Fergusson's chap- 
ter (b. X. 0. 1 ) is given as 
Mon6 tes Koras ; but 
my guide pointed out to 
me another old church, 
or rather group of 
churches, of similar 
character, under this 

name. If he was right, that I have given must be the 
Pantocrator. Both are groups of three churches, standing 
side by side, and contiguous. In this group the pre- 
dominating dome is tliat of the central church ; in the 
other the southernmost church is the largest and has the 
highest dome. I believe the whole group forms a single 
mosque in each case. There is another fine group of three 

VOL. xxui. c 

In Constantinoplo. 

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churches, a little eastward of that of which I have given 
the sketch. All its churches are crowned with domes, that 
of the central one being predominant. The Theotokos is 
a single church with a central dome, and three smaller 
domes over the narthex or western porch. S. Irene, now 
the magazine of arms, is a single church, with a large cen- 
tral dome, and one of less height over the nave. Any one 
of these gives more of a typical form than S. Sophia, though 
the latter is suggestive of excellent plans for churches. It 
has been taken as a model for the larger mosques in Con- 
stantinople, which consequently differ considerably from 
those in other parts of the East. The specimen I have given 
is a fair type of its class. All the domes are adapted to 
square substructures or areas by means of pendentives ; they 
have internally a circular horizontal section, though exter- 
nally they exhibit an upright polygonal stage, which partly, 
but not wholly, disguises the domical form. In Western 
Europe, as it has been observed, the dome, where it occurs, 
is entirely concealed. In the Byzantine style it is partially 
exhibited ; in the Mahometan style it is wholly developed. 
It will be noticed that in some of these domes each face of 
the polygonal drum terminates in a semicircle, and is thus 
adapted to a round-headed window. If a hemispherical 
dome, resting on a cylindrical drum, be cut into faces by 
vertical planes, it is evident that each will assume this form ; 
and the round-headed windows with which they are pierced 
need not have any double curvature within, though the 
domical and cylindrical forms are preserved internally. We 
also noticed the cylindrical roof, showing itself externally, and 
the gable adapting itself to its form. It did not strike me 
as any disfigurement. 

The small Byzantine churches in and about Athens may 
on many accounts be studied more conveniently than those 
of Constantinople, and; perhaps from no others can we better 
learn the definite characteristics of the style. A sufficient 
number as yet remain without material alterations, to enable 
us to classify them in a tolerably simple and intelligible 

A small church on the ascent of Mount Pentelicus has a 
central dome, appearing outwardly as an octagon somewhat 
tapering, with a low pointed roof. This dome is supported 
by four round arches, deep enough to form barrel vaults to 

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short limbs corresponding to nave, chancel, and transepts. 
These latter appear externally on what may be called the 

Chuxvh on Mount Fenteliciu. 

clerestory stage, as does also the square base below the octa- 
gon. But the ground plan is square, and the parts filling up 
the angles of the cross, corresponding as it were to aisles, are 
soHd masses of masonry, having only 
small niches or recesses. The chancel 
has^ a projecting apse, semicircular inside, 
but angular externally, havmg three faces, 
two of them springing obliquely from the 
eastern wall, a common arrangement in 
Byzantine churches, though the circular 
foi-m is often preserved externally as well 
as internally. Westward is the narthex, 
a porch or ante-chamber which we find 
in most, if not all, Greek churches. In this case it is roofed 
with a dome which does not appear externally. I do not 
suppose any timber is used between the outer tiling and the 
surface of the domes or vaults. They are probably adapted 
to each other merely by plaster. Probably many small 
churches of this design have been built; there are the 
remains of one at a short distance from Athens on the road 
towai'ds Mount PenteUcus, which may be described in nearly 
the same words. This latter specimen, though in ruins, 
has remains of painting, which seems to have been the only 

But, when the church was somewhat larger, the blocks 

Plan of Church ou Mouut 

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\7hich fill up the angles of the cross, and form a square 
ground-plan, were not left mere solid masses, but were 
pierced with arches, resting on square substantial piers. 
This is the case with a small church about seven or eight 

Near Athens. 

miles north of Athens, of which I give a representation. It 
will be observed that the limbs of the cross are rather longer 
in proportion to the tower or octagon than in the small church 
I have mentioned, and consequently solid masses in the 
angles would have involved a great waste of material ; they 
are therefore pierced with arches, and form aisles. I should 
mention that this is a double church, though with only one 
dome. The plan I have given of a church in Corfu will 
show this way of filling up the angles at the east end. 

But this mass was still further lightened, the solid pier by 
which its arches were supported being exchanged for a 
comparatively slender column, often taken from a more 
ancient building, so that the area of the church is practically 
increased by the four squares thus added to the cruciform 
part, the pillars themselves not much breaking the interior. 

The western piers in the church in Corfu are so treated as 
seen in the plan. This church is a very good specimen of 
Byzantine arrangement, and has not, I think, been materially 
altered. I give a cut of the east window, and also of that of 
a small church on an insular rock near the One Gun Battery, 
as showing some peculiarity of detail. A church at the foot 

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Interior of a Church near Athens. 

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Church in Corfu. 

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of Lycobettis, near Athens, is a good example, having four 
not very massive columnti under the dome, as will be seen in 
the woodcut. (See Frontispiece.) A small church just below 

East window of (he church in 

i window of church of a If onaxtery on an island 
near Corfu. 

the Acropolis is so arranged, and there is a good specimen 
on Mount Hymettus, which is the more remarkable as the 
columns are not monolithic, but composed of several layei*s, 
and yet the building, though deserted and neglected, seems 
perfectly firm. In the western angles of the church in 
Corfu the pillars are single pieces of marble. In all these 
churches we have the central dome attached by Byzantine 
pendentives to four barrel roofs ; the section at the clere- 
story is cruciform ; the ground plan is square (setting 
aside the apses and narthex), and the portion which fills 
up the angle varies from a square solid mass to an open 
structure, roofed by a vault or dome, and resting on a 
single column. The round arch, if I remember, pre- 
vails throughout. It is used in the church of S. Theodore, 
which belongs to the thirteenth century. The sides of the 

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Interior view, Dapbui. 

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octagon are frequently, though not universally, finished with 
the semicircle, like those we have noticed in Constantinople, 
and in this case the domical shape of the roof is preserved. 

The arrangement of a dome or vault rising above four 
columns, not too massive to preserve classical proportions, 
has been adopted by modern architects. We find it in the 
church on Ludgate Hill, London, and in that of All Saints, 
Northampton. The more massive treatment of the pier is 
common in churches of the Revival, especially in Italy. 

But there is another form, which suggests such composi- 
tions as S. Paul's and S. Stephen's, Walbrook, where the 
central dome has a span equal to the nave and aisles of the 
church. The church used by the Russians in Athens, is a 
specimen. An elevation of it is given in Mr. Fergusson's 
Handbook ; but it has been much restored ; and the church 
at Daphni, a few miles from Athens on the road to Eleusis, 
is more attractive, from the beauty of its situation and the 
air of antiquity it has been allowed to retain ; and, in an 
architectural point of view, it will answer our purpose quite 
as well. Internally, the ground-plan (exclusive of narthex 
and apses) is a square, from which branch ofi* chancel and 
transepts of the width of the side of a regular octagon, that 
would be formed within the square by cutting off the angles. 
These limbs have an arched barrel roof ; and arches of the 
same height and size are thrown obliquely across the angles, 
so as to form Romanesque pendentives, and are brought 
down to the level of their springs by concave domical sur- 
faces ; over these eight arches a dome rests on Byzantine 
pendentives, its spring being marked by a bold cornice. The 
western arch is blocked up, and the entrance into the narthex 
is by a lower one. The general ground-plan is made square 
by means of chambers or chapels, which, however, do not 
open into the church so as to increase its available area. 
The dome is partially disguised, as to outward appearance, 
by a polygon of sixteen sides, alternately pierced for windows, 
and each angle has an engaged shaft ; over the north transept 
is a square belfi*y. The round arch prevails in the church ; 
there are some triplets on shafts with heavy capitals ; the 
arches being much stilted. The narthex has some pointed 
arches of an Early English character. There are remains 
of mosaic painting in the dome. Indeed all buildings of a 
Byzantine arrangement are specially adapted for mosaics and 

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mural paintings, owing to their large amount of unbroken 
surface, and the smallness of the spaces necessarily devoted 
to architectural ornament. 

I will not quit Athens without noticing a little church on 
the road to the Piraeus, which, from its not being domical, I 

In Athens. 

fancy may be older than those I have mentioned. It has a 
nave, a central tower, if it can be so called, and a chancel with 

an apse. The roofs are round 
barrel vaults; those of the 
nave and chancel having the 
axis longitudinal, that of the 
tower transverse. The tower 
has gables facing north and 
south, and these sides have a 
much less thickness of wall 
than those of the nave and 
chancel (these latter having to 
act as abutments to vaults), 
and the surface being flush 
outside, there is a small indica- 
tion of transepts internally. A 
blank pointed arch is also sunk 
into each wall of the nave ; all 
the other arches are round, 
and there is no ornament. 
The door is square-headed. 

There is another church of the same form on the rising 
ground towards Mount Hymettus ; this is a little more 
enriched, as it has columns, apparently antique, under the 

Interior of a church at Athens. 

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angles formed by the thickening of the walls. Another of 
this description stands on a low insular rock in one of the 
bays indenting the coast of Corfu ; this has internal piers to 
support the transverse arch : on the gable of the tower is a 
small bell-turret. Simple and unpretending as these churches 
are, I cannot but think that there are localities where their 
form might be adopted with advantage. 
• • We will now go at once into Mahometan ground, though 
I shall still have to notice some Christian work. In all 
the examples we have considered, the central dome, and 
the square on which it stands, receive much of their sup- 
port from the abutment of the portions of the building 
connected with them. In most of the Mahometan mosques 
of mediSBval date, unless they are clearly copied from 
Christian models, as at Constantinople, the dome owes its 
support altogether to its square substructure, which rests on 
the ground, and not on arches, having for their abutment 
the walls of a cruciform building. The construction is 
that of the square tombs we have mentioned, which are 
covered by domes. Indeed the domes of mosques are 
often built over tombs. The larger tombs in and about 
Cairo are in fact mosques, or parts of mosques. They may 
stand at the side, or at an angle, or at the end of a building. 
It is common for the mosque to have a dome at one end and 
a minaret at the other, the structure itself being rectangular, 
like a Christian church. In Cairo, the shape is often very 
irregular, owing to the nature of the ground. But in the 
matter of construction, I believe the dome is usually inde- 
pendent of the building attached to its square substructure, 
even when the latter is pierced with large arches. The walls 
of the square are consequently of great thickness, consider- 
ably greater than the dome, or circular or polygonal drum 
on which it rests, which gives a tapering or pyramidical 
appearance to the composition, pleasing to the eye, and sug- 
gestive of strength and durability. 

The pendentives, in rich buildings, often consist internally 
of a somewhat complicated series of small arches. I do not 
think these are always mere disguises or decorations of the 
simple Byzantine or Romanesque pendentives ; ^vhat I saw 
in Cairo appeared, so far as I could judge, to be really con- 
structive, though, of course, designed also with a view to orna' 
ment. I regret that I could not succeed in making an intel- 

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ligible drawing of one (by no means the most intricate) that 
I attempted to sketch in one of the so-called tombs of the 
Caliphs. My patience gave way before I could master its 
arrangement, and I fear, from their position, they are almost 
inaccessible to photography, which is invaluable in giving the 
delicate geometric patterns on the outside, as well as the 
fine tabernacle work under the galleries of the minarets. 

The construction of the pendentive is often more definitely 
indicated externally than in western architecture. The 
cardinal faces exhibit a kind of truncated gable in steps, 
which mark the several receding arches or stages of the pen- 
dentive within. Sometimes these steps are left plain and 
square, but sometimes a bold moulding is carried along each 
stage or edge of the pendentive, which, showing itsSlf at its 
junction with the cardinal face or gable, gives it something 
of the form of our Jacobean gables, over which it has this 
advantage, that the form is not fanciful or unmeaning, but 
indicates the actual construction. I may remark, however, 
that the mouldings of the pendentive are more suited to a 
climate where rain is almost unknown, than to ours. By 

Tombs of the Caliphs (so called), Cairo. 

these pendentives an octagonal platform is formed, from 
which rises the circular drum and dome ; not occupying a 
circle of its full diameter, but somewhat smaller, and pierced 
with windows. In some cases the platform is a polygon of 

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From Tayloun Hoeque, Cairo. 


Taylouu Mosque, Cairo. 

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sixteen sides ; two mosques near that of Sultan Hassan are 
of this description. 

A group of narrow windows and circles is often introduced 
in this gable, giving the idea of Gothic tracery ; but as the 
material is not reduced to thin muUions and tracery bars, 
the work is of a more durable nature. • The lights are usually 
round-headed in what appear to be the earlier examples, 
which, however, run nearly through the fifteenth century. 
The later arches are pointed, and have something of the 
Tudor form ; a jkind of foliated label, adapting itself to the 
form of the group, runs round it. The dome is perfectly 
developed, and often has a very beautiful outline. The 
example of which I give a cut, is a fair specimen of those 
about Cairo. I did not see the interior ; I believe that the 
building is now a powder magazine. It is near the tomb or 
mosque (now disused, and therefore easily accessible) of 
Sultan Barkook, which is perhaps the finest of the group. 
This contains a large court ; at two of the angles of this 
space are fine spacious domes, flanking a symmetrical front, 
which has a small cupola in the middle. The front towards 
the city has two fine minarets. A section of this mosque is 
given in Mr. Fergusson's Handbook. 

There seems no doubt that the pointed arch was used in 
the East long before it became prevalent in European archi- 
tecture. But, if the Tayloun Mosque in Cairo was built by 
a Christian architect,^ it is probable that it was also em- 
ployed at that period (ninth century) in Christian architec- 
ture ; unless, indeed, the form, and that of the horse-shoe, 
was adopted as a difference from the Christian style. In 
Cairo the horse-shoe arch is very graceful ; in Spain it is 
sometimes rather exaggerated. Much as I am struck with 
Cordova, I cannot altogether admire some of the forms that 
its arches assume. 

Though mullions and tracery are not used, the pierced 
screens which are occasionally inserted in the windows have 
rich and complicated patterns that more than compensate 
for their deficiency. Coloured glass is frequently intro- 
duced in the openings. 

The great distinction between Eastern and Western archi- 
tecture seems to be, in the one, predominance of surface 

^ Fergu88on*8 Handbook of Architecture, toI. 1, p. 389. 
VOL. xxni. K 

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over line, in the other, of line over surface. The tendency 
of the Gothic is to reduce a building to a great framework 
of bars, ribs, and buttresses, the flat walls being mere 
screens, in no way necessary to construction. This prin- 
ciple is almost carried to excess in some specimens of the 
Flamboyant and Perpendicular. The Eastern, on the con- 
trary, presents us with larger unbroken masses, rarely 
diversified with buttresses, and not much dependent for 
eflfect upon openings. Though the fine mosque of Sultan 
Hassan, the grandest building in Cairo, is not without 
windows, they really tell for very little ; the whole has 
almost the effect of the vast blank walls of the old Egyptian 
temples. Its only important opening is its grand lofty door- 
way, than which it would be difficult to find anything more 
impressive in the whole range of mediaeval architecture. 
Most of the mosques in Cairo have this feature, and the 
same general character prevails in all. It is a tall niche or 
recess, nearly the full height of the building, forming a trefoil 
arch ; the whole being enriched with elaborate shiine-work. 
The door itself is not higher or larger than convenience 
requires. I should notice that in Cairo we often see, in 
domestic architecture, round-headed doors much resem- 
bling those of our Norman style, and ornamented with the 
chevron. They are not, however, deeply recessed, and 
have no great air of antiquity, though they may be of a 
mediaeval date. 

What I have said of the tendency to large unbroken 
surfaces, rather than to the expression produced by strongly 
marked lines, does not apply to minarets, which though 
called into existence by purely Mahometan exigencies, are 
nevertheless very Gothic in their spirit and character. I 
may have something to say of these hereafter. 

It is because the Mahometan dome is usually independent 
of any abutment beyond the weight and thickness of its 
square substructure, that I am inclined to refer to a Chris- 
tian origin two small buildings in Nubia which are usually 
pointed to as Sheiks' tombs. One is near Ibreem, on the 
eastern side of the Nile, between Derr and Abou Simbel. It 
stands on rough rocky ground, and could not have had any 
conventual buildings connected with it ; so far the chances 
are in favour of its being what it is called. It is a very 
small rectangular building, mostly of unbaked brick, on a 

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basement of rough stone. In the centre is a dome resting 
on four arches, of which the eastern and western are of 
nearly the full span of the square under the dome. The 

blioik's Tomb or Church at Ibroem. 

piers are, at present, not connected by arches with the sides 

of the building, but they possibly may have been. The 

dome is not in the best condition, and its windows have 

quite lost their form, and the other roofs (doubtless of a 

similar material) have perished. 

The east end is flat, but has had 

a semidomical roof adapted by 

Romanesque pendentives. The nave 

has only one bay, opening into the 

aisle on each side by an arch. It 

appears to have been domed. The 

building is as plain as it can be, 

and the arches round, consequently 

it might be of any date. The whole 

thing is too small and insignificant 

to attract notice, and most travellers 

that might happen to stop at the point would examine the 

neighbouring fortress of Ibreem ; but I do not regret having 

given my attention to this little tomb or chapel, whichever 

it may be. When it had its roofs, the general outline might 

have been more varied.^ 

Plan of Church at Ilreom, 

' I Bhould mention that my ground- 
plans were taken roughly and hastily, 
and in aU probability have many inaccu- 

racies, but I hopo they are not such rs 
seriously to mislead the reader. 

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Tomb pt Church near SabouxL 

The other specimen is north of Saboua, on the west bank 
of the Nile. It stands on a steep cliflF, rising nearly from 

the edge of the river. It 
is very like the building I 
have already described, but 
a little larger; and there 
are remains adjoining it 
which may have been con- 
ventual. It has a central 
dome resting on wide trans- 
verse arches, of unbaked 
brick. I see in my notes 
that I have mentioned a 
piscina, as being in the 
usual place. I do not 
recollect its appearance ; 
but if I am right, I suppose 
that we may conclude this to have been a Christian church. 
There are remains of several convents along the course of 
the river, but I did not land to visit them, as those within 

sight did not appear to 
possess any remarkable 

Between Thebes and 
Cairo I saw three con- 
vents, of which the 
churches had been en- 
larged or rebuilt, with a 
central dome, surrounded 
by smaller domes or 
semidomes. The Coptic 
convent on Gebel e Tayr 
has an eastern apse roofed 
with brick, but its cen- 
tral dome is only of mud, resting on wooden beams. There 
is some old work: in the interior. Another convent near 
Beni-Souef has a good church with domes, which does not 
yet seem to have been touched by the hand of the restorer. 
The interior has much of the Byzantine character, but the 
pendentives are Romanesque. The arches are pointed. The 
columns under the dome are of classical proportion, and 
have rich Corinthianising capitals. Four semidomes abut 

Plan of the abova 

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Insido of Coptic Convcn^, Mcuundo. 

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against the low square tower which forms the base of the 
central dome ; but I think the external ground-plan is rect- 
angular. I could not ascertain this, however, at all clearly, 
on account of the adjacent buildings. 

Coptic ConTon^, Menuode. 

Near the ancient mosque of Amer in Old Cairo is a walled 
village containing two conventual churches, with domes, and 
apsidal chancels and transepts. The naves are long, like 
those of European churches, and have wooden roofs. The 

lusido of Domo in Old Cairo. 

pointed arch is used. In the largest of these churches the 
square part under the dome is not so wide as the apse, con- 
sequently the transept arch springs from the haunch of the 
eastern apsidal arch. The cut that I have given will explain 

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what I mean. In all these conventual churches the dome, 
though very plain, is quite as prominent an external feature 
as in the mosques. 

I must again repeat, that my remarks are the result of 
very limited and imperfect observations ; and, therefore, 
where I have laid down any general proposition, it must be 
understood that there are probably many exceptions. 
Some exceptional buildings I hope to notice hereafter, and 
also to give instances of the influence of Western archi- 
tecture on the Eastern styles. 

(To be continued.) 

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Bj J. J. A. W0R8AAB, Hozl F.S.A.. Director of the Uumudi of Koiihern Antiquities at 

Oipenhagen. Tnuialatea, with the ooncurreooe rf the Author, by 

C^Tc. AUGUST QOSCH. Attach^ to the Danish Legation. 

Part I. — The Stone Age, and the Bronze Age. 

Introduction. — In selecting the subject of the following 
pages, the author has been guided by various c6hsiderations, 
which have led him to believe that such a treatise would be 
particularly appropriate at the present moment. In the first 
place, the ancient Danish province of South Jutland — consist- 
ing mainly of the Duchy of Sleswick — has, alas 1 with the 
exception of only a few insignificant fragments, been entirely 
severed from the Danish realm, to which it had belonged 
since the earliest dawn of history and the first formation 
of states in the North of Europe. And, \rhile the whole 
Danish people mourns this great loss, it comes home to 
the Danish archaeologist more forcibly perhaps than to many 
others, for no province was more closely interwoven with, 
or played a greater part in, ancient Danish history, than 
South Jutland, nor could any boast such imposing relics of 
bygone times as Sleswick possessed in the Danevirke, in the 
neighbourhood of which almost every inch of ground was 
sacred soil, calling to remembrance mighty deeds of old. 
Henceforth, Danish archaeologists and historians cannot hope 
to receive from German authorities such facilities for their 
investigations as were hitherto accorded them by the Danish 
Government. They must, on the contrary, expect every 
difficulty to be thrown in their way ; and it is but too much 
to be feared that many relics and monuments, -which even 
enemies ought to respect, either already have been destroyed 
or will be so ere long. It seemed, therefore, high time that 

^ It should be observed, that the appel- clusiTelj used in the foUowiDg paper, as 

lation South Jutland embraced the whole this treats of the whole country, and as 

country between the Elder and the the Duchy of Sleswick was not created 

Kongeaae, of which the Duchy of Sles- till long after the end of the antiquariaa 

wick never comprised all, nor does it era. 
now. The former name is almost ex- 


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some general account of the antiquities of this interesting 
country should be given, embodying the results of the inves- 
tigations of preceding years ; and it seemed so much the more 
necessary to do so just now, because a not inconsiderable 
number of German archsBologists, misled by political bias 
and national prejudice, altogether foreign to true scientific 
research, have attempted to find in the antiquities of South 
Jutland vestiges of an ancient German population, to whose 
supposed existence there in pre- historic times they appeal 
in calling Sleswick a German country, and in claiming a 
right to possess it as such. In order to give a colour of 
foundation to these unscientific attempts to press archaeology 
into the service of political and national agitation, these 
authors are obliged to arrange the few — in many cases mis- 
conceived — facts at their disposal according to their precon- 
ceived theory, not vice versdy and the inevitable consequence 
is an endless confusion. The desire of clearing away this 
confusion was one of the considerations which led to the pub- 
lication of the present treatise, in the English translation of 
which, however, almost all special allusions to the statements 
and arguments of those German authors have been omitted, 
as not possessing sufficient interest to English readers ; and 
this has been done with so much the more readiness as those 
statements and arguments are too often of an unpleasantly 
personal character. 

But the author had at the same time a far more important 
object in view than merely to set right our knowledge of the 
local antiquities of a certain district, or to defend himself and 
others against literary attacks. 

It so happens, that precisely in South Jutland some of the 
most important antiquarian discoveries of late years have 
been made, throwing a strong light on certain hitherto 
rather dark pages of our pre-historic era, and strongly sup- 
porting not only the theory of the three ages — the Stone, the 
Bronze, and the Iron age — originally proposed by northern 
antiquaries, especially by the late Mr. C. Thomson, director 
of the Copenhagen Museum, the first museum which was 
arranged on that system — but supporting also certain propo- 
sitions for a more detailed subdivision, advanced some years 
ago by the author of these notices, and more fully brought out 
on this occasion. 

Those readers who are acquainted with the author's work 

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on " The Primaeval Antiquities of Denmark/' will perceive 
several novel features in the following memoir : not only are 
the Stone and the Bronze ages subdivided each into two 
periods, but within the limits of the Iron age even three 
distinct subdivisions are introduced, effecting a far more 
accurate survey. These improvements are among the prin- 
cipal results of modern critical investigation, and it is to be 
foreseen, that when the time comes for a new complete revi- 
sion of our science, taking account of the progress since the 
publication of the above-mentioned work, many other points 
will also have to be treated in a different mafiher. The 
author wishes that the present little treatise should be looked 
upon as the forerunner of such a new manual ; and as such 
it is hereby, in a somewhat condensed form, submitted to the 
English antiquary, to whom, moreover, the antiquities of South 
Jutland may justly be supposed to have a special interest, 
as that country has been hitherto so commonly believed to 
have been the original home of the ancient Angles. 

I. The Early Stone Age. — How long the Cimbrian 
peninsula has had its present configuration, is still an open 
question. Naturalists conjecture that it must originally 
have formed a contiguous whole with the Danish islands and 
Skaane, on one side, and with the British isles, on the other, 
until the formation of the Channel between England and 
France, and of the Sound and the Great and Little Belt, 
whereby the Baltic received an outlet to the Kattegat and 
the North Sea. Nor are traces wanting of elevations and 
depressions of the soil, inundations and similar natural phe- 
nomena having modified the configuration of the peninsula in 
course of time. But I think it hardly safe as yet to attempt 
anything like an accurate calculation of the dates of these 
changes, by means of certain rather isolated and still insuffi- 
ciently investigated discoveries of antiquities.^ Even the 
repeated discoveries of artificial flint chips (or plain flint 
knives) imbedded in peat under the marshy clay and amongst 
branches and stems of birch trees, of which the roots are 
still fixed in the sea-bottom, near Husum, on the west coast 
of Sleswick, require ulterior confirmation by more extensive 

s Thus, for instance, I hardly think an archipelago at no very remote period, 

the reasons sufficient which Sir Charles and particularly siuce the settlement 

Lyell adduces (Antiquity of Han, chap. there of its earliest inhabitants. 
iL) for supposing that Jutland has been 

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investigations, before we can conclude with certainty from 
them that a flint-using people had settled on the peninsula 
before this depression of the ground along the west coast of 
Jutland, whereby forests have been covered, in some places 
by the sea, in others by peat-bogs, which again have been 
covered by marsh clay. Only so much may be said with 
certainty, that both this considerable depression and other 
natural changes, which we have here to take into considera- 
tion, have been the effect rather of slow and gradual deve- 
loppnent than of sudden revolution. 

Although, therefore, recent discoveries have made it 
highly probable that man has existed in several parts of 
Western Europe at a far earlier period than was hitherto 
generally accepted — so much earlier as to have been con- 
temporary with elephants and other large animals which 
have become extinct there thousands of years ago, — no evi- 
dences of so early a population have as yet been discovered 
either in South Jutland or in any other of the ancient 
Danish provinces. Bones and teeth of elephants have been 
dug up in gravel and marl pits and elsewhere, both in South 
Jutland (on the Holstein frontier, when the Eider canal was 
constructed, and near Haderslev) and in other provinces 
farther to the north and east ; but, as far as I am aware, 
hitherto not under circumstances indicating a contempo- 
raneous population of the country. Future inquiry must 
decide whether the old Danish provinces have been peopled 
as early as other more mountainous countries to the south 
and west, or whether they have not rather at a somewhat 
later time become fit for permanent habitation even by the 
least civilised hunting and fishing tribes of the earliest stone 

We do not yet possess certain information as to the exist- 
ence in South Jutland of those very remarkable refuse-heaps 
(kitchen middings), containing fragments of shell-fish, 
mammalia, birds, and fishes, remains of the meals of the 
aborigines, rude implements of stone, bone, and burnt clay, 
discovered in other parts of ancient Denmark, and belonging 
to the earliest stage of the Stone age of which traces have 
hitherto been found there. Nevertheless, evidences of an 
early population are not wanting in South Jutland, not even 
in the low marshes on the western side. Entirely similar 
characteristically rude implements of stone and bone have 

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been discovered in many places, particularly along the sea- 
coast, and, according to a verbal communication from a local 
collector, on the shore of inland lakes, just as in other parts 
of Denmark ; and not only isolated specimens have been 
met with, but large accumulations, indicating repeated visits 
or a protracted sojourn of aboriginal fishers and hunters — 
for instance, in a valley amongst the sand-hills near Sintlar 
on the island of Amrom near the west coast. Such rude 
instruments have formerly too often been looked upon as only 
half-finished or unsuccessful specimens, but it now becomes 
more and more evident that they have never been intended 
for anything more finished, but belong mostly to the earliest 
and most primitive period of the Stone age, when the art of 
manufacturing stone implements was still in its infancy, 
when there was hardly any beginning of agriculture, breed- 
ing of cattle, or civilisation generally, the inhabitants living 
exclusively on fishing and hunting — the extensive forests of 
the peninsula and its coasts yielding not merely the com- 
mon kinds of game, but oxen (the vrus), elks, reindeer, wild 
boars, beavers, wood-grouse, and geir-birds (the great alk). 

There can be no doubt that such rude and very ancient 
implements of stone and bone may be discovered hereafter 
farther to the south and east, on the shores of Holstein and 
North Germany, which unquestionably had as ancient a 
population as the peninsula of Jutland and Denmark gene- 
rally; archsBological' inquiry having, moreover, established 
important points of similarity in other respects between 
these countries and the Scandinavian North with regard 
to the Stone age. On the coasts of Western and Southern 
Europe similar implements have already been found, which 
seem to indicate that the earliest period of the Stone age in 
the north probably coincided with a contemporaneous period 
of transition in the western and southern coast-lands of Europe, 
where a still earlier stage of the Stone age, the most ancient 
hitherto investigated, seems to have preceded it.^ And, if 
we turn to Egypt and other oriental countries with an equally 
ancient civilisation, we are carried still farther back in time ; 
for there too we must be able to trace the very earliest 

' For illuBtratioDA of those rude imple- Northern Antiquities, Nos. 47, 48, 78, 

ments, which now also in Norway, in 79, 82-4, 2, 3, 20, 29, 80, 62, and the 

Mecklenburgh(b7Lisch),begiu tobecon- Proceeding^ of the Royal Danish Aca- 

sidered as belonging to an earlier period demy of Sciences, 1861, pp. 272-233. 
of the Stone age, see my work on 

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periods of human civilisation : a Bronze age as well as the 
different stages of the Stone age, which in all probabiUty 
must have reigned there, ages before they existed in Western 
Europe, — an inquiry which I cannot but recommend to those 
who have the opportunity of pursuing it. 

II. The Late Stone Aoe. — The darkness, in which the 
earliest population of Europe as well as of other continents 
is shrouded, begins to lighten a little towards the close of 
the Stone age, particularly on the coasts of the Medi- 
terranean and the Baltic. I think it may be assumed that 
by that time the peninsula of Jutland has, on the whole, 
already had its present extent and configuration and, — to 
judge from the monuments still preserved, — a permanently- 
settled population with a higher civilisation than that of 
mere fishers and hunters. It is not impossible that those 
pine and oak forests, of which the remains are so often 
brought to light in peat-bogs of South Jutland and Denmark 
generally, had not yet quite given way to the succeeding 
beech forests. But in any case the state of things was 
essentially the same on the whole peninsula as far as the 
Eider, comprising both North and South Jutland, as they 
were afterwards called. The fertile eastern coast, intersected 
by deep fjords, was then covered by immense forests, 
which moreover in those days stretched farther over the 
middle and the western coasts of the peninsula than the 
forest-lands do now. Nevertheless, large tracts, of sand and 
heather, were found on the wide-spread plain in the middle 
of the peninsula, and the western coast offered more open 
country than forest-land ; only here the soil was more fertile 
than in the middle part, and there were extensive meadow- 
lands which towards the south assumed the character of 
marshes. Fjords, lakes, and rivers then covered a greater 
area than now, and many tracts on the west coast were no 
doubt more thinly inhabited at that time than afterwards, 
on account of the great humidity of the soil. At any rate, 
it is certain that the large sepulchral stone chambers and 
well-manufactured stone implements which characterise this 
period, and which are so frequently met with on the east 
coast, are much less numerous on the plain in the interior, 
and almost disappear in the watery districts to the West. 
This is particularly striking in the marshes of South Jutland, 
where the stone chambers are entirely wanting, and where 

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even loose stone implements are very rarely found, as if 
they had been merely lost there on occasional visits. 

There is a strict uniformity in shape and workmanship 
between the stone objects of this period found in South 
Jutland, and those found in the present kingdom of Denmark 
and that part of the Scandinavian peninsula which lies to 
the south of the great Swedish lakes ; the same uniformity 
is observable aliso with regard to the tombs of the Stone 
age, of which, in spite of wholesale destruction by the pro* 
gross of agriculture, a sufficient number is still left. 

The commonest tombs are the Circular Crorrdechsy rather 
low round tumuli surrounded by large boulders, and contain- 
ing in the middle one or sometimes two, round, oval or 
rectangular stone chambers, of which the sides and tops are 
formed of large granite blocks, naturally flat, or, in some 
cases, artificially flattened, on the inner side. The inter- 
stices between the side stones are filled up with flat chips 
of stone, which generally also cover the floor of the chamber. 
A small passage, built of stones, exactly as the chamber 
itself, and leading to it from the east, south-east, or south, 
is not of unfrequent occurrence. Originally, these chambers 
have been either entirely covered by earth, or at any rate so 
far that only the top stones were visible. In many cases, 
however, the earth has been taken away in the course of 
time, and the remaining denudated stone chambers then stand 
forth as isolated, generally open cists, which some archaeolo- 
gists still erroneously treat as a particular kind of monument. 

The Long Cromlechs are entirely of the same kind, only 
larger, containing sometimes as many as five sepulchral 
chambers, in which the unburnt bodies have been found 
either prostrate or in a sitting posture, a circumstance which 
entirely disposes of the supposition formerly current, that 
these cromlechs were places of sacrifice or for public meet- 
ings, so called " Things^ The boulders surrounding them 
form long and narrow ovals sometimes more than one 
hundred feet long ; nay, on the island of Femern, one has a 
length of more than four hundred feet I In all other respects 
the construction is the same as of the circular cromlechs. 
The corpses in them have generally been covered with chips 
of flint (obtained by exposing large bloclcs to the fire, when 
they burst), stamped together with clay; and near them we 
find peculiar plain or ornamented vessels of clay, beads of 

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amber, ornaments and implements of bone, stone hammers 
and axes with drilled shaft-holes, and dilQFerent kinds of flint 
implements, generally neatly cut and carefully ground. The 
axes and hammers are mostly of granite, and it is justly 
supposed that metal tools have most likely been used for 
finishing them off so well, especially for drilling the hole. 
Nevertheless, but few instances are reported of metal objects 
having been found in the chambers, and they need, in any 
case, further confirmation. Still more dubious are the 
reports, both from South Jutland and from other places in the 
Scandinavian North and elsewhere, of the occurrence of 
burnt bones in grave chambers of this period. Such reports 
are, in all probability, founded on some mistake ; either the 
vessels of clay deposited in the chambers, probably with 
victuals, have been mistaken for cinerary urns, or else those 
pieces of charcoal and burnt flints, which are found in all 
stone chambers, even with unbunit skeletons, have erro- 
neously been looked upon as evidences of cremation — nay, 
in some cases, urns containing ashes and burnt human bones, 
which at a later time have been deposited in the sides of the 
barrows, may erroneously have been supposed to belong to 
the original sepulchre in the middle of the barrow. Such 
cinerary urns, which in many cases demonstrate their later 
date by containing objects of iron, have been frequently 
discovered in the sides of long cromlechs, both in North and 
South Jutland. 

Quite similar results have been obtained with regard to 
the third class of tombs from the Stone age, the so-called 
giants' chamber's. In many cases cinerary urns containing 
burnt bones and small pieces of metal, mostly bronze, are 
found near the extremities and at the tops of this kind of 
barrows, whilst on their bottoms graves of the Stone age in- 
variably occur, often in considerable number, containing 
unburnt corpses, accompanied by objects of burnt clay, 
amber, stone, or bone, but never or rarely anything of metal. 
These giants' chambers are not only distinguished firom the 
other stone graves by being entirely covered with earth 
and generally of considerable extent, but they are besides 
mostly provided with long entrance-passages, of which the 
sides and roofs are constructed of flat stones, and which were 
used for sepulture as well as the chambers. These are, 
therefore, sometimes appropriately called "passage cham- 

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bers/' Several of them are found in different parts of South 
Jutland, as far south as Missunde. 

We have stated already that the graves of the Stone age 
in South Jutland correspond in every respect to those found 
in other parts of ancient Denmark and Scandinavia ; but 
quite similar graves, containing unburnt skeletons and tools 
of stone and bone, occur both in Holstein — even in Dith- 
marschen — ^and all over the plain of North Germany, near 
the coasts and along the great rivers as far as the more 
mountainous tracts in the interior. I am not aware of any 
"giants' chambers'' having been found in Germany, or 
indeed anywhere farther south in that part of the continent 
than Missunde, in the southern part of Sleswick. But 
even if none should be found in future south of the Eider, 
this would only be a local peculiarity, caused perhaps by the 
longer duration of the Stone age in the north, which is also 
indicated by the greater perfection of the stone implements 
found in Denmark and South Sweden. Similar and even 
larger "giants' chambers'' are found in Ireland and 
Bretagne, and graves of the Stone age, generally preserving 
in all essential points the same outer forms and the same 
contents, are met with not only in the Scandinavian 
countries and in North .Germany, but all over western 
Europe, Holland, the British Islands, France, Portugal, 
Spain, North Afiica, the coasts of the Mediterranean, 
Crimea, and through Asia to India. They are mostly found 
near coasts and rivers, but reach now and then into the 
more remote mountainous countries — for instance, in Swit- 
zerland, where they have been discovered near the " PfaflBker 
see," one of those lakes which have contained remains of lake- 
dwellings of the Stone age, and, in these, remarkable proofs 
that the population at that period carried on agriculture, 
cattle-breeding, nay, even gardening and commerce with 
distant countries. Corresponding discoveries of bones of 
domesticated animals in the graves themselves, and in other 
monuments from the Stone age in different parts of West 
and North Europe, even in the Scandinavian countries, give 
additional strength to the supposition, which is rendered 
probable by the great size of many tombs, their situation on 
the most fertile spots, and the abundance of excellently 
worked stone implements found in them, viz., that permanent 
settlements, possession of tame cattle, agriculture and the 

VOL. xxni. 6 

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rudiments of civilisation generally have, towards the close of 
the Stone age, not been confined to Switzerland alone, but 
extended, with local modifications, over all those countries 
where the stone graves are found, which everywhere exhibit 
such remarkable uniformit)\ 

Bones of domesticated animals from the Stone age have 
been found not only in the middle part of Germany, in 
France, and the British Islands, but also quite lately in 
Mecklenburg in several places, both in the remains of " cave 
habitations,'' and in several of those lake-dwellings which 
have now been found also on the shores of the Baltic, though 
— with the exception of a dubious locaUty in Sleswick — 
not in Denmark. These hones were found together with 
well-manufactured flint implements. The investigation, in 
1863, of a long cromlech of great size situated on the largest 
and most fertile plain of West Gothland in Sweden, brought 
to light, besides bones of swine and horses, a certain number 
of spear-heads or awls, made of the bones of sheep ; and, 
even if the first-named bones might have been dragged into 
the tombs at a later time by foxes and other wild animals, 
these last objects appeared sufficient to warrant the conclu- 
sion that the people of the Stone age lived not only by fishing 
and hunting, but that they practised agriculture and pos- 
sessed tame cattle. 

The skulls and other human remains found in the graves 
of this age have not yet been submitted to sufficiently care- 
ful and extensive investigations to enable archaeologists to 
decide whether it was one and the same people, or several 
tribes of a different race, which inhabited so great a part of 
Europe, and even parts of the coasts of North Africa and of 
Asia, at the time of this remarkably uniform civilisation. As 
far as the countries north of the Eider are concerned, it has 
been ascertained that the people of the Stone age were of ordi- 
nary size ; but their skulls do not exhibit any constant type, 
some being rather round and others quite oblong, from 
which it might be concluded that the population, even before 
the close of the Stone age, had already become mixed througli 
new immigrations, which in those remote ages most probably 
took place in a gradual manner, rather than by sudden 

III. The Early Bronze Age. — When the Stone age, in 
its different stages of development, had reigned probably for 

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thousands of years. in Europe, it yielded, several centuries — 
in some places more than a thousand years — before Christ, to 
a new civilisation, that of the Bronze age, heralded by the 
magnificent "giants' chambers,*' with their beautifully. 
shaped stone implements, which in some cases were possibly 
worked with metal tools. But just as the transition from 
the earlier to the later period of the Stone age was a gradual 
one, thus many circumstances indicate that scarcely in any 
country has that stage of ciyilisation which is characterised 
by the use of gold and bronze suddenly superseded the pre- 
vious state of things —as was hitherto believed by many — • 
not even where it was imported originally from abroad by 
colonists or conquerors. 

I do not merely allude to the above-mentioned insuffi- 
ciently authenticated reports of metal objects having been 
found in graves of the Stone age, particularly in " giants' 
chambers ;" but I rely on the certain fact that during the 
earlier period of the Bronze age the old custom, according 
to which the bodies of the dead were buried unburnt, was 
still in use^ and even predominant in comparison with the 
new custom of cremation, the only difference being that, in 
most cases, merely tumuli of earth, but no stone chambers, 
were constructed on the burial-pltees. Not even this differ- 
ence was, however, always obserVfed, for in some of the tumuli 
from the Bronze age we find--i*fegular stone chambers, with 
burnt flints at the bottom ; in others — and somewhat more 
frequently — the remains lie in a kind of stone cist, known also 
from the Stone age ; whilst otheri^, again, exhibit novel and 
local peculiarities in the form of the chamber. In many 
of these tombs not a few stone tools are mixed with the 
objects of metal. In this respect the state of things in 
South Jutland is particularly interesting. The cromlechs 
of the Bronze age are far more common in South Jutland 
than those of the Stone age, and are distributed over the 
whole of the province. Several of them have, on examination^ 
been found to contain unburnt bodies, buried in differe^t 
ways, and amongst these not a, few contained in their tops 
and sides urns with burnt bones and ashes, whilst the 
remains of unburnt bodies occupied the bottom, — evidently 
sepultures of different periods. No instance has ever been 
discovered, in South Jutland or else^ere in the North, of 
cromlechs containing burnt bones at the bottom and skeletons 

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at the top, from which it may safely be concluded that the 
custom of cremation was of later origin than that of bury- 
ing the body whole. In the northern part of Sleswick, 
between the town of Aabenraa and the frontier of North 
Jutland, eight instances have come to light where the un- 
burnt bodies at the bottom of the barrows were deposited in 
hollow and split oak trunks, under piles of stones, finally 
covered by earth, the tops and sides sometimes containing 
urns with ashes, burnt bodies, and bronze objects. These oak 
coffins do not exhibit marks of a isaw having been used. The 
skeletons inside are almost entirely destroyed, but it is quite 
apparent that the bodies have been originally wrapped in 
well-woven woollen cloths, with thicker mantles, and caps of 
a peculiar kind of felt, and laid on ox or cow-hides, sometimes 

with the horns on. 
With the skeletons 
were found very 
fine swords, some- 
times with bronze 
hilts ; a palstave, 
daggers and orna- 
ments of bronze ; a 
double spiral brace- 
let of gold, turned 
wooden cups, some- 
times with orna- 
mental tin nails 
carefully hammered 
in ; chipboxes, horn 
combs, &c. The ac- 
companying illus- 
trations represent a 
part of the objects 
found in one of these barrows called " Dragshoi," viz., the 
coffin (fig, 1, a, i,); a piece of the skull with hair (fig. 2), a 
small bronze dagger (fig. 3), a piece of woollen cloth (fig. 4), 
a turned wooden cup, 6 in. high, and 12^ in. wide at the 
mouth, with tin nails (a piece of tin was found near the cup), 
(fig. 5, a, 6,) > and a small chip box, lying in the wooden cup 
(fig. 6). In the side of the same barrow a stone cist was 
found, containing a bronze sword and an arrow-head of 

Fig. 1 a, Coffin of wood found in a barrow in Sleswick. 

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'^ Entirely corresponding barrows have been found in the 
adjoining parte of North Jutland, and even as far north as 
the neighbourhood of the town of Viborg; others also, 
dating from this period as well as from the later period of 
the Bronze age, are scattered over other parte of North 
Jutland, the islands, and Skaane, only with '-this ^ diflFerence, 
that in this last class the coffins are made wholly of oak 
planks, or the sides of stones and the tops or covers of oak 
planks. That in some parts of South and North Jutland 
the inhabitants seem to have preferred coffins made of entire 
trunks, is^ probably due to the abundance of oak timber in 
those localiti^, where, even at the present day, many houses 
— nay, large, farms — are completely constructed of huge oak 
timber, though the ancient foreste now are mostly gone. The 
best preserved and in every respect most remarkable* barrows 
of this kind jwere two called " Kongehoi ** and " Treenhoi,'* 
lying close together in a field near Vamdrup in North 
Jutland, just north of the Kongeaa, which separates that 
province from. South Jutland. Near their summite they 
contained, urns with burnt bones and ashes, and at the bottom 
four coffin3^each, two of those in Eougehoi .being double and 
consisting^ . of split and hollowed oak trunks, one^ — more 
finished— inside the other. The antiquities were of the 
same kind as those found in similar cromlechs in South 
Jutland, and of equal merits in shape and workmanship, 
namely, swords and poignards with bronze hilte,' Or at any 
rate with handsome bronze knobs at the end of. the hilt ; 
elegantly carved wooden sheaths, diflferent ornaments, 
amongst which we may mention a stud overlaid with 
amber, bronze knives, a comb of horn, chip boxes, wooden 
cups, one of them decorated with tin nails ; a lump of tin, 
and, amongst the bronze objects in one of the coffins in 
Treenhoi, a small arrow-head of flint. There were unmis- 
takeable remains of the unburnt bodies, which had been 
deposited wrapped in woollen cloths or skins, but tho bodies 
were mostly dissolved by the Avater. The clothes, however, 
were so well preserved, particularly in one of the coffins in 
Treenhoi, that after having undergone restoration they are 
now in a state fit for use, and afford an indispensable clue to 
the right interpretation of the incomplete remains formerly 
obtained from similar oak coffins in South Jutland. To judge 
from the information thus gained, a warrior's dress consisted 

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Fig. 4. Woollen cloth found in a borrow called DmgsliOi. 

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Fig. 6, b. Wooden cup. DragsbOL 

Fig. 5, a. Wooden cup, turned on the lathe, found in a barrow called Di-agshOi. 
Height 6 in., width, at the mouth, 13) in. 

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iu those ancient days of a woollen woven skirt tied round 
the waist ; some pieces of finer cloth wrapped round the 
feet, but no trousers ; a thick woven mantle, and a cap, 
perhaps also a kind of plaid. But, although rich people 
possessed such fine woven clothes, the poorer classes may, 
both then and even at a far more modern period, have used 
garments of skins.^ 

Sepulchres belonging to a similar early period of the 
Bronze age, containing unburnt bodies, fine well-developed 
bronze objects, mixed with a very few stone implements, 
have been observed in. several countries outside the North of 
Europe ; and coffins, of split and hollowed oak trunks, quite 
similar in shape and contents to those found in North and 
South Jutland, have been found in Ditmarschen, Mecklen- 
burg, the island of Rligen in Bohemia, and in several places 
in England, in which latter country they may be stated with 
certainty to be of date earlier than the Teutonic or so-called 
Anglo-Saxon population. Besides this, coffins of split and 
hollowed trunks of oak-trees have been used far into the 
Iron age, both in England and South Germany.* Even 
among savages of the present day — for instance, in Mada- 
gascar — similar modes of burial are in use. It is therefore 
impossible to find, in the occurrence of such coffins — as some 
German authors have done, — a proof that some German 
tribe — in the strict sense of the term — inhabited South Jut- 
land in those ancient times. 

The oldest graves and antiquities of the Bronze age, both 
in South Jutland and in other parts of North Europe, as 
far as is hitherto known, agree very remarkably in this 
point, that they present no traces of a "Copper age,'* 
characterised by forged copper implements, and intervening 
between the Stone age and the Bronze age, such as was the 
case in North America. Extremely few copper implements 
have been found in North Europe, but they are cast, not forged 
or hammered ; and the same seems to be the case with 
those found in greater numbers in Hungary and the North 
of Italy (Keller's Pfahttauten, Trans. Zurich Soc. Antiqu., 

^ Beautiful coloured illustratioDB of strings to tie it in front, was some years 

tlie objects found at Vamdrap may be ago found in a bog near Flensborg. 
seen in A. P. Madsen's illustrated work ' Lisch adduces an instance of a burial 

on Danish Antiquities. Afbildninger of in such a coffin (Todtenbaum) in the 

Danske Oldsager, parts 5 and 6. A body year 1161 (Mecklenb. Jahrb. xxvii. 18C2, 

of a man dressed in plain leather shoes p. 183). 
and a mantle made of double skin, with 

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1863). The civilisation of the Bronze age appears in the 
North immediately following the Stone age, and fully- 
developed at once, characterised by cast weapons, imple- 
ments, and oi'naraents of elegant shape and decoration ; the 
new stage of civilisation was attended by great progress in 
agriculture, husbandry, and commerce, and it soon not only 
occupied the large tracts inhabited already in the Stone age, 
but even spread further in all directions, thanks to the 
superiority of metal over stone and bone, nor did any very 
considerable time elapse before this state of civilisation, with 
its peculiar custom of cremation and other new rites of 
burial, completely gained the upper hand. 

IV. The Late Bronze Age. — Some cromlechs in South 
Jutland have been found to contain vestiges of a nearly 
contemporaneous use of the older custom of burying the 
body whole, and of the later custom of cremation, indicating 
a period of transition between the two. The most remark- 
able of them was a barrow near Sender Brarup in Angel, in 
the interior of which a circle of moderately-sized stones was 
discovered, placed on the ground, and inside this circle, close 
to the stones forming it, a whole skeleton was found, whilst 
the very centre of the circle was occupied by a small stone 
cist, containing burnt human bones and a bronze pin. Outside 
this circle three large stones had been erected, of which one 
more than 8 ft. high seems to have been intended for a kind 
of monument. All this was covered with earth, so that 
nothing was to be seen outside the barrow, which was 
170 ft. in circumference, and 10 ft. high, and in the side 
of which an urn with burnt bones and ashes was discovered. 
No doubt can exist that this urn had been deposited in 
the barrow at a later time than the original sepulchre at the 

The graves in South Jutland belonging to the later divi- 
sion of the Bronze age, and, containing burnt bodies only, 
are otherwise quite similar to those of the corresponding 
period in the northern as well as in the western and parts 
of the middle of Europe. In some cases the burnt bones, 
with arms, implements, and ornaments, were deposited, as in 
the preceding period, in wooden coffins or stone cists, some- 
times wrapped in skin or in woven woollen garments ; in 
other cases the arms alone were hidden in cists or under 
layers of stone, whilst the burnt bones were collected in urns 

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and placed in another part of the cromlech ; in a third class 
of burials the remains of the bones, together with arms and 
ornaments, have been left on the spot where the body was 
burnt, over which then a heap of stone has been placed, and 
afterwards a barrow formed ; finally, and probably in the 
majority of cases, the bones were put into urns of clay, which 
were then placed in barrows, and protected by quite small 
square cists or boxes. Some barrows of this last description, 
which have served as family sepulchres or common cemeteries, 
contained an extraordinary number of urns. Similar general 
cemeteries, where the urns have been deposited in the field 
without erection of barrows, have been found in several 
places in South Jutland as also in other parts of the north, 
particularly in elevated situations. 

The antiquities derived from these tombs correspond in 
like manner with those discovered in other countries of 
the North of Europe, particularly near the Baltic. In all 
these localities the difierence between the antiquities of 
the earlier and those of the later period of the Bronze period 
seems only to consist in a decline in point of beauty of form 
and purity of style, observable in some at least of the objects 
belonging to the end of the Bronze age, and indicating a 
decUne of the ancient civilisation which characterised that 
period. Even in the last stage of the Bronze age, silver, 
and to some extent glass, was unknown in the North of 
Europe, nor have any vestiges of an alphabet been disco- 
vered. Pure copper and pure tin were but rarely used — 
arms, implements, and ornaments being still in this period 
generally cast of bronze, composed of copper and tin. Gold, 
however, was sometimes used for ornaments. In all parts of 
Denmark and Sweden we have discovered moulds, jets of 
metal sawed oflF the finished work, pieces of metal for melting, 
half-finished and unsuccessfully-cast bronze objects — in short, 
80 many vestiges remain of the stores and business of 
the metal-workers, that there can be no doubt that the 
bronze objects must, at least very often, have been manu- 
factured in the northern countries themselves, retaining, 
apart from the small differences just mentioned, the same 
traditional general forms. At the same time I wish to 
observe, without detracting from the importance of the many 
true and undoubted remains of the manufacture of metal 
implements in the Bronze age, that in my opinion a con- 

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siderable number of deposits from the Bronze age have been 
erroneously described as ancient metal-workers' stores. A 
large proportion of our Bronze deposits have curiously 
enough been found in peat-bogs ; and, looking at the con- 
dition of the objects deposited, I am convinced that many 
of them are analogous to the moss-finds of the early Iron 
age (see hereafter). 

Careful comparisons show that, in spite of the general 
uniformity of civilisation obtaining throughout Europe at 
the time of the Bronze age, a peculiar group was neverthe- 
less formed, from the earliest beginning of that period, by 
the then inhabited parts of Sweden, Denmark, North Ger- 
many, and parts of the middle of Germany, which, with 
regard to the excellency of their manufacture of metal ob- 
jects, occupied a positiA equal and even superior to most 
other countries, especially to the western parts of Europe. 
In the British islands the elegant shapes and ornaments 
which we so frequently meet with in bronze objects from 
the North of Europe are more rare ; the patterns are evi- 
dently peculiar, and even the composition of the metal 
seems to be slightly different. A similar remarkable sim- 
plicity, coupled with certain particularities in shape, is also 
observable in France. But, in the South of Europe, in Italy, 
Switzerland, South Germany, parts of Hungary, and in 
Greece, we find again bronze objects, which, for variety of 
form and elegance of execution, are equal to those from the 
Baltic countries, though of course the actual patterns of 
swords, daggers, palstaves, celts, axes, etc., are different from 
those of the north. Still greater differences are to be ob- 
served if we turn to those relics of the Bronze age which 
have been found in other parts of the world ; for instance, 
in Africa, in ancient Egyptian graves, in Asia, near the 
Euphrates and Tigris (not to mention the remarkable arras of 
copper discovered in India), and both in North and South 

But although that stage of civilisation which we describe 
as the Bronze age, forming the intervening link between 
the primitive culture of the Stone age and the higher one 
of the Iron age in almost all parts of the world, is charac- 
terised by a remarkable general uniformity amidst manifold 
local modifications, it has nevertheless reigned at very dif- 
ferent periods in different countries — a fact of which we 

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possess distinct historic testimony. Especially in the North 
of Europe it retained undoubtedly its position for centuries, 
while the more southern nations had already attained to the 
knowledge and general use of iron, silver, glass, and of an 
alphabet. Implements for casting and other objects con- 
nected with the manufacture have, moreover, been disco- 
vered everywhere, proving that the bronze objects have 
been made in the countries themselves, and, in each of these, 
local peculiarities of shape, etc., seem to have existed from 
the eauiiest time. The bronze objects found in the different 
countries of Europe cannot, therefore, from the beginning 
have been distributed over so large tracts by direct com- 
merce or colonies from one single nation, whether Etruscans, 
Romans, Greeks or Phoenicians. Any such nation would of 
course have imported implements and arms of the same forms 
and the same metallic composition to all other countries with 
which it traded, and would not have continued for so many 
centuries to manufacture bronze objects merely for the sake 
of exporting them, when they themselves already possessed 
infinitely better arms and implements of iron. With special 
regard to the hypothesis recently advocated with much 
emphasis by Professor Nilsson (Skandinaviens Uiindvaanere, 
2nd edition, 1862 — 1864, Stockholm), according to which 
the bronze objects of the North of Europe were derived 
from the Phoenicians, we must observe, that history does not 
furnish any testimony in favour of it, nor has any well- 
authenticated find of bronze objects been made in any of 
the ancient settlements of that nation. If any such should 
be brought to light, we can hardly doubt but that they will 
prove very different from the bronze objects of the North of 
Europe, as is the case with all those which have hitherto 
been found on the shores- of the Mediterranean. It is more 
probable that future investigations of remains from the 
Bronze age in the East of Europe, — for instance in Finland, 
where very fine bronze arms have been found, in Russia, in 
the northern and middle tracts of Asia, — will prove that the 
cradle of European civilisation in the Bronze age was in 
the interior of Asia, where copper, tin, and gold abound. 
Several different tribes living in those parts may, at a very 
remote period, have become acquainted with the use of 
these metals, and developed separate styles of manufacture, 
which then — possibly by the migrations of such tribes — 

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may have been transplanted to different parts of Europe 
preserving their original peculiarities. Careful analysis had 
shown that the chemical constitution of the gold and bronze 
found in the graves of the Bronze age, on the shores of the 
Baltic, in many cases distinctly points to the Ural mountains 
as the source whence those metals were obtained (see Pel- 
lenberg in the Mecklenburgische Jahrbiicher, xxix. 1864, p. 
157) ; and it is well known that implements of copper and 
bronze have been found in ancient copper mines in the Ural, 
proving that these were worked in the Bronze age. At the 
same time it cannot be doubted that the inhabitants of 
several parts of Europe, at a very early period, obtained their 
supply of these metals from native sources. 

( To he continued,) 

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At the date of its subjugation, a.d. 1526, Nicaragua was 
peopled by at least three distinct Indian races, and, even to 
the present day, in wandering through the less settled dis- 
tricts, the traveller may trace among the inhabitants those 
peculiar features which characterised each of those families. 
These broad divisions appear to have been — firstly, the 
Toltec or Chorotegan, here, as elsewhere, claiming to be the 
aboriginal possessors of the country ; secondly, the Chontal ; 
and thirdly, the Carib. There seems good reason also to 
believe that a colony of veritable Astecs was located upon 
the territory lying between the Lakes and the Pacific ; these 
people were called Niquirans, and spoke the Mexican 
tongue. The Toltecs inhabited the northern country from, 
the Pacific coast to the mountains of Chontales, and south of 
the lakes into Costa Rica ; the Chontals occupied the pro- 
vince still called by their name ; and the Caribs, a more 
barbarous but. also more spirited people, under various*, 
names and with much diversity of dialect and habit, were 
thinly scattered along the Atlantic shore. All accounts 
agree that, when the Spaniards entered the country', they 
found a population so dense as to excite their amazement — 
cities, we are told, four Spanish leagues in length — a people 
most active and industrious, and a soil and climate beyond 
their utmost expectations. The soil and climate still remain 
unchanged, but the most hopeful traveller could find little 
else in modern Nicaragua to correspond with Oviedo's 
account of its ancient prosperity. 

By each of the three races the disposal of the dead was 
differently conducted. The Chontals, a mountainous people, 
seem to have used cremation and interment indifferently, 
but in either case the remains were finally deposited upon 
the summit of a hill, or in an artificial mound upon the 
broad savannah. Over the body was raised a cairn of 
rough stone, the size of which varied exceedingly. / 


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Of the Caribs we know little, but, as their habits have 
probably not changed in one iota since the Spaniards con- 
quered the neighbouring country, it seems likely that they 
l^uried their dead with little ceremony, and marked the spot 
with a parallelogram of small stones. Old graves such as 
these we remarked once or twice in the border-land of 
Chontales, and such is a frequent practice among the Indian 
tribes of Mosquito. 

The Toltec graves are much more difficult to find than 
those of the Chontals. Indeed in the ancient seats of that 
people round the Lake of Nicaragua, it is only by accident 
that their last resting-places are occasionally disclosed ; and 
those numerous graves upon the frontier line of Costa Rica, 
which have lately afforded so many valuable specimens of 
Indian art and ingenuity, were accidentally revealed by the 
fall of a large tree, the roots of which, tearing away a piece 
of the river bank, laid bare a considerable quantity of golden 
figures deposited in the earth. Tradition says that the 
Toltecs burnt the flesh of the deceased and buried the bones, 
or some of them, in pots of earthenware, and this story is 
confirmed by the appearance of their graves. 

A similar practice appears to have been in use among the 
inhabitants of Ometepec, whom Mr. Squiers asserts to have 
been of the Niquiran race. On that island, however, rarely 
are any bones found except those of the skull. 

In riding through the broad savannahs and over the 
green and rounded hills which are characteristic of the old 
Chontal territory, the traveller cannot but be struck with 
the picturesque appearance of the lonely thickets which 
spring up at long intervals above the grassy waste. These 
solitary little groves are always found to have root in a 
cairn of loose rocks in the form of a parallelogram, and 
sometimes of immense size. The largest that we measured 
was 68 yards long by 40 wide, and the smallest 20 ft. by 8 ; 
in height they vary fi'om 10 to 4 ft. The majority of them 
have been more or less overthrown by the growth of great 
trees, but some are still in sufficient preservation to show 
how careful was the original building. The sides were 
sometimes sloped, or, more rarely, quite straight, but in 
either case a low parapet of rough stone was placed along 
the edge. On every one are found either the fragments of 

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statues and sculptured bits of pedestal, or at least the deep 
holes in which they had been planted. Some of these 
figures have been overthrown quite recently, but ages ago 
all suffered terrible mutilation from the superstitious zeal of 
the Spaniards. So far as we could ascertain a small statue 
was placed at each corner of the cairn, and a much larger 
one was planted with more or less accuracy in the centre. 
Occasionally there were several of the central figures, and it 
is probable that they corresponded with the number of bodies 
interred. The position of these monoliths is the only clue 
hitherto discovered to guide the digger in his search through 
the vast pile of stone, but very frequently his calculation 
proves completely erroneous. 

Looking at the situation of these statues thus placed 
above the deceased, and observing the human character that 
exists about most of them ; the careful delineation of the 
features (in some cases very peculiar) ; the attempt of the 
artist, apparent to me, to imitate minutely some object 
before his eye as he worked, it is difficult to avoid a sus- 
picion^ that they were intended as imperishable portraits of 
the dead. I would particularly call attention to two speci- 
mens, which were central figures on a small cairn* we opened. 
Broken and defaced as they are, they still give a very fair 
idea of a grim old warrior and his more amiable spouse. 
In two others there are noticeable peculiarities, which are 
scarcely godlike though human enough ; one of them has a 
large wen over the eye; the other, though battered out 
of all shape as to his features, still displays the long curl 
of his beard and whiskers almost uninjured; and such manly 
ornaments, though rare, are occasionally met with among 
Indians. Indeed if anyone will compare these statues from 
Chontales with those found in Toltec or Niquiran districts^ 
he cannot fail to remark a radical difference, not in the style 
of art merely but in the idea of the artist. From these and 
some other observations we made, which would not be strictly 
in place in this memoir, we formed a strong suspicion that 
Torquemada and Las Casas are wrong in asserting that the 
religion of all the Nicaraguan Indians was identical. 

The first cairn that we opened was near the mining town of 
Libertad, in the north east of Chontales. It was of the 
largest dimensions, being 58 yards long by 40 broad, and 
stood on the summit of a mound some 60 or 70 ft. high. 

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Several treasure-seekers had already sunk random shafts 
into its solid construction, but without success. Selecting as 
nearly as possible the centre of the cairn, and encouraged 
" by the discovery of a massy fragment of sculpture which 
stood erect above the spot, we set to work patiently in 

• removing the stones. The previous attempts were of great 
.service to us, and after little more than an hour's labour we 

came upon a carved flat stone, such as is still used through- 
;Out Spanish America for the grinding of maize. The roUing- 

• pin belonging to it lay by its side. After two hours more 
;of tedious labour we foimd another similar stone lying due 
least of the former. Then we uncovered two pans of coarse 
earthenware, about 4 in. in height by 7 in diameter. They 
iwere placed close together by the side of the " molinera," 
^but the vast mass of rock in settling down had broken them 
! irretrievably ; there was no perceptible trace of any con- 
tents. Shortly after, and still parallel to the line of the 
"molineras,'' we found a vase of soft stone, subsequently 
-ascertained to be a species of marble, also shattered to 
pieces. For two days more we laboured, but with no 

- The second cairn that we attacked was considerably smaller, 
but built with great regularity and having the coping-stones 
.nearly perfect. Determined to investigate this tomb most 
thoroughly, we set our labourers to throw down the whole 
pile, which was the more easy as it crowned the summit of 
a very steep hill, and was not more than i^ ft. thick. For 
four days we persevered in our task, having never less than 
three men at work from early morning to nightfall, and 
sometimes the labourers were six or seven in number. On 
the fifth day we had cleared away about a sixth part of the 
cairn, working in a line from the eastern comer towards 
the centre. On the sixth morning we commenced to dig 
in the cleared ground, but until sunset found nothing. The 
earth was turned over to the depth of 2 ft., and our expe- 
rienced workmen assured us that remains had never been 
found so far beneath the surface. At dusk we were about 
to abandon the " prospect " in despair after six days of con- 
tinuous labour, when we suddenly came upon a " molinera '' 
stone, such as those encountered in the former cairn. Next 
morning we dug out another vase of white marble, much 
.broken, but superior to the first in design. It was in shape 

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like a can resting on a perforated stand, and profusely carved 
on the sides. An ornament, perhaps originally a handle, 
stood out from each side. Next we came upon a quantity 
of crockery, crushed flat but apparently similar in shape to 
the pan-like vessels found in the same position in the other 
cairn, and again there was no trace of contents. Then we 
discovered a great quantity of human teeth, sufficient pro* 
bably for half-a-dozen individuals, and shortly afterwards 
a row of cinerary urns, about 20 in. high and 15 in diameter, 
lying east and west. They were five in number, and it 
seemed probable that through their crushed sides had fallen 
the teeth just discovered. They all contained tho sticky 
black earth, quite different from the surrounding soil, which 
we concluded to be the remains of burnt flesh, but no bones 
or other articles. Our researches produced nothing further. 

It is very rarely that these Chontal tombs are opened. 
The labour is intense, the surrounding population is very 
poor and not the least inclined towards archaeology, and the 
reward of a spirited digger is very small. I cannot believe, 
although it is contrary to the received opinion, that any of 
the Nicaraguan Indians were in the habit of burying gold 
with their dead ; but the tribes of Honduras to the north and 
of Costa Rica to the south both practised it largely. A rattle of 
washed gold, which we dug up in a cinerary urn near Juig- 
alpa, is the only article of metal we could hear of which had 
been indubitably discovered in that province ; the grave also 
from which we recovered this relic and its accompanying 
necklace was by no means Chontal in appearance. Oviedo, 
Torquemada, Herrera, and all the early writers, refer fre- 
quently to the golden ornaments and the copper instruments 
of the Indians ; but it is probable that they drew Uttle dis- 
tinction between the country now called Nicaragua and the 
neighbouring states of Costa Rica and Honduras, the inhabi- 
tants of which have left abundant proof of their superior 
civilisation in the numerous and valuable articles deposited 
with their dead. 

In the cairns of Chontales are sometimes found axes and 
celts of stone — flint or basalt ; flakes of flint occasionally in 
small quantities ; nearly always a considerable pile of bioken 
crocks, which never apparently contained anything ; and in- 
variably one or two molineras or maize grinding-stones. 
jSIany of these are handsomely carved in a style superior to 

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anything now produced in the country, and some of the stone 
weapons are admirably modelled. At Libertad a double- 
bladed battle-axe was ofTered us for sale, which for accuracy 
of form and beauty of workmanship more than equalled 
anything of the kind I have seen in Europe. The owner of 
this instrument was fond of opening the small cairns which 
exist in thousands around Libertad ; but he told us that he 
had rarely discovered any perfect pottery and never any 
articles of metal. Persistently, however, he asserted the 
truth of a report which had first called our attention to this 
district of Chontales, viz., that it was no unusual thing there 
to dig out fragments of porcelain or of some similar com- 
position from the larger graves. It did not occur to us at 
the moment that the vases of white stone, such as we our- 
selves had discovered, might be the porcelain alluded to. 

In cases where. the body has not been burned, the bones 
are found ifC^fA^/ with the stones of the cairn above the 
surface ofj^ gfo\it?ii It is in graves such as these that 
weapons 'f^e more usually disinterred. 

The dtfisity of population in ancient Nicaragua, especially 
on the shores of the Lake, is abimdantly proved by the quan- 
tity of broken pottery which everywhere can be dug up a 
few inches below the ground. Wherever a hole is made, there 
a fragment of some antique vessel is sure to be found, either 
a grotesque mask, or the leg of a tripod, or a stone rattle such 
as was used in the religious ceremonies of the Indians. In 
the middle of the prairie, in the thickest jungle, on the moun- 
tain side, or in the sandy beach, everywhere this is the case, 
but most notably so in the island olOmetepec in the Lake of 

Through ignorance of the exact boundaries of these ancient 
tribes I am unable to venture on any theory as to whether 
Toltecs or Niquirans were the early inhabitants of this island, 
but its name, Ome-Tepec, is undoubtedly Mexican. Whether 
Toltec or Niquiran, however, these people, probably owing to 
their island position and consequent immunity from sudden 
attack, seem to have made great progress in art, and to have 
formed a population comparatively more dense than even the 
thickly peopled mainland. From Ome-Tepec almost all the 
antiquities hitherto furnished by Nicaragua have been pro- 
cured ; here stood, until a few years since, the best carved 
and most gigantic monoliths. On the sister island of Zapa- 

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tero, once crowded with Indians, but now uninhabited, are 
still to be seen numerous idols in the very first style of gro- 
tesque horror. 

Antiquities are most numerous and in best preservation on 
the south-western slope of Ometepec. I am to be understood 
literally in saying that the inhabitants of that district depend 
entirely on their spades for their domestic pottery. Partly 
from shame and partly from a feeling of awe, they are most 
jealous of any allusion to the history or language of their 
ancestors ; but a tradition is still extant among them, the 
only one in fact which we could gather, that when the news 
of the Spanish conquests on the mainland was spread abroad, 
so great was the terror already everywhere felt from the 
reports of their cruelty, that the Indians all buried them- 
selves alive with their household goods, and the conquerors 
were compelled to repeople the island. As regards the con- 
cealment of property this story seems likely enough, for, of 
the deposits almost daily uncovered by persons in search of 
some basin or crock for the wants of their primitive house- 
keeping, many it is quite clear have no connection whatever 
with any burial. The Indians know at a glance, by the po- 
sition of the crocks, whether they may expect to find therein 
some mouldering bones of their ancestors, or whether, with- 
out scruple of conscience, the treasure may at once be turned 
to account. If the deposit be funereal, the earthenware is 
found piled up in a single heap ; if otherwise, it is scattered 
about without order. 

The ashes of the dead, with the bones of the skull, were 
placed in an uni of slipper shape ; the beads of basalt or 
calcedony, the celt, or the flakes of flint were placed among 
them ; in the mouth of the urn were laid the basins of black 
earthenware, the larger overlying the smaller ; and over 
all were placed bowls of whitish glaze, covered with odd 
markings, which closed the mouth. Some of these cinerary 
urns are of great size. We have met with them 3 ft. 1 in, in 
length and 20 in. high ; they are nearly always painted in 
streaks of scarlet and black, with an ornament of two or three 
snakes upon the rounded end. At the back is frequently a 
grotesque mask or handle attached with ''slip/' or some 
similarly adhesive material. Occasionally the urn is more 
bowl-like in form ; of such I have seen two specimens, one of 
which, used by the finder as a horse-trough, was 2 ft. 10 in* 

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in height by 2 ft. 6 in. in diameter in the centre. It was 
painted in streaks of scarlet and black. 

None of the inhabitants of Nicaragua appear to have been 
hunters. Though deer abound throughout the country, and 
peccaries, pumas, tapirs, maniti, and other animals, are all 
numerous, those trophies of skill and daring so much valued 
by our ancestors — the boar's tusk, the deer's horn — are never 
found in Indian graves. Even the bones of animals are not 
common. The alligator is a frequent ornament of their pot- 
tery and statues, and I once found in the jungle a rude clay 
representation of a stag, but the human face, grotesquely dis- 
torted, was the usual model of their artists. Glass does not 
appear to have been known to them, nor the use of any 
metal. It is true that the Cacique of Rivas is said by Peter 
Martyr to have presented D'A vila with gold to the value of 
twenty-five thousand pieces of eight ; but, as already stated, 
we were assured by all persons of any experience that in no 
part of Nicaragua were gold ornaments found, and I should 
prefer to believe that D' Avila spread reports of such wealth to 
draw the attention of the adventurous to the scheme of colo- 
nisation he was at that time meditating. Mr. Squiers in his 
work upon this country presents an engraving of a copper 
mask from Ometepec, but, in the absence of further specimens, 
the antiquity of this relic must appear doubtful. We are 
expressly told that the Indians fought against their invaders 
with arms of wood and stone ; surely in a country so won- 
derfully rich in copper, that metal, had the people possessed, 
any knowledge of working it, must in a very few years have 
superseded wood and stone for purposes of war. Such indeed 
we find to have been the case in Costa Rica and New Granada, 
but in Nicaragua, except here and there a solitary article 
such as the rattle I have alluded to — which may have been 
brought from another country by a fugitive or prisoner of 
war — no trace of any such knowledge is to be found in their 
graves. The Indians themselves also at this day are unani- 
mous in ascribing to the Spaniards their first instruction in 
the use of metal. 

In conclusion I would venture to remind any member of 
this Society who may have a liking for adventurous research, 
of the wonderful prospect that Central America offers to the 
antiquary. Besides the stone enigmas of Pnlenque and 
Copan, the mysterious romance of the Maya city — the true 

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story of which is by no means so absurd as we are used to be- 
lieve in England — besides the treasures which lie buried in the 
graves on the Serebpiqui, there are, if we may believe report, 
dead cities of far greater size and splendour than any yet 
known. In the wild Mosquito territory are vast remains of 
a civilisation long passed away. Sometimes, on the lonely 
shores of the Mico, amidst the unstayed vegetation of a 
thousand years, the startled traveller is brought face to face 
with works of such magnitude, sculptures of such colossal 
boldness, as tell him .of a perished race as far superior to 
that the Spaniards found as the builders of Thebes to the 
Nile '' fellaheen.'' He sees rocks cut down to the shape of 
men and animals ; artificial hills encased in masonry ; 
streams turned from their courses ; volumes of hieroglyphics 
sculptured upon every cliff. Or, turning to the southward — 
there, across the San Juan river, dwells that mysterious and 
dreaded people the Guatusos or White Indians of the Rio 
Frio. This strange and indomitable race, who may possibly 
owe their bravery and love of freedom to an ancestry of 
English buccaneers, occupy the north east corner of Costa 
Rica, and there, surrounded by settled country, within three 
weeks of direct sail from England, they positively keep the 
wealthiest district of that Republic as completely closed to 
the world as if it were sunk beneath the Atlantic. What 
stories have we not heard of them from Caribs and Indians 1 
What tales of wonder are too wild for belief when they 
relate to the country of the dreadful Guatusos 1 

For various reasons of self-interest the oligarchical govern- 
ment of Costa Rica has hitherto set itself most decidedly 
against any endeavour to penetrate the territory of these 
fierce savages, or to enter into communication with them, 
but Dr. Castro, who has been recently made President, ex- 
pressed to us, on the day of his election, a hope that the 
mysteries of the Rio Frio might soon be solved. But, if 
this anticipation is to be realised, it must be by foreigners. 
There is nothing to be expected from the natives of the 

It is my intention to renew, in the ensuing spring, the 
attempt that I have recently made to explore the Rio Frio 
district, so replete with remarkable and stirring interest. To 
ensure the success of an undertaking fraught with diflSculty 
and danger, as such an adventure must prove, it would, 

TOL. xxm. K 

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however, be indispensable to secure a few energetic and 
spirited auxiliaries, such as are doubtless to be found in the 
ranks of a society so devoted to the investigations of bygone 
times and extinct races as the Institute. It would be neces- 
sary that such an enterprise should be combined indepen- 
dently, for the most part, of the people of Costa Rica, whose 
hesitation and timidity — notwithstanding that they have 
such a vital interest in the exploration — caused the failure 
of the expedition recently organised by myself in concert 
with Mr. Jebb. The importance of the Rio Frio and of the 
country inhabited by the Guatusos cannot be overrated, in 
regard to its historical and ethnological interest. I cherish 
the hope that the wishes so cordially expressed by the late 
President of the Institute, the late Marquess Camden, and 
by other influential members of the Society, that adven- 
turous coadjutors might be found ready to give efficient 
cooperation in the arduous enterprise on which I purpose 
next year to engage, may be fully realised. 

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The High Vamplate for the jousting-lance here figured is 
from the original preserved in the Rojal Artillery Museum 
at Woolwich. The surface is richly engraved, and has been 
" parcel gilt." Its period appears to be the beginning of the 
sixteenth century. This form of vamplate (Hhe German 
<< Gairbeisen ") was adopted to supply the place of arm and 
hand defences, and we find that the champion who employed 
it did not bear armour either on his arms or legs. He wore 
only a cuirass, with tasses for body-armour proper, his left 
side being defended by a large grand'-garde reaching to the 
eyes, the right side by the high vamplate here seen, the legs 
to below the knees by shields fixed to the edge of the saddle, 
while the head was protected by a salade. The lower part 
of the legs had no defence, being out of the legitimate 
striking region. The hands are commonly quite bare, and 
not unfrequently we see the fingers of the knight, when run- 
ning his course, profusely adorned with rings. 

An early example of the Scharfrennen with high vamplate 
occurs in the picture of the Emperor Maximilian and the 
Elector of Saxony in 1497, given by Hefner, "Trachten," 
part ii., plate 109 ; from which subject we reproduce the 
vamplate — our figure 1. A similar one is seen in Tewrd- 
annckh, woodcut 101. The "Triumph" of the Emperor 
MaximiUan furnishes examples closely resembling the Wool- 
wich specimen, being divided into two principal parts by a 
notched line. Se plates 50, 51, 52, 55, and 56. Our figure 
2 is from plate 51. In Von Schlichtegroirs Tourney Book of 
Duke William of Bavaria we have many examples of knights 
tilting with the high vamplate. Figure 3 of our series is the 

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usual form of the defence, and appears in the picture of a 
Scharfrennen in 1513, plate 17 of the work. Round vam- 
plates, also, occur in the volume, and courses with blunt 
lances. In Euxner*s Tourney Book, 1530, the high vamplate 
appears on page 71, the knights armed as described above. 
Hefner, in plate 74 of his fine work, has epgraved a speci- 
men preserved in the Dresden Museum, of more elaborate 
arrangement ; our figure 4.* 

In all these instances there is a prolongation in front, to 
hold the lance ; differing in this particular from the Wool- 
wich example, where the tube is placed within the shield. 
Irrespective of this tube, the Woolwich vamplate consists of 
three pieces : a plain one extending from ishoulder to wrist, 
reinforced in the lower half by an ornamented plate ; while 
at the^side a small decorated piece is added, being fastened 
to the mainguard by a nut and screw, through a notch similar 
to those seen at the upper edge. It is probable, therefore, 
that the two empty notches formerly served to attach addi- 
tional pieces to the upper plate ; and the displacement of any 
one of these may, by the rules of the sport, have counted as 
a minor triumph to the jouster who effected it. It will be 
seen, by reference to the woodcuts, that the lance-point being 
driven against the bead at the edge of any one of these plates 
would easily cause the attaching screw to slide away through 
the open cleft. The inside view shows us the hook for sus- 
taining the forepart of the vamplate, and the iron tube through 
which the lance passed. This tube is of two parts, the upper 
cylinder moving upon the two lower by means of three nuts 
and Z-formed slots, by which the whole tube could be made 
longer or shorter to the measure of about 3 in. Its full 
length is 5^ in. ; interior diameter, 3 in. ; which, of course, 
gives the size of the lance at this part, The height of the 
entire vamplate is 2 ft. ; its breadth at the middle, 14^ in, ; 
the weight, 13 lb. 12 oz. 

With this kind of vamplate was commonly used a large 
iron queue, similar to those seen in figures 3 and 4. The 
lances themselves varied, not only in their having pointed 
and blunt heads, but in the staff. In some instances this was 

1 See also the figure of Aagustus I., p. C47. This and also the companion 

duke of Saxony, in the Dresden Museum; figure at Dresden representing Albert 

reproduced from Hefner's Trachten, in Duke of Austria are given in the illus- 

** Ancient Armour and Weapons in trations of the Dresden Armoury by 

Europe/' by J. Hewitt, vol. iil pi.] 125, Reibisch. 

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JouBtinft Vamplate of the Sixteenth Centuiy (exterior view). Royal Artillery 
Maseum, Woolwich. 

From a drawing by Walter H. Tregellaflk Esq. 

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JouBting Vamplat6 of the Bixleenlh Century (interior Yiew). Royal Artillery 

Museum, Woolwich. 

From a drawing by Walter H* Tregellai, Bsq. 

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quite smooth and plain. In others it appears as rough from 
the forest (Von SchlichtegroU, plate 28 ; Hefner, plate 90), 
Frequently it is painted with two colours twining from end 
to end. Again, the whole length is covered with ostrich 
feathers of various hues ; some have coloured ropes of a kind 
of floss wound round them ; while others are embellished 
with a series of gauzy pufiis, having rosettes at the gatherings. 
All these, and many more, are well represented in the Bavarian 
Tourney Book, named above. The same volume exhibits 
two curious modes of hastiluding ; one shows us the cham- 
pion encountering a group of three tilters, a deed of sufficient 
daring, as it appears to our post-mediaeval perceptions, but 
surpassed by a later example in the same record, where we 
have the Duke of Bavaria attacking and attacked by a band 
oijive knights : — " Der Herzog halt ein Gesellenstechen mit 

The Fighting-lance of this period is well depicted in 
Tewrdannckh, plates 89 and 92. 

We have already noted that exaipples of the High Vam- 
plate are to be found in the Tower collection, Nos. f , ^, and 
4^. There are also specimens in the Mus^e d'Artillerie at 

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®rt8tnal Bocumrnte. 


The Charter oommunioatad by JOSEPH BX7BTT, Bon,. AMistant Keeper of Publio Baoorda, 
and the Seal contributed by the Rev. JAMES GRAVESp ILA. 

The HtBtory of the Convent of Franciscan Friars at Greenwich, a house 
of royal foundation which seems to have been situated closely adjacent 
to the palace, long a favorite resort of the court and demolished by 
Charles II., has remained in much obscurity. Our attention has recently 
been called to the charter granted by Henry YIL, not many months 
after his accession, and hitherto it is believed unpublished, having, so far 
i^s wc are aware, been only cited briefly by Hasted, Lysons, and some 
other writers.* It has been thought desirable to give at length a docu- 
ment that may be an acceptable contribution to the history of Kentish 

It appears that a religious house had been founded at Greenwich by 
Edward III. in 1376, for Friars Minorites, or Dominicans, according to 
Philipot ; it was a cell to St. Peter's Abbey at Ghent,' to which the manor 
of Greenwich appertained as part of the endowment of their cell at Lewis- 
ham ; the manor of the place last-named had been given to the Abbey 
near Ghent by Eltrude, niece of King Alfred.' Lysons has observed, 
however, that he had found no record of the foundation of a priory at 
Greenwich by Edward III.^ by the persuasion, as it had been alleged, of 
Sir John Norbury, his treasurer ; and he remarks that there is great 
reason to believe that no such house existed, but that it has been con- 
founded with the Benedictine priory of Lewisham.^ Henry Y., in the 
second year of his reign, suppressed the alien priories throughout Eng- 
land.' It has been asserted by Weever and other writers, that the friars 
were at that time expelled from their house at Greenwich, and their 
possessions bestowed by the king on the Carthusian priory which be had 
recently founded at Shene.* 

In 1480, as stated in the Annals of the Order, Edward lY. conferred 
with the Yi car-general,. William Bertholdi, being desirous to bring tho 
Friars Observants, or Franciscans, into England. Edward granted them 
their first establishment at Greenwich, of which Siztus lY., in the year 

> Hist, of Kent, vol. i. p. 550 ; Lysons' been treasurer until I Hen. V. 
Environs, vol. iv. p. 464. • Rot. Pari., vol. iv. p. 22 ; Alien 

• Alien Priories, vol. ii. p. 188. Friories, vol. ii. p. 211. 

' Dugdale, Mon. AngL, edit. Caley, t. ' Weevor, Fun. Mon. p. 340; Dugd. 

vi. p. 987. Mon. AngL, vol. vL p. 29 ; Lambarde, 

* Lysons* Environs, tU sapra. Sir Peramb. of Kent, Greenirich, see $, a. 
John Norbury does not appear to have 1416. 

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before meDtioncd^ sanctioned tboir acccptancoJ At tliis time, possibly, the 
convent may bave become a Wardeusbip." According to tbo supposition 
of Hasted, Edward founded the convent near bis palace through the per- 
suasion of bis sister, Margaret, Duchess of Burgundy. Lambardc, bow- 
ever, states that they *' obtained by the means of Sir William Gorbrigo 
(as some tbinke) a cbauntrie with a little Chapel of the Holy Crosse, a 
place yet extant in the toirne."* 

By the subjoined document, dated Dec. 14, 1 Hen. VII. (a.d. 1485)' 
it appears that tbo king, — on the humble prayer of the l^riars Observants 
of the Order of St. Francis in East Greenwich, and in consideration that 
his predecessor Edward IV. had, by license of tbo Pope for the founda- 
tion of a convent there, granted to the said Friars a certain parcel of land 
with buildings thereon, adjacent to the royal manor or palace, the said 
promises having been purchased by the king for the erection of a church, 
conventual buildings, and other requisites of the bouse thus newly 
founded, and that the Friars, having taken possession and having laid the 
first stone with great solemnity, began to construct certain small buildings 
(«< pauperculas domunculas*') in honor of the Blessed Virgin, St. Francis, 
and All Saints, — granted and confirmed the said premises thus bestowed on 
the friars by Edward IV., and founded a convent to consist of a Warden 
and twelve brethren at the least. It is stated that Henry VII. subse- 
quently rebuilt their convent from the foundation :' be was doubtless a great 
patron and promoter of the Order, which was indebted to that sovereign 
for not less than six convents in various parts of England. 

The royal concessions to the Friars of Greenwich were ratified with no 
ordinary solemnity ; the attesting witnesses of the new foundation were 
the archbishops — Tliomas ^o^rcbier, cardinal and primate of England, 
and Thomas Rotheram, archbishop of York, at that time treasurer of 
England ; he had been chancellor iu the troublous times of Edward IV« ; 

[Green wicbl Roff. dioo. per Ed- 
iim IV. 2 Julii, 1482. — Confirmatlo 

7 In the library of Corpus Coll. Camb. 
MS. No. clzz, are to be found, No. 48, p. 
72, ''Testimonium fundationis domus 
fratrum minorum de observantia iu villa 
do 3. _ 
wardum J 

cjuadem domus per opisoopum Ro£f. vir- 
tute commissionis a sede apostolica^eodem 
die ac auno." Catal ed. Jac. Nasmith, p. 

* Qreenwicb does not occur in the list 
of ths Custodies and Wardenships of the 
Friars Minor in England, amongst the 
nine convents of the Wardenship of 
London, as given by Mr. Brewer in the 
** Monumenta Franciscana," edited by 
him for the series of Chronicles and 
Memorials under direction of the Master 
of the Rolls, appendix, p. 679. 

' Perambulation of Kent, written in 
1570 ; see the account of Greenwich, 
under the year 1480, cited also by 
Weever, p. 839, Hasted, and other Kent- 
vth historians. 

\ In the edition of Dugdale*s Monasti- 
con by Caley, and in other notices of the 
convent, the date is erroneously given as 


' Dngdale, Mon. Angl.,Tol. vi. p. 1512, 
edit Caley, citing Hist, of the Euglitih 
Franciscans, p. 216, where it is stated 
from the annals of the Order that Henry 
YII. built for the Franciscans three con- 
vents from the foundations — namely, 
Greenwich, Newark, and Richmond. 
Lambarde observes that " (as Pol}*dore 
and Lilly say) King Henrie the Seventh 
builded for them that house adjoining 
to the Palaice which is there yet to be 
seene." Peramb. of Kent, under Green- 
wich. The convent btood, according to 
Hastedi adjoining to the west side of the 
palace, where the rpad, now known by 
the name of the Friars' Road, points out 
the sitiuition. After the final expulsion 
of the friars by Elizabeth in 1659, the 
priory buildiDgs had been used as part of 
the palace ; they were sold by the Par- 
liamentary Commissioners in 1652, and 
were, probably, demolished when Charles 
IL began to rebuild the palace ; the site 
is now occupied by part of Greenwich 

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also John Alcock, bishop of Worcester, lord chancellor, and Peter Conr- 
tcnaj, bishop of Exeter, keeper of the Priyj Seal. With these eminent 
ecclesiastics are found as witnesses, Jasper Tudor, Duke of Bedford, uncle 
of Henrj VIL, and John do la Pole, Duke of Suffolk; also John de 
Vere, Earl of Oxford, lord chamberlain, who had recently been restored 
to all his honoi*8 and possessions, and the Earl of Nottingham, earl mar- 
shal, Sir John Fitzwalter, steward of the household,- Sir William Stanley, 
chamberlain, brother of Sir Thomas Stanley, created earl of Derby, the 
hero of Bosworth Field, and Sir Richard Oroftes, treasurer of the royal 
household. It may deserve notice, as evidenoe of the favor and consider- 
ation of this sovereign to the Franciscans, that his letters patent should 
have been thus attested by the great officers of the realm and pnncipal 
officials of the court. 

Of the subsequent history of the convent it may suffice to state, that 
Henry VIII. was, in the early part of his reign, a zealous promoter of 
the Observants. At the request of the Friars of Greenwich he granted, 
in 1516, a yearly pension of lOOO crowns to the brethren of that Order 
who kept the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem.' His queen, Katherine of 
Arragon, showed also much favor to the Franciscans ; one of the brethren 
of Greenwich, John Forrest, was her confessor. She was indeed her- 
self, it is stated, of the third Order of St. Francis, and she was accustomed 
to rise at midnight to bo present at matins and lauds, to the great edi6ca«' 
tion of her subjects, in the church of the convent at Greenwich/ They 
requited her favor by warmly espousing her cause in the affidr of her 
divorce ; and thus so greatly irritated the king that he suppressed the 
Order of Observants throughout England. The convent was dissolved 
August 11, 1534. On the accession of Mary, the Fpiars were reinstated 
in their possessions, and their convent was repaired at her cost, in remem- 
brance, it is said, of their attachment to her mother. They were finally 
expelled by Elizabeth in 1559.* 

No seal of the Convent of Greenwich has, so far as we are aware, been 
noticed < We are indebted to the Rev. James Graves, secretary of the 
Kilkenny and S.E. of Ireland Archieological Society, a zealous anti- 
quary, whose frequent courtesies we acknowledge with gratification, for an 
impression of the seal of the Warden, of which the matrix has, we fear, 
been unfortunately lost. Mr. Graves informs us that the impression, now 
in the collection of the Kilkenny Society, and from which the accom- 
panying woodcut has been executed, was given to him about 1849 by a 
Roman Catholic ecclesiastic, the late Rev. Dr. Nowlan, P. P. of Gowran, 
county Kilkenny, by whom it had been received, about forty years pre- 
viously, from some person connected with the Dominican Abbey of Kil- 
kenny. It was stated that the impression in question was from the 
ancient seal of that monastery. The Dominicans, Mr. Graves observed, 
have become repossessed of the remains of their ancient house in Kilkenny, 
by lease from the Tynte family, the present owners of the site. Mr. 
Graves has in vain sought to trace where the matrix may now be fouud. 

The seal, now first published, is of the pointed oval form ; the device is 
the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin, who is scon supported by four angels; 

3 Hist of the English Franciscans, p. * Hist. Engl. Franciscans, tU ncpro. 

218, citing Wadding's Annals of the ^ Hasted, Hist, of Kent, and Lysous* 

Order ; see also Hist Min. Provin. Angl. Environs^ vol. iv. p. 464. 
Fratrum Minorum, p. 41. 

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a radiant ^mhus around her head ; beneath is an escutcheon of the arms 
of France and England, quarterly, ensigned with the head of a cherub ; 
the legend, in the bold capitals of the latter part of the fifteenth century, 
is {in extenso) as follows :— siaiLLyic * oardiani • grynwycensis. 

Seal of Um Warden of thoFranciflCuiFrian at Greenwich. From an imprenion preserved in the 
MoBeum of the Kilkenny Archaeological Society. (Original size). 

We may assign the seal to the period of the foundation of the Franciscan 
convent at Greenwich by Henry VII., in the first year of his reign. Tho 
lettering, it may be observed, is introduced upon a border or fillet that 
appears, in the impression, slightly raised, as seen in a few matrices of the 
period, above the field of the seal. It is possible that the letters may have 
been impressed on the metal by means of punches. Quatrefoils are used 
to separate the words of the legend. 

We proceed to place before our readers the instrument preserved in the 
Charter Roll of the first year of Henry VIL, in the Public Record OflSce, 
We are indebted to the obliging assistance of Mr. Burtt in bringing to light 
a valuable document, for which no place had been found amongst the volu<p 
minous additions compiled for the new edition of Dugdale's Monasticon. 

A. W. 

Rot. Cart. 1 Henr. VII. No. 24. [a.d. 1485.] 

Rex archiepiscopis episcopis abbatibus prioribus ducibus comitibus 
baronibus justiciariis vice-comitibus prepositis ministris et omnibus ballivis 
et fidelibus suis salutem. Sciatis quod nos, ex humili supplicatione fratrum 
minorum de observantia ordinis Sancti Francisci in villa de Estgrenewiche 
in Comitatu Kancie commorantinm, accepimus qualiter Edwardus nuper 
Rex Anglie qnartns antecessor noster carissimus, ex sue mere motu et 
donatione quibus ad eorum ordinem et familiam movebatur, a summo 
Pontifice petiit et obtinuit auctoritatem fnndandi unam domum seu con- 
ventum pro usu et habitatione fratrum ordinis et familie ipsorum, sicut in 
bulla desnper impetrata plenius continetur. Demum dictus Edwardus 
nuper rex auctoritate sibi concessa uti volens, missis in dicto loco de Est- 
grenewiche Domino Jacobo Norwicensi et Domino Edmundo Roffensi epis- 

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copiB ab ipso Edwardo nuper Rege specialiter ad hoc deputaiis, certaiA 
parcellam terre sae cum certis antiquis domibus desuper edificatis in dicta 
yilla de Estgrenewiebe, manerio nostro ad tunc suo alias dicto plaoea regia 
contigue adjacentem, coutinentem in latitudine duodecim rirgatas terre et 
in longitudine sexaginta et tres virgatas terre, per ipsum regem de suis 
propriis pecuniis emptam, ad ecclesiam cimitorium claustrum refectorium 
dormitorium ortos aliasque domos necessarias ad conventum dicti ordinis 
requisitas, certis fratribus ordinis et familie ipsorum tunc present! bus, et 
ceteris aliis fratribus ejusdem eciam ordinis et familie in dicto loco extunc 
futuris temporibus succedentibus, pro perpetuis usu et habitatione ipsorum 
predictorum fratrum minorum de obsenrantia, de noYO taliter eonstruendas, 
dedit contulit et assiguaTit ; ao eosdem fratres, posito primo lapide eorum 
futuri conyentus cum solemnitate Speciali in talibus fieri solita, in plenam 
possessionem et seisinam inde posuit. Et insuper hoc fratres predict!, sub 
spe et confidentia doni predicti nuper Regis et aiigmentatione premissorum 
Buccessione fienda, dirersas pauperculas domunotdas ad Dei et beatissime 
Virginia Marie Sanctiqne Francisci ac Omnium Sanctorum laudem et 
gloriam, pro salute et prosperitate totius regni Anglie imperpetuum depre- 
caturi, suis propriis laboribus sumptibus et sudoribus intentione premissa, 
devotione nonnullorum fidelium eis in hac parte assistente, de novo edificare 
inceperunt. Nos, non solum piam intentionem predicti nuper Regis 
bonasque dispositionem devotionem sumptus et labores eorundem fratrum 
die ac nocte in orationibus precibus et jejuniis ibidem Deo famulantium, 
?erum etiam qualiter inter cetera misericordie et pietatis opera dirinorum 
celebratio a sacerdotibus yerisque Dei yicariis canonice ministrata aliorum 
omnium maxime sit suprema ; quamque meritorium fore credatur hujusmodi 
ministerium sustentare in quo miserime peccatorum anime ab eorum 
inaculis purgate refrigerium consequuntur et yeniam, ac fragiles in culparum 
yoluptatibus deyiantes adyiam gratie reducuntur intime considerantes, 
de gratia nostra speciali ac ex certa scientia et mere motu nostris unum 
conyentum siye domum Fratrum Minorum de obsenrantia perpetuis futuris 
temporibus apud dictam yillam de Estgrenewiche ad laudem et gloriam Dei, 
ut superius dictum est, ac beatissime Marie Virgiuis et Sancti Francisci et 
omnium sanctorum, de uno gardiano et duodecim fratribus ad minus, institu- 
endum renoyandum et contumandum juxta eorum regulam et statuta ac 
alias laudabiles consuetudines ordinatas et approbatas ac ordinandas et 
approbandas fundayimus ereximus creayimus et stabiliyimus ac per pre- 
sentes fundamus eregimus creamus et stabilimus. Et ut dicti fratres et 
successores eorum pro bono statu nostro dum agimus in humanis ac pro 
anima nostra cum ab hac luce migrayerimus imperpetuum deprecentur, 
dedimus et concessimus ac per presentes damns et concedimus eisdem gar- 
diano et conventui ac fratribus predictis ao successoribus fratribus suis 
ordinis et familie predictarum terras et tenementa superius specificata cum 
omnibus et singulis suis pertinentiis una cum domibus desuper edificatis ; 
habenda et tenenda sibi et successoribus suis de nobis et heredibus nostris 
in liberam puram et perpetuam elemosinam imperpetuum absque aliqua 
inquisitione siye aliquibus inquisitionibus inde yirtute breris nostri de ad 
quod dampnum aut aliter fienda siye capienda quoquomodo, et absque 
aUquo fine sen feodo inde nobis aut heredibus nostris seu ad opus nostrum 
oliqualiter reddendis soWendis seu faciendis, statute de terris et tenementis 
ad manum mortuam*non ponendis aut eo quod expressa mentio de yero 
yalore annuo seu aliquo alio yalore terrarum et tenementorum predictorum 

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in preseiitibiis minime facta existit, vel aliquo alio statuto actu ordinalione 
Bive proyisioDe in contrarium factis editis ordinatis sou provisis, aat aliqua 
re causa ?el materia in aliquo non obstantibus, jure special i ecclesie paro- 
cfaialis cujuscumque semper salvo. Hiis testibus, Venerabilibus Patribus 
Thoma Cantuariensi totius Anglie Primate, consanguineo no^tro carissimo, 
et Thoma Eboracensi Primate ao Thesaurario Anglie, archiepiscopis ; J. 
Wigomiensi Gancellario nostro Anglie, et P. Exoniensi Custode privati 
aigilli nostri, episcopis ; Jasperi Bedefordie ayunculo nostro carissimo, et 
Johanne Suffolchie,. ducibus ; Johanne Oxonie magno Camerario et Tboma 
Noijnghamie Marescallo Anglie, Comitibns; ao dilectis et fidelibus nostris 
Johanne Fitzwater senescalio, Willelmo Stanley Camerario, et Ricardo 
Croftes Thesaurario hospitii nostri, militibus, et aliis. Datum per manum 
noBtram apud Westmonasterium ziiij. die Decembris. 

Per breye de priyato sigillo et de date, &o. et pro Deo quia pauperes. 

yoL. xxni. 

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i^roceeliinfig at f&tttingfi of tije arcljaeolofllcal lEngtitute. " 

KOYSMBEB 3, 1865. 

The Marquess Camden, E.G., President, in the Chair. 

The attendance at this, the opening meeting of a new session, was more 
than usually numerous. The nohle Chairman took occasion, on the re- 
assembling of the Society, to advert to the cordial welcome and hospitali- 
ties that they had found in Dorset, amidst scenes of great archaeological 
interest. Lord Camden expressed the satisfaction with which he had 
participated in the proceedings of the annual meeting held at Dorchester ; 
he congratulated his arch»ological friends around him on the success 
that had attended their congress, and on the accession of many energetic 
recruits to the ranks of the Institute. The choice of the place of their 
next annual gathering had fallen on the metropolis ; the noble President 
looked forward with gratification to the prospect of future successes under 
the gracious encouragement of Her Majesty, who had been pleased to 
sanction a visit to Windsor Castle, with its numerous features of interest, 
arch»ological and artistic. 

The first subject brought before the meeting was the discovery of the 
position of the Roman Station Othona, the Ithanceaster of Saxon times, 
at St. Peter's Head on the coast of Essex. The circumstances that had 
brought to light the long-forgotten vestiges of that important stronghold 
on the Saxon Shore, through works of reclamation under the charge of 
Mr. Hemans, as first announced to the Institute by that gentleman, have 
been stated in a former volume of this Journal.^ The Rev. R. P. Coates 
now described the results of a recent visit to the site under the friendly 
guidance of the Rev. John Warner, rector of Brad well -juxfa-77iar«, the 
parish in which it is situated. He placed before the meeting a series of 
drawings by the Rev. H. M. Milligan, and a large collection of coins and 
miscellaneous relics that had been entrusted to Mr. Coates by Mr. J. 
Oxley Parker, on whose estates the discovery was made, and by whose 
liberality the explorations have been carried on. Mr. Coates gave the 
following account of his expedition, and of the ancient chapel, St. Peter's- 
ou-the-Wall : — •* After a pleasant drive of thirteen miles from one great 
estuary, the Crouch, to the shores of another, the Blackwater, on which 
Brad well is situated, I recognized from some distance the Western eleva- 
tion of the building, once a church, now a barn, which was with me the 
principal object of investigation. But I will first endeavour to give a 

' Arch. Joum., vol. xxiL p. 64. S«e also the uoUces by Mr. Roach Smith, 
Gent. Mag. 1866, p. i03. 

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slight account of the Roman castrumf through the western wall of which 
it protrudes. This post, the Othona of the Itinerary, has the walls on 
three of its sides, North, West, and South, distinctly traceable ; the work 
is of the kind called emplecton ; the appearance is as follows : — one course 
of stone above the ground-line, then three sets-off of wall-tiles, each 
receding the same distance beyond the one below it ; then the vertical 
wall is carried up with four courses of stone and three of tiles. Nothing 
remains higher than this, except on the South side, where there are two 
more courses of stone. The N.W. and S.W. comers of the castrum are 
rounded off; about the middle of the West wall there is an opening, 
perhaps a gate. Further onwards, to the North, the solid foundation of 
a tower projects, in form a segment greater than a semicircle, and thirteen 
feet in width where it joins the wall ; against the rounded N.W. corner 
there is the base of another semicircular tower, fifteen feet in diameter. 
In the North wall there are two openings, possibly gateways ; but in the 
South wall there is no trace of any gate or tower, and the sea seems to 
have come nearly up to the S.W. corner, for at the level of the ground- 
line of the wall there is a layer of sea-weed, covered by more recent 
deposits. Of the East wall, towards the sea, there are no remains, and 
some persons have thought that there was no wall on that side ; but it 
seems more probable that it has perished by the action of the sea. At 
about 120 feet from the South wall, and about 220 feet from the West 
wall, there are ruins of what may have been a later building. The 
general dimensions of the work are as follows : — Length, West wall, 
520 feet; North wall, about 270 feet (now traceable); South wall, 117 
feet. The eastern opening is about 570 feet, so that the castrum does 
not appear to have been precisely rectangular. Supposing the North and 
South sides to have extended about as far as the West and East, the area 
enclosed would be about seven acres. The ancient chapel, St. Peter's-on- 
the- Wall, of which the remaining portion, the • nave, measures 54 feet in 
length by 26 feet in width, projects about 20 feet beyond the face of the 
Roman wall ; the masonry of its walls for about four-fifths of the height 
being apparently original, probably Early Norman. In the North and 
South walls there are remains of four windows, now blocked up, placed very 
high — ^the crowns of their arched heads reaching to the top of what appears 
to be (he original wall. In the middle of the South wall is a doorway ; 
further towards the East a second ; and a third in the West wall. The 
East end is built up, but there are traces of the arch of an apse, con- 
structed partly with Roman bricks ; the foundations also of the apse have 
been exposed to view.'* 

Mr. Coates noticed also traces of a building to the North, possibly 
a sacristy. He proceeded to describe certain constructive details, indi- 
cating, as he believed, that in a later age, probably the late Middle- 
pointed period, the Norman walls were heightened about one-fifth, and 
buttresses constructed to support the additional weight. The numerous 
relics that were placed before the meeting, by kind permission of Mr. 
Oxley Parker, consisted of Roman personal ornaments and appliances, 
fibula, styli, combs, armlets, tweezers of bronze, spindle- whorls, beads, 
rings, &c., with numerous tools, weapons, implements of bone, fragments 
of glass, jet, and Kimmeridge coal. The coins found at Bradwell, about 
200 in number, comprise many of Constantino and his family, and of a 
long series of the later emperors. Mr. Coates pointed out especially a 

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coin of CarausiuB, of the rare type *' Pacator Orbia ;*' also BiWer pennies 
of ^thelwulft and three sceattas, one of them of an unique tjpe. 

The Rev. F. Spurrell offered some remarks on the remains disinterred 
at Bradwell, and especiallj on the chapel described bj Mr. Coates, a 
structure that some antiquaries had been inclined to attribute to times 
earlier than the Norman period, usually considered to have been the period 
of its construction, the debris of the adjacent Roman Station having sup- 
plied the chief part of the materials. A full account of the remarkable 
vestiges of Othana will doubtless be given in the Transactions of the 
Essex Arch»ological Society. 

The Count Constantino Tyszkievicz, honorary foreign member of the 
Institute, sent an account, with numerous drawings, representing leaden 
pellets, or small huUcB, found during the previous summer in the sandy 
bed of the river Bug, at Drohitchin, an ancient town on the confiues 
of Lithuania and Poland. These objects, which vary in size from about 
half an inch to nearly an inch in diameter, bear symbols of very curious 
character in relief, chiefly resembling those commonly known as mer- 
chants' marks ; and, in a few instances, birds, human heads, also devices 
closely resembling such as occur in heraldic bearings of the Slavonic 
nations. These buUw are pierced transversely, as if for suspension by a 
cord, and they had been regarded by the Society of Antiquaries at 
Wilna as seals that had been appended to grants, or other documents. 
The Count is, however, inclined to consider them connected with certain 
religious or talismanic purposes ; he sent drawings of numerous sym- 
bols resembling those on the leaden pellets, and occurring on the cinerary 
urns found in tombs of the Slavonic race. This curious subject will be 
more fully brought forward in this Journal hereafter, with representations 
■of the most remarkable types of the devices. 

Mr. Albbrt Wat remarked that a large collection of perforated relics of 
lead, precisely similar in form and dimensions, had been submitted to the 
Institute, through the Rev. Canon Scarth, by Miss Hill, of Bath. These, 
however, are unquestionably Roman, and had been found at Brough in 
Westmoreland, near the Station VertercB ; they seem to bear marks of 
legions or cohorts, also human heads, birds, and singular unexplained 
characters. Mr. Roach Smith, by whom these relics (of which a very small 
number of examples had occurred elsewhere) have been published in the 
Collectanea Antiqua (vol. iii. p. 197, pi. xxii.; vol. vi. p. 117, pi. xvi., xvii.), 
is of opinion that they may have been attached to merchandise by a string 
passing through the pellet, which was then impressed with some disUnctive 
device, the process employed being that commonly used in continental 
custom-houses even at the present time. If this probable explanation be 
admitted, the little bulUe brought under the notice of the Institute by their 
learned Lithuanian correspondent may have considerable interest, as con- 
nected with ancient commerce ; and, if the devices should be satisfactorily 
explained, they may supply evidence of the lines of communication by 
which various commodities were transported into Europe at an early period. 
In the absence of certain information in regard to the intentions of the 
pellets found at Drohitchin and at Brough-upon-Stanmore, the numerous 
relics of a similar description, pierced transversely for attachment by a 
cord, and figured by Ficoroni in his work on ** Piombi Antichi,'' are well 
deserving of notice. 
. The Rev. Ca^ojx Scartu sent a notice of the discovery of two Roman 

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pigs of lead in the ancient bank of the river Frome at Bristol. One of 
these relics of ancient metallurgy had been purchased for the lead works at 
Redeliffe Hill, Bristol, the same establishment by which the leaden pig 
found near Blagdon in 1853, and inscribed with the name of Britannicus, 
had been acquired and presented to the British Museum. Mr. Scarth 
stated that its preservation had been due to the good taste and praiseworthy 
liberality of Mr. Arthur Bush, of the Redeliffe Company, and that gentle- 
man, appreciating the historical interest of such relics, had again used his 
influence to rescue the specimen lately found, which he had sent under the 
obliging care of Mr. J. Reynolds, and presented it to the Institute. The 
inscription on this massa plumbi had not been satisfactorily explained, and 
Mr. Searth promised a further account at the next meeting. 

A special vote of acknowledgment was cordially passed to Mr. Bush for 
his courtesy and liberal feeling CTinced on the present and also on the 
previous occasion. 

The Rev. H. Y. Lb Bas, Vicar of Bedfont^ Middlesex, gave some 
account of mnral paintings found in August last during repairs of the 
church of that parish ; he exhibited drawings on a large scale and photo- 
graphs of these relics of early art. The subject of one of the paintings is 
the Crucifixion ; the outline is distinctly visible, but the coloring is much 
faded. The other painting, of which a carefully colored fac-simile has 
been executed for the jSoutb Kensington Museum, represents the Day of 
Doom ; it has suffered considerable injury. Some traces of a third painting, 
Mr. Le Baa stated, had subsequently been brought to light ; it had been 
cut through in forming a hagioscope. 

The Very Rev. Canon Rock observed that, from the style of treatment, 
the first of these wall-decorations may be assigned to the latter part of 
the thirteenth, or possibly to the first years of the fourteenth, century. The 
Saviour is seen affixed to the cross by three nails only, and the ^we wounds 
seem to be represented as '* wells of mercy.*' The design of the other 
painting, the Last Judgment, may be regarded as of somewhat later date. 
The preservation of accurate fac-similes of all such relics of art in our 
country, as, in the present instance, had been effected through the vigilance 
of the officers of the Kensington Museum, is obviously most desirable. 

Mr. H. W. Kino took occasion to offer a short description of a remark- 
able relic of art representing the same subject as one of those exhibited 
by Mr. Le Bas, and we have been indebted subsequently to Mr. King's 
kindness for the following more detailed particulars: — '*In 1844 a large 
mural painting was discovered in West Ham Church, Essex, which after a 
brief exposure was again covered with lime-wash. The only record is 
contuned in an anonymous pamphlet published at the time, purporting to 
give a description of the picture ; but, as the writer evidently did not 
understand the subject, and was unacquainted with Christian iconography, 
his account is inaccurate and of no arch»ological value. The renovation 
of the interior of the church in September last afforded a favorable oppor- 
tunity for endeavoring to disclose the picture anew, and, under the superin- 
tendence of the Rev. R. N. Clutterbuck, of St. Mary*s, Flaistow, it was 
successfully developed, though apparently in a less perfect condition than 
when exposed in 1844. Its situation was upon the eastern part of the wall 
of the North clerestory, and it extended as far as the second pendant of the 
roof, measuring eight feet in width by five in height It does not appear 
that more than this was visible when previously exposed, but, from some 

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heads which were found on the South side of the chancel arch, it seems clear 
that this is only one wing of tho subject, which probably extended over 
the East wall of the nave, and to an equal distance on tbe North and South 
sides. The whole subject undoubtedly represented the Final Doom. Upon 
the East wall was doubtless depicted our Liord. The right wing, which 
remained, represented the *' Reward of the Righteous," and the left the 
" Condemnation of the Wicked,*' of wbich not a trace could be discovered. 
The picture upon the north wall, representing the " Resurrection of the 
Just," was executed, not in distemper, but in oil color, on very rough 
plastering, and covered also part of the stones of the arch ; in one place, 
where a beam of the aisle-roof comes through the wall, it was continued 
upon the surface afforded by its section. It appears to be the work of the 
latter part of the fifteenth century, and was of inferior though somewhat 
elaborate execution. The upper part of the painting, extending as high as 
the wall-plate, and forming a background to the whole, was richly grouped 
though rudely executed tabernacle work, chiefly white shaded with grey, 
the windows and crockets strongly outlined in black ; and some of the 
windows were colored red. From the general treatment, it seems clear 
that this tabernacle work is a conventional representation of the Heavenly 
Jerusalem. In the niches were several celestials, each wearing a circlet 
with a small cross over the forehead, and among them two of the heavenly 
choir playing upon gitterns. At the lower part of the painting, below the 
basement of the canopy, were two angels raising the righteous by the hand. 
They seem to have issued through the portcuUised gates behind them. 
There are two of these gates at the lower part of the picture, beside that 
in the upper part of the canopy into which one of the blessed is entering. 
From one of them the angels who are assisting the risen seem themselves 
to have issued, and to be leading the righteous into the other. The risen 
saints were grouped along the line of the arch in that crowded manner 
usual, as Mr. Clutterbuck remarks, with medieval limners. They are 
singularly irregular in size, the largest being placed just over the crown of 
the arch, and diminishing as they approached the caps of the columns. All 
were nude, with hands either joined in prayer or extended as if in admira- 
tion. Among the group were two ecclesiastics with red mitres, and a 
cardinal with a red hat. The writer of the pamphlet above referred to also 
noted a figure with a beard, which he supposed to represent a " monk, 
friar, or priest," and a royal personage wearing a crown of gold. The 
two angels mentioned as raising the blessed were larger than the other 
figures, and in pretty good preservation ; their faces painted with care and 
nut without dignity. They were vested in white albs without cincture or 
apparels. Close to the angle of the wall, where the painting was much 
mutilated, three demons were visible ; one seemed to be falling headlong, 
AS if to denote the abortive malice of the evil spirits unable to hurt the 
redeemed, now placed beyond their power. It appeared to the author of the 
pamphlet that the lower one had a person in his arms, as if bearing him 
4iway, with an expression of malicious pleasure in his countenance. The 
writer also conceived that he saw in this part of the picture the representa- 
tion of flames in which others were tormented, which he supposed to be 
** the suburbs of Hell." If such existed it might possibly have represented 
Purgatory, but it was not apparent either to Mr. Clutterbuck or myself. 
The Doom of the Lost was no doubt depicted upon the opposite wall, upon 
the left hand of the Judge, and there was but the least possible space upon 

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the North side for the introduotion of any other portion of the Judgment 
scene. Since I offered a brief unpremeditated description of this painting 
at the meeting of the Institute, the Eer. R. N. Glutterbuck has kindiy 
placed in my hands the memoir which he has prepared for the Journal of 
the Essex Archsological Society; and in the present report I have, with his 
permission, availed myself of his more detailed observations. As the 
picture was Tery imperfect and wholly unintelligible except to those who 
could reach it by a scaflFoId, Mr. Glutterbuck obsenres that he could not 
suggest any sufficient reason for its preservation, all the rest of the plastering 
being moreover to be remored for the purpose of pointing the inner 
masonry* There were indications that the whole interior of the church 
had been freely polychromed in distemper, but only one small portion of 
diapered pattern of late date could be copied. We are indebted solely to 
the exertions of Mr. Glutterbuck for the development of this interesting 
example of mural decoraUon.*' 

flntCquttteir mrt fBiaiM at fitt efbdiiitn. 

By BRiaADiEB-GBNERAL Lbfrot, R.A., F.R.S. — An unique steel head 
of a tilting-lance, of the time pf Henry YIIL, from the Royal Artillery 
Museum, Woolwich. It has been figured in this Journal, in illustration of 
a memoir by Mr. Hewitt. See vol. xxii. p. 295. 

By Mr. Rbtmolds. — Iron spear-head found at Rushall, Wilts. It has 
been assigned to the Anglo-Saxon period. 

By Mr. R. H. Sodbn Smith, F.S.A. — A g:old ring set with a balas 
ruby cut in form of a prism and engraved in ancient Arabic characters with 
an inscription, interpreted by M. de Longp6rier and also by Mr. Stanley 
Poole as signifying '* Ahmed, son of Tamman." Mr. Poole, however, 
considers the first letter of the final word somewhat doubtful. The Arab 
character with floriated ornament in which the legend is inscribed belongs 
to the third century of the Hegira, the second half of the eleventh century 
of the Ghristian era. This engraved ruby is stated to have been found in 
Babylon during the expedition of Omar Pasha to Bagdad. The ring is 
now in possession of the Gount Benedick Ilinski, by whom it was entrusted 
to Mr. Soden Smith. It had been bequeathed to the Gouot by his cousin, 
Iskender Illai Pasha. — A massive gold ring of English work, of the late 
Gothic period ; it is set with an amethyst, the shoulders of the hoop are 
ornamented i^ith pierced quatrefoils. — Pair of book-clasps of silver-gilt 
filigree ornamented with enamel ; probably of Southern Russian workman- 
ship. — Sword-guard and pommel of chiseled steel gilt, the pommel in form 
of a grotesque figure. Flemish work, seventeenth century. 

By the Rev. J. Hailstone, by permission of Mrs. Greenwood. — A mas- 
sive betrothal ring of silver parcel gilt, the hoop fashioned with two hands 
conjoined, and inscribed on the outside with the posy, in Old English let- 
ters, — nul. si. bien. — Date about 1400 ; weight 124 grains. The ring 
was found August, 1865, at a depth of nearly eight feet, in digging a 
grave at Gains Golne, Essex, for the interment of the late Rev. J. Green- 
wood, D.D., Rector of Golne Engaine. 

By the Very Rev. Mens. Virtue. — MS. Psalter of the thirteenth cen- 
tury, considered to be the work of an English scribe. From the 
occurrence of the dedication of the church of Orpington, Kent, amongst 
annotations in the calendar, it has been inferred with much probability 

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that the MS. may have belonged to some eocleBiastie, or other person* 
connected with that place. — A riclily embroidered chalice-vail, of EngliBh 
workmanship, date about 1600, and displaying the symbols of the Passion 
with other sacred devices. 

By the Rev. Maokeneie B. C. Walcott, Precentor of Chichester. — 
Eight leaves of a French MS. of the thirteenth century, portions of a 
poem. They were found in some French music books in the Chapter 
Library at Carlisle. 

By Mr. Newman.^Two sculptured mirror-cases of ivory, date about 
1350. A Spanish work in terra-cotta, the head of a cherub ; date, six- 
teenth century. 

Medieval Seals.— ^By Mr. M. Holbeche Bloxam, F.S.A. — Silver 
matrix of a seal of the Convent of Austin Friars, or Friars Eremites of 
the Order of St. Augustine, founded, probably in the early part of the 
fourteenth century, at Ballinrobe, on the river Robe, in the county Mayo.^ 
It was purchased by Mr. Bloxam, at the sale of ancient relics collected 
by the late Mr. T. Crofton Creker, F.S.A., dispersed after his decease in 
1855. The matrix consists of a massive oval disc of metal, measuring 
sibmewhat less than 1| inch by 1-^^ inch, and nearly f inch in thickness. 
This disc is possibly of lead cased in silver. A handle of unusual fashion 
is riveted on to it, formed of silver plate, terminating in a loop for sus- 
pension, to which three small crosslets are attached around its edge. The- 
device is a heart transfixed by two arrows in sal tire. The legend is as 

follows : — BIQILLVM : G0NVENT9 : ORD*IS : ERIMITT : 8. AVa : BALENROB. The 

last word is introduced in the field of the seal and above the heart. The 
seal is evidently of very late execution. It has been suggested by the 
Rev. James Graves, Secretary of the Kilkenny Arcb»ological Society, 
that it may have been provided about 1642, when probably Ballinrobe, in 
common with other monasteries in Ireland, was reoccupied. Mr. Graves 
observes that he has seen many conventual seals of that period very 
similar in character to that in Mr. Bloxam's possession. The matrix 
exhibited has been noticed in the Archseologia, vol. xviii., p. 438, an 
impression having been exhibited by Mr. S. Lysons in 1815. The owner 
of the seal at that time is not mentioned. It subsequently belonged to 
Mr. J. H. Hearn, an antiquary in the Isle of Wight, by whom it had 
been purchased at Southampton. 

December 1, 1865. 

The Marquess Camden, E.G., President, in the Chair. 

The President announced that he had received a gratifying communi- 
cation from the Hon. C. B. Phipps, intimating the gracious pleasure of 
the Queen that the meeting of the Institute to be held in London should 
be announced as under the special patronage of Her Majesty. 

A memoir was received from Mr. James Bradburt, of Huddersfield, 
describing the excavation of Roman remains at Slack, near that town, on 
the supposed site of Cambodunum. The exploration was undertaken in 

> Dugdale, Mod. Angl. vol. vi. p. 1590, 1337 in tbe register of the Dominican 

edit Calev; Archdall, Mod. Hib. p. 494; Friary of Athenry as << M onaBterium de 

Stevens, lion. Hib. p. 327. This con- Koba." 
vent was probably that mentioned in 

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September last, under the auspicee of the Huddersfield Archaological 
Association. Much interest had also been taken in the work by the Rev. 
James Hope and other members of the Philosophical Society at Halifax. 
Slack is situated in an elevated position, about 4| miles West of Hudders- 
field, on an old road to Mancunium, About forty years since, the attention 
of antiquaries was excited by the discovery of a small hypocaust. Recent 
exea?ations ha?e brought to light two similar relics of Roman construc- 
tion, one of them measuring 24 feet by 20 feet, the Yestiges, doubtless, 
of a building of importance. Human bones, coins of Vespasian and Nero, 
ornaments, and pottery, had been found ; also a mass of lead ore, about 
250 lbs. in weight. These remains appear to indicate the site of baths ; 
and the latest discoyery has exposed the frigidariumf or cold bath, solidly 
constructed of concrete, with the usual arrangements for the supply and 
escape of water. The investigation is in progress, and it has been 
regarded with interest as bearing on the disputed question of the position 
of Cambodunum. Mr. Bradbury cited the dissertation by Mr. Watson, 
read nearly a century ago before the Society of Antiquaries. Doncaster 
had been suggested as the probable site of the Station ; but Whitaker, in 
his History of Manchester, entered mto the arguments that had been 
advanced, and he had arrived at the conclusion that the position is pro- 
bably at Slack, where he pointed ont an area of about twelve acres 
within«which Roman relics were found in profusion ; also an altar there 
occurred, inscribed to Fortune by a centurion of the sixth legion ; and 
other inscribed stones have been disinterred. Mr. Bradbury promised to 
give further particulars of these explorations in the West Riding. The 
site was pointed out as debateable ground by Mr. Newton, in his Map of 
British and Roman Yorkshire published by the Institute in 1846. 

A memoir by J. H. Walker, Esq., M.D., on the Roman Hypocaust dis- 
covered at Slack, has subsequently been published in the Transactions of 
the Huddersfield Association, accompanied by three illustrations that show 
the construction of the work, and the skilfully adapted arrangements of 
the $u9pensura» 

Mr. OcTAVxus MoROANy M.P., offered some observations on the interest 
•associated with all evidence of the appliances of Roman luxury in Britain. 
He had made successful excavations at Caerwent, and brought to light a 
very complete series of bathing-rooms, including the tepidarium and the 
frigidarium. The bath itself was there heated by the fire, so that it 
might be described as at once boiler and bath. 

The Rev. B. HirrcHiNSON, Vicar of St Michaers at St. Albans, 
gave a short account of the curious vestiges of early architecture 
in his parish church, now in decayed condition. That venerable fabric 
has been comparatively neglected, on account of the greater attractions of 
the Abbey Church. It is well deserving, however, of notice and of 
preservation, as an example that retains portions of which the date may 
be ascertained. The church presents curious constructive features, — flint- 
work compacted together by wall-tiles, doubtless obtained from the wreck 
of the Roman city within the area of which the church was built. Its age 
dates from pre-Norman times. We learn from Matthew Paris that Ulsinus, 
seventh Abbot of St. Albans, in the tenth century, was a great benefactor 
to the place ; that he augmented its population, and erected three churches, 
of which St. MichaeKs was one. Mr. Hutchinson gave a few particulars 
regarding the additions and re-constructions which the church has under- 


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gone at various periods. These interesting notices were accompanied by 
a minute report drawn up bj Mr. Gilbert Scott, at the request of the 
parochial authorities ; his examination of the dilapidated fabric has aroused 
well-timed exertions for its preservation. The visitor who may be attracted 
to that ancient church to admire the monumental statue of Lord Bacon, 
one of the finest portrait-effigies of its period, will no longer have occasion 
to regret the neglected condition of the structure. More than i&2000, 
including a liberal contribution of £500 from the Earl of Yerulam, have 
been alreadj expended on works of urgent conservation. The completion 
of the undertaking demands aid from those who value earlj architectural 
remains. The ruin of the fabric reared on the work founded bj Abbot 
tJlsinus, has, however, been arrested. Mr. Hutchinson described windows 
of early character and other features heretofore concealed, that had been 
recently brought to light. He expressed the wish that some archsologists 
might be attracted to the spot, through whose knowledge of eccle- 
siastical antiquities certain particulars would doubtless be satisfactorily 
explained. The recent discoveries had become casually known to a 
distinguished antiquary, on a visit to St. Albans, Dr. Birch of the 
British Museum ; at his suggestion they were brought under the notice of 
Uis friends the members of the Institute. 

Mr. CiiAiiLEtt Tucker sent a notice of Roman relics found at Exeter. He 
wished to point out an erroneous statement lately made in the locfA and 
other papers regarding the alleged discovery of a Roman tessellated pave- 
ment during the demolition of the church tower of St. Mai^ Major, in 
Exeter. The tower, needlessly sacrificed through recklessness of inno- 
vation which could not be too strongly condemned, had been traditionally 
supposed to occupy the site of a Roman pharos. No mosaic floor had, 
however, been brought to light. A few decorative pavement tiles, such 
as were commonly used in mediaeval churches, had occurred amongst the 
debris of the ancient fabric, the wanton destruction of which had been a 
subject of regret to local antiquaries ; one of these tiles displayed the 
bearing of the De Clares, Earls of Gloucester. Numerous Roman vestiges, 
coins, ornaments, pottery, &c., were constantly disinterred at Exeter, 
proving the extent of Roman occupation within that city ; the latest dis- 
covery occurred in digging foundations for the museum to be erected as a 
memorial to the Prince Consort ; many antiquities, such as Samian ware 
with other Roman remains, were found on that occasion, some of them at 
a depth of ten feet below the present level of the street. Amongst the 
Samian fragments Mr. Tucker noticed several bearing potters* marks ; and 
of these he sent impressions, of which one seems to give the inscription. 
If. F. OEMIN. M. The late Lord Braybrooke has noticed oemin. f. and 
GEMINI. F. on Samian ware found in his excavations at Chesterford ; and 
in the list given by Mr. Roach Smith in his Roman London, p. 104, occurs 

Mr. -E. Smirke read extracts from a Roll found by Mr. Burtt among 
records of the Court of Exchequer, and relating to the burning of lepers in 
the reign of Edward II. in Jersey. His observations on this curious sub* 
ject have been printed in this Journal, vol. xxii. p. 326. 

Mr. Sfrekoel Greaves, Q.C, remarked, that in the unusual case to 
which Mr. Smirke had called attention, it may bo inferred that the lepers 
had suffered the penalty either of treason or felony ; otherwise their goods 
would not have been forfeited to the crown, as Appeared by the document 

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in question. It is evident by ancient records that in the thirteenth 
century criminals were commonly executed by the furca, or gallows ; 
burying alive and drowning were, however, not uncommon punishments* 
and it appears by the Gustumal of London, about 1320, that felons were 
drowned in the Thames. 

Some additional particulars were communicated regarding the pig of 
lead found at Bristol, and presented at the previous meeting by Mr. 
Aithur Bush. The Rev. Canon Scarth expressed his opinion that the 
Kmperor designated in the inscription was Antoninus Pius, who succeeded 
Hadrian a.d. 138. In this conclusion the learned writer on Roman Epi- 
graphy, Dr. MacCaul, of University College, Toronto, concurs with Mr. 
Scarth ; no pig of lead of that period had previously been found. This 
interesting addition to the evidence regarding Roman metallurgy will be 
more fully noticed and figured hereafter in this Jounial. With the 
sanction of Mr. Bush, through whose praiseworthy exertions it has been 
rescued from the furnace, it will be deposited with the series in the British 

The Rev. J. Fuller Russell, B.D., called attention to the threatened 
destruction of the sculptured rood-screen in the Priory Church at Christ- 
church, Hants, which has been figured, from a drawing by Mr. Ferrey, in 
this Journal, vol. v. p. 73. A remonstrance addressed by the Earl of 
Malniesbury to the daily papers was read, and also a statement by Mr. 
Ferrey, author of the Architectural History of the Church. Mr. Burtt 
informed the meeting that the well-timed appeal by the noble Earl, who 
resides in the ancient Orange of the Prior at Heron Court, had arrested 
the reckless innovation of modem taste. Mr. Ferrey reminded the Insti- 
tute that their memorial, in 1847, had happily averted a proposition to 
destroy the screen, which has lately been menaced anew through the 
caprice of injudicious promoters of a scheme of improvement, such as has 
frequently proved more injurious to monuments of ecclesiastical architecture 
than were even the troopers of the Civil Wars. The circumstances of the 
previous appeal for the preservation of the screen are fully stated in the 
report of the meeting of the Institute. January 7, 1848, given with a letter 
addressed to the Society by the Eari of Malniesbury, who is the owner of 
a portion of the church. See the *' Proceedings of the Institute," in the 
concise abstract at that time issued to the members, p. 13. 

After some discussion it was proposed by Mr. Octavius Morgan, M.P., 
and seconded by the Very Rev. Canon Rock, D,D., with the unanimous 
assent of the meeting, that a remonstrance deprecating the destruction of 
the screen, as now for the second time projected, should be addressed to 
the Committee for the *' Restoration" of the Priory Church. 

By Mr. Henderson, F.S.A.— A Persian hunting-horn or oliphant of 
ivory, sculptured with representations of animals, foliage interlaced, and 
other elaborate ornaments. 

By Mr. C. Bowtbr. — The Blessed Virgin with the infant Saviour, an 
Italian work of art in gesso. 

By Mr. W. J. Beiinhard Smith. — A double-edged blade forged at 
Solingen, and mounted with a cross-guard of Indian work of russet steel 

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inlaid with gold. — A small cross-bow, probably for a lady's use, the stock 
inlaid with grotesque ornaments in brass. 

By Miss Fparrinoton. — Drawings of a singular low arch, three feet from 
the ground, in the exterior north wall of Leyland Church, Lancashire. It 
was suggested by Canon Rock, that this curious feature of church archi- 
tecture may have been connected with the dweUing of au anchorite attached 
to the church. 

• A yaluable collection of early documents relating to Staffordshire and 
Shropshire, and some parts of North Wales, were sent for examination by 
Dr. Kendrick, M.D., by permission of Mr. Whitehall Dod, of Llanerch 
Park, Flintshire. They included various evidences of curious interest, 
accompanied by several remarkable seals, especially the seal of John de 
Verdon, appended to a grant of land in Alverton, near Cheadle ; the seal 
of Thomas Talbot, in the reign of Henry V., attached to an instrument 
which relates to his lordship of Wrockwardine, Salop ; the seal of William 
of Child's Ercall, in that county ; that of William de Calverhall, near 
Wem, t. Edward II., also a curious seal of Sir Thomas Beek, with other 
good examples. 

Febniary 2, 1866. 
The Marquess Cahden, K.G., President, in the Chair. 

The noble Marquess, in opening the proceedings, alluded briefly to the 
satisfactory prospects of the arrangements for the London Congress. He 
had received from the Lord. Mayor and municipal authorities assurance of 
their friendly dispositions. The meeting would be inaugurated by an 
assembly in the Guildhall. 

Mr. J. Weatherhead, Curator of the Museum at Leicester, described 
some Roman remains lately found in that town, the Ratoi of Antoninus. 
In December a lar^ glass vase had been disinterred at a depth of five 
feet in Oxford Street. It is of unusual form, hexagonal, with a single 
handle, and measures about nine inches in height* This sepulchral vessel 
claims notice chiefly from the circumstance that it contained a fluid, 
covering a deposit of burnt bones, and doubtless intended to preserve 
them from decomposition. On analysis, this liquid proved to be a saline 
solution with salts of lime ; its preservation in a liquid state is doubtless 
owing to the circumstance that the mouth of the vase had been closed by 
a leaden cap, the lower portion apparently of some vessel, firmly fixed by 
hard cement. A piece of stone (syenite) had been placed upon this cover- 
ing, but no other protection was noticed around the vase. The discovery 
of liquid under such circumstances is a fact of rare occurrence ; in glass 
urns disinterred in Sardinia it is stated that a fluid has been found her- 
metically enclosed in the rim around the mouth. The hexagonal form is 
rare in glass urns found in this country ; a Roman vase of that shape, but 
of larger dimensions than the specimen lately found, was brought to light 
about 1830, in the grounds of the Abbey at Leicester ; it contained bones, 
and was perfect when disinterred. No local depository having at that 
time been established, this relic remained in private hands, and its fragments 
only were brought to the Museum in 1861. These examples of Roman 
glass found in England show considerable perfection in manufacture ; such 
vases are mostly globular or four-sided, with ornaments occasionally, or 

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with names of the makers in relief upon the base. The yase found last 
jrear at Leicester bears a wheel-shaped device of which Mr. Weatherbead 
sent a cast; it was apparently a sort of '* trade mark." A vessel of this 
description, of hexagonal form, is presorved in the British Museum ; it 
was found at Barnwell, near Cambridge. Another, in unusual preser- 
vation, was dug up a few years since at 8t. Albans, with sepulchral vessels, 
in the churchjard of St. Stephen's parish. It measures fourteen inches 
in height, and is one of the most remarkable specimens of Roman glass 
discovered in Britain. The discovery is noticed, Jouru. Brit. Arch. Ass., 
. vol viii. p. 77. 

Mr. Stuabt, Secretary of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, 
offered some observations on a series of diagrams of incised symbols that 
occur on the Pillar Stones of Scotland, which he exhibited to the meeting. 
Among them are figures of an animal like an elephant, serpents, cresceuts, 
circular discs, combs, mirrors, and other objects. These symbols occur in 
simple outline on the rude Pillar Stones, and the same figures are repre- 
sented on the Cross Slabs, with the addition of intricate forms of orna- 
ment. In one case, some of the symbols have been found engraved on 
plates of silver which formed part of a great hoard of treasure dug up 
at Norries Law, in Fife, as described and figured. Arch. Journ., vol. vi. 
p. 248. Drawings of all the symbols occur in the first volume of " The 
Sculptured Stones of Scotland," and they have been figured in this Journal, 
vol. xiv. p. 185. 

The great peculiarity of the symbols is the fact that they are almost 
literally confined to that part of Scotland lying on the North of the Firth 
of Forth, which, in the days of Bede, was the Country of the Picts. No 
similar monuments are to be found on the West Coast, the Country of the 
Scots, and, with one exception, the symbols are unknown in Strath- 
dyde and Galloway. They do not occur on the stones of the Celtic people 
of Ireland or Wales, and they are unknown to the antiquaries of Conti- 
nental Europe and the East. From the frequent occurrence of the Pillars 
in connection with cists and mounds, Mr. Stuart had been led to attribute 
a sepulchral design to the symbols ; and, while he believed that the 
examples on the rude Pillar Stones are earlier in date than the introduc- 
tion of Christianity into Scotland, it seems plain that some of the Cross 
Slabs partake of the symbolism of both systems, and are the work of a 
transition period. As indicative of the early occurrence of the symbols, 
Mr. Stuart gave an account of a slab on which some of them were sculp- 
tured, and which was found between the covers of a cist containing au 
urn and a bronze dagger. 

Mr. Stuart also exhibited drawings of figures sculptured on the walls 
of several caves in Ftfeshire recently brought into notice by Professor Sir 
James Simpson. Mr. Stuart gave some historical details of these and 
other caves, as retreats of the Early Missionaries ; and he pointed out 
that among the very miscellaneous groups of sculptures which occur on 
the walls (including crosses of various forms) there are many examples 
of those symbols which have hitherto been only found on the Pillars. 
The caves occur in the Country of the Picts as well as the Pillars ; and 
in the sculptured caves on the South of the Forth, the peculiar sym- 
bols do not occur. As to the meaning of the symbols, Mr. Stuart 
regarded it as a doubtful and difficult question, from the want of any 
analogous examples with which to compare them. It did not admit of 

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any conclasive answer ; but the subject would be discussed in a Chapter 
on the History of Symbols, in the second Tolume of " The Sculptured 
Stones of Scotland/' shortly to be published. 

Mr. Stuart concluded by suggesting the great desirability of a thorough 
examination of the many caves which are known to have been inhabited 
along the coasts of England and Wales and in which sculptures may occur. 

Mr. Stuart took this occasion to bring also before the Institute dia* 
grams of the Chambered Tomb in the great Mound of Maeshowe in 
Orkney. The mound is placed in the neighbourhood of the Stone Circles 
at Stennis, and near to it are many smaller barrows. It is about 300 
feet in circumference by 36 feet ini height, and is surrounded by a trench 
40 feet wide. On its being excavated by Mr. Farrer, it was found that a 
passage 54 feet in length, formed of great slabs, led from the west side of 
the mound to a central chamber, also constructed of slabs^ which were 
made to converge, so as to form a dome-shaped roof, after the plan of the 
'* Pict*s Houses" of Scotland and the Cloghauns of Ireland. From this 
chamber are three openings, giving access to three crypts* On the walls 
of the central chamber are many Runic inscriptions^ the number of letters 
being about one thousand. Mr. Stuart regarded the structure as of a 
much earlier date than the inscriptions. It appeared to him to be of the 
same class as New Grange in Ireland, and he pointed out various analogies 
between these structures, as well as other Chambered Tombs in Scotland 
and Ireland, and on the Continent. As in the case of New Orange, the 
chamber of Maeshowe had been violated by the Norsemen, who probably 
oarried off the* valuables which it had originally contained. The Runic 
inscriptions, as interpreted by the late Professor Miinch, are not of earlier 
date than the twelfth century ; and, from a reference in one of them to 
** Jerusalem-farers," he was led to believe that the Howe had been plun- 
dered and the inscriptions written by a body of Crusaders, of whom fiarl 
Ragnald was leader, and who wintered in Orkney in the year 1153. Ac- 
cording to one of the inscriptions, the Norse people were anticipated by 
some one who carried off much treasure from the Howe, three nights before 
they invaded it ; and, a few years ago, a great hoard was found some miles 
from Maeshowe hid in the sand, consisting of silver torques, brooches, in- 
gots, and Saxon coins of the tenth century. The only remains found in 
the Howe were bones and teeth of the horse in large quantities, and a 
small piece of a human skull ; in like manner, the only remains found 
at New Grange when it was opened in the seventeenth century, were the 
bones of animals, and pieces of deers* horns. 

Lord Talbot de Malahide made some remarks on the character and 
date of the chamber at Maeshowe, as compared with the mound enclosing 
similar remains at New Grange near Drogheda. Professor Donaldson 
and the Very Rev. Canon Rock took, part also in the discussion on the 
questions suggested by Mr. Stuart*s discourse. Lord Talbot, after com- 
mending the energy and intelligence shown by Mr. Stuart in investigating 
the long-neglected sculptured monuments of Scotland, expressed his 
opinion that the incised devices belong to two distinct periods, the earliest 
symbols probably being connected with sepulchral remains, the later, long 
subsequently, may have been uifluenced by some form of Christian belief. 

Mr. Smiree, adverting to the remarks that he had offered at the previous 
meeting, in regard to the burning of lepers, said that the punishment thus 
inflicted had probably been contemporaneous with proceedings in France, 

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in 1321, when lepers were coudemned for the alleged crime of poisoning 
wells in order to exterminate the Christian population, their ageucjr having 
been thus employed by the Mahometan Princes of Spain. 

Mr. Sprcngbl Greaves, Q.C, concurred in the view taken by Mr. 
Smirke ; be suggested that the record seemed to show a confession with- 
out trial. Lord Talbot, referring to the extraordinary delusion that bad 
preyailed in Franco in the fourteenth century, in regard to the alleged 
poisoning of springs of water, observed that, in recent years, when a panic 
prevailed in Sicily through apprehension of cholera, it was believed that 
the malady had been caused by emissaries of the Bourbon family, and by the 
poisoning of wells through such agents, who were in many instances cruelly 

Mr. Hswrrr gave some remarks on a hand-mortar of the beginning of 
the seventeenth century, a rare weapon for firing grenades from the 
shoulder ; it was brought, by permission of Brigadier-General Lefroy, 
R.A., from the Royal Artillery Museum at Woolwich. 

A copy of the Survey of the eastern branch of the Watling Street in 
Northumberland, extending from Portgate on the Roman Wall to Berwick- 
on-Tweed, was presented. This Survey had been carried out by direction 
of the late Duke of Northumberland, by Mr. MacLauchlan, as a sequel to 
the Survey of the Roman Wall. Special thanks were voted for this valu- 
able addition to the library of the. Institute, the last evidence of the noble 
liberality shown by the lamented Duke in promoting the investigation of 
the earlier remains in the northern counties, and a memorable result of his 
eucouragement of the study of National Antiquities. 

^ntiquiiiti atOr tSKatki of 9rt etf)(biU}l. 

By Mr. Sodem Shith, F.S.A. — Roman pottery and a fictile lamp found 
near Dorchester, Oxfordshire, between the Thame and the Isis. 

By Mr. W. J. Bekmhakd Smith.— FragmenU of ancient pottery found 
on the surface in peaty soil, on part of the elevated plateau known as 
Sunningwell Plain, near Abingdon, Berks, adjoining Bruncombe Wood, the 
property of Sir G. Bowyer, Bart. These fictile relics are continually 
turned up by the plough, and are found every year in renewed abundance, 
though the fragments are of smaller size than formerly. No traces of a 
kiln have occurred near the place, but at the foot of the hill there is clay 
in abundance, and modem brick and tile works exist there. 

By Mr. Hemderson, F.S.A.^KutUr daggers from Delhi and Oude, 
obtained from the collection formed in India by the late Earl Canning. 
These weapons were intended to be used with the left hand, whilst the 
right grasped the " tulwar." 

Bj Mr. S. DoDD.— Representation of the figure of Edward the Con* 
fessor, from the East window in the chancel of Romford Chapel, Essex, 
which is dedicated to the Virgin Mary and the Confessor. The chap«>l 
was built in 1407, and the painted glass appears to have been " renewr .," 
according to an inscription placed under it, by the chapel warden, in 1707. 
Lysons (Environs, vol. iv. p. 193) states that in the East window of the 
North aisle were formerly the figure of the king with those of two pilgrims 
by whom the ring was brought to him, according to the legend related in 
this Journal, vol. xxi. p. 103. The figure of the Confessor has been 
engraved by James Smith. 

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By Mr. H. G, Bohn. — Painting in the style of the Flemish school, the 
Virgin with the infant Saviour, surrounded by angels. This specinieu of 
early art, executed on a gold ground, has been attributed to Mabuse. 

By the Rot. Mackenzie Walcott, B.D. — Silver reliquary in form of a 
scull, probably of Spanish work ; date seventeenth century. It belongs to 
Mr. Ricardo Copi, of Deptford. 

By Mr. Lewis Hind, of Sutton, Surrey. — Series of photographic fac- 
similes, of the illuminations in the Grimani Breviary preserved in the 
Library of St. Mark's, Venice. These exquisite miniatures, 110 in 
number, include chiefly the masterpieces of Memling, with paintings by his 
scholnrs and coadjutors, Gerard van der Meire, Anthony of Messina, and 
Livien de Gand. 

By the Rev. Jaiies Beck. — A decorative parement tile, bearing a key 
eiisigned with a coronet, possibly the device of the Poynings family. — 
Enameled locket, enclosing a portion of the hair of the Princess Elizabeth, 
daughter of Charles I., obtained when her remains were brought to light 
in Newport Church, Isle of Wight, in 1793. — Watch, of oval form, made 
by Bateuian, a skilful artificer of the seventeenth century. — Portrait of a 
lady, by George Chinnery, an artist who first exhibited at the Royal 
Academy in 1791 ; he went to China, and painted miniatures for some 
years at Canton. — A design for the copper coinage of 1788. 

Mrs. Alexander Kerr sent from Vienna for presentation to the Insti- 
tute a series of photographs of examples of Medieval Art preserved in 
that city. 

By Mr. E. Pbpts. — The " Original Declaration thankfully laying hold 
of His Mnjesty's free and general Pardon," published by the House of 
Commons, June, 1660, in pursuance of the King's sign manual issued at 
Breda. — Crown piece of Edward VI., 1551, and crowns of Charles I., one 
with the harp mark, the other with the star. 

By Sir T. E. Winhinoton, Bart., M.P.— A document of the time of 
Charles I., to which is appended an impression of the Great Seal in un- 
usually perfect condition. 

March 2, 1866« 
The Marquess Cahden, K.G., President, in the Chair. 

It was announced by the President that His Royal Highness the Prince 
of Wales had been pleased to intimate his consent to be announced as 
Honorary President of the Annual Meeting of the Institute to be held in 

Mr. W. H. Treoellas read a memoir relating to the British fortress at 
Wimbledon known as Ccesar's Camp, and supplementary to that which he 
had communicated at a previous meeting. He placed before the meeting 
an accurate plan of the camp, from a recent Survey, which will be pub- 
lished with his memoir hereafter. 

Mr. OcTATiDS Morgan, M.P., gave a description of a mosaic pavement 
found early in January ult., at Caerleon, Monmouthshire, the Roman Isca 
Silurum, The design represents a labyrinth of rectangular form, resem- 
bling that of certain Roman mosaics preserved in Italy, Switzerland, ^., 
but no example had previously been found in England. The pavement 
had been removed with great care, under tho direction of Mr. J. E. Lee, 

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F.S.A., Secretary of the Monmouthshire Archsological AsBociation, in 
who&e maseum at Caerleon it has been deposited. This interesting addi- 
tion to examples of tessellated floors in this country will be given in the 
publications of that Society. Mr. Morgan stated that the area of the 
chamber was about 13 ft. by 11 ft. The pavement lay in the churchyard at 
a depth of about 4 ft.» on the north side of the church ; the portions that 
are deficient must have been destroyed in early times in forming graves. 
According to tradition there had stood a Temple of Diana where the cliurch 
was subsequently erected. The pavement is wholly of black and white 
ieiseras^ with the exception of a vase, introduced in the design, and deco* 
rated with a few red tesserc6. The ground is white; the central part 
representing a labyrinth that measures 8 ft. square. 

Major What, £.£•» sent some particulars of discoyeries that have 
occurred in the course of recent public works in Portland ; by his kind 
direction some of the relics found there were sent by Captain Tyler, the 
officer in charge in the island. Within tUb old entrenchment on the upper 
portion of the West slope of the Verne Hill, an interment was found ; the 
body had been deposited without cremation in a cist formed of stone slabs 
set edgeways and covered with similar pieces of stone ; no trace of any 
internal coffin was noticed, nor any weapon or ornament. Similar inter- 
ments, as shown by diagrams submitted to the meeting, had occurred in 
the neighbourhood ; in one instance a small cist, in which the corpse of an 
infant probably had been placed, was found lying E. and W., with the 
feet to the West ; transyersely, to the West of these three graves, there was 
a fourth placed N. and S., the feet to the South. These cists, which 
lay about four feet under the surface, were in each instance wider at the 
head than at the foot, and broken pottery was found adjacent to them. 
On the top of the Verne Hill was disinterred a large urn, laid on its side, 
on the breast of a skeleton found with two others huddled together in one 
cist fonned of slabs of stone of an upper Portland bed ; the slabs were 
placed in like manner as in the graves already noticed. The urn con- 
tained a small quantity of charcoal. On the South slope of the Verne Hill 
had been brought to light, within a circular stone wall of dry masonry » about 
5 ft. in height and 6 ft. in diameter, a skull of an ox {Boi longi/rons F), 
with decayed bones and a quantity of ashes. In course of works in that 
part of the island were also found a disc of Kimmeridge clay shale, the 
bones of a human finger with a spiral bronze ring, and a gold Gaulish 
coin. On the North Common, below the Verne Hill, had been found an 
entire skeleton, laid E. and W. in a cist of the same construction as 
the others, and covered by loose slabs, the whole being of shale : within 
this cist were iron nails, that had apparently been used in forming an 
internal coffin of wood, of which no other traces appeared. Several similar 
graves were likewise exposed to view in this locality ; and, in excavations 
for drains on the North Common, pottery, Roman coins of Vespasian (?) 
and Antoninus, an enameled fibula, a bronze ring, a fiat circular stone, 
possibly a quoit, and pieces of the horns of deer and other animals, cut 
off by the tool, were collected. These, with other relics, lay at a depth of 
about two to four feet. 

We are indebted to Mr. John Evans, F.S.A., to whose courtesy and 
numismatic skill we have been often indebted, for the following particulars 
regarding the gold coin, already noticed, found a few years ago near the 
surface, on the War Department land. This piece is regarded by Mr. 


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Evans as Gaulish rather than British. The type is figured from a specimen 
found at Soissons hy M. Lambert, Numismatique Gauloise du Nord-Ouest de 
la France, pi. yi., no. 5, and in the Revue Numism., vol. ii.» pi. iii., no. 2. 
The nearest approach to the type, among gold coins claimed by Mr. Evans 
as British, is that given in his valuable work, pi. B., no. 9. 

A silver penny lately found near the surface in Portland, and sent by 
Captain Tyler, was ascribed by Mr. Evans to Henry III. ; it is of his 
Class v., with the *' little old head " of that king. It was struck at 
London. The moneyer is terbi on ltnd ; namely, Teni le Chaunier, one 
of the '* Custodes Monete*' in 1222. 

Mr. J. JoPE Rogers communicated a notice of a mural grave, a stone 
coffin, and two effigies of persons of the family of Carminow, in Mawgan 
Church near Helston, Cornwall. In 1865 the South wall of the South 
transept, which usually has been known aa " the Carminow Aisle,*' and 
was probably built about the end of the fourteenth century, was demolished 
and rebuilt. The wall contained a low arched recess, in which lay a 
stone cross-legged effigy much defaced ; on the shield is the bearing 
of the Carminow family {azure a bend or), A female effigy, likewise of 
freestone, and supposed to portray the wife of the knight, lay on a ledge 
of the wall near to his memorial, the recess being scarcely of sufficient 
depth to receive a single figure. During the removal of the transept wall 
it was discovered that a carefully-built grave, four feet in depth, formed 
part of its construction, being carried down from the floor line to the 
foundations. This grave contained a perfect skeleton regularly laid out, 
the arms extended on' either side ; of the coffin a few fragments of orna- 
mented metal only were found. The grave was covered by a stone coffin, 
which was built into the wall, having its base level with the transept floor ; 
its form is that in use in the earlier periods. It had been split across and 
repaired, and was filled with rubbish, amongst which were three skulls, 
bones, fragments of alabaster and stained glass, the head of an iron 
hammer, and part of a rake. Two Nuremberg counters were found in the 
wall : of these, one bears, on the obverse, a figure seated at a counter- 
board and engaged in making a calculation ; a book of accounts lies 
open at one end of the table : reverse, the alphabet in ordinary Roman 
capitals. Compare the type, dated 1553, giren in Snelling*s Jettons, pi. 
iv., fig. 14. The other is of an ordinary type ; obverse, the imperial 
mound or Reichsapfel ; legend, Hans. Schultes. su. Nurenberg ; reverse, 
three crowns alternately with three fleur-de-lys ; legend. Glick. kumpt. 
von. Got. ist war. The Carminow family, Mr. Rogers remarked, is of 
great antiquity in Cornwall, having resided at Carminow in Mawgan 
parish, as supposed, before the conquest. The old Cornish historian, Hals, 
mentions a trial in the Earl MarshaVs court, t. Edw. III., in which Lord 
Scrope made complaint that his arms, azure a bend or, had been assumed 
by Carminow, who pleaded in defence the antiquity of his family and 
bearing, which, as he alleged, had been granted by Edward the Confessor 
to his ancestor, who was ambassador to the French king. It appears, 
however, that the Cornish squire was compelled by Scrope to distinguish 
his coat by a label of three points gules, as a difierence.' The elder 

' See Lyson's Cornwall, p. cxz., cxzv., possessor of the Carminow estates, seals 

and a pedigree in Polwhele's Cornwall, are appended; date about 1339 — 1361. 

B. ii. 48. To some deeds in possession The label does not occur on any of these 

of Mr. Rogers of Penrose, the present seals. 

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branch of the Carminow family became extinct in the male line, on the 
death of Sir Thomas Carminow, about 1370» leaving three daughters and 
co-heiress. The old Cornish historian, William Hals, states that the family 
had their ancient domestic chapel and burying place at Carminow, of which 
the walls were to be seen, and where formerly stood the monuments of 
dirers notable persons of that race : of these, early in the reign of James 
I., when the chapel at Carminow Barton was allowed to fall into ruin, the 
inhabitants of Mawgan, out of respect to the memory of those ancient 
gentry, brought from thence two, a man and woman, curiously wrought 
and cross-legged, and deposited them in Mawgan church. Davies Gilbert's 
Cornwall, yoI. iii. p. 132. Mr. Rogers is inclined to regard the cross- 
legged effigy as the memorial of Sir Roger Carminow, who accompanied 
Prince Edward, afterwards Edward I., in the Crusade of 1270. Joanna, 
widow of Roger de Carminow, occurs in Cornish evidences, in 1285. 
There is, howerer, some uncertainty whether the crusader was named 
Roger, or Robert, as he is called by Hals. Carew mentions a Robert de 
Carminow, as holding a knight's fee in 1326, although not yet a knight ; 
he states also, that in 1297, Sir Roger de Carminow was summoned to 
attend Edward I. The discrepancies occurring in the history of the ancient 
race will, we hope, be elucidated hereafter by Mr. Rogers, in a more 
detailed account of the effigies at Mawgan, which will be given in the 
Journal of the Royal Institution of Cornwall. In regard to the armour of 
the cross-legged effigy, as evidence of its date, Mr. Rogers pointed out its 
resemblance to that of the figure in the Temple Church, London, attributed 
to Gilbert Mareschal, Earl of Pembroke. It consists wholly of mail, with 
the exception of genouill^res of leather or plate ; the right hand grasps 
the hilt of the sword, the left holds the swond-belt, as if the weapon had 
just been sheathed ; the hauberk is long, reaching nearly to the ancles ; 
the head rests on a large helm, the feet upon a lion. The spurs are seen, 
and a cushion, or some ornament, projects at each shoulder ; the shield is 
shorter than that of the effigy in the Temple church above mentioned, and 
the bend is distinctly shown ; there is no fillet around the brow. These 
effigies are briefly noticed by Lysons, Cornwall, p. ccxxxiv. The archi- 
tectural features of the chancel and transept of Mawgan Church, as noticed 
by Mr* Godwin in this Journal, vol. xviii. p. 246, are " flowing Decorated," 
of the time of Edward III. A yery curious '* lyohnoscope '* in that struc- 
ture has been described by Mr. Rogers, ibid. vol. xi. p. 33. 

A notice of impressions of the following seals, by Mr. W. de Grat Birch, 
was read, and fac-similes taken by Mr. Ready were exhibited ; these 
examples, hitherto undescribed, had been lately found in the British 
Museum. — An Irish Exchequer seal of the reign of Henry VL, of which 
an impression is appended to one of the Harleian Charters, dated 1442. — 
Seal attributed to Gilbert de Sempringham, founder of the Gilbertine, or 
Sempringham Order of Monks, and to be referred to the twelfth century. — 
The first Great Seal of Charles I., appended to a grant of special livery, 
dated December 5, 1 626. It difiers in many respects from the seal usually 
considered to be the earliest used by that monarch, and of which Sandford 
has engraved an example from a document dated 1627. These interesting 
seals will be noUced more fully hereafter. 

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^ntiqxiitiei aittr W^afki at 9rt erl^t^itrlr. 

By Major Wrat, R.B. — Ancient relics found iu the Isle of Portland, 
near the Verne Hill ; also diagrams representing various stone cists and 
interments there brought to light. Amongst the objects sent for inspec- 
tion, through Captain .Tjler, R.E., were a Gaulish gold coin, weight 91 grs.» 
slightly scyphate in form, of which an account by Mr. Evans has been 
already given ; a circular Roman fibula, diameter one inch, enriched with 
enamel of bright coral-red color, alternately with blue ; and a silver penny 
of Henry III. 

By the Rev. Chables Lowndes. — Collection of Anglo-Saxon weapons 
and relics, spear-heads and knives of iron, bosses of shields, with other 
relics brought to light in a field 'on the property of the late Dr. Lee, at 
Hartwell, Bucks. 

By the Rev. William Pioott, Vjcar of Whaddon, Bucks.— Drawings of 
mural paintings, found in Whaddon Church, near Stony Stratford. These 
relics of art -were assigned by Canon Rock to the latter part of the reign 
of Edward III. 

By Mr. Henrt Shaw, F.S.A. — Illuminated drawing, the portrait 
of Antony Kress, Provost of St. Laurence's, Nuremberg ; he is repre- 
sented kneeling before an altar, and supported by St. Laurence ; there is 
a gorgeous bordure ; in the lower margin are displayed the arms and sup- 
porters of the provost, very bold in design and elaborately finished. Ou 
the back of the frame is the following inscription : — ** Antonius Kressivi 
Canonicus Ratisb*, et praepositus s*ci Laurentii in Numberg. Obiit 1513, 
Ei. B. 35." 

airciiaeolofllcal JEntelUijence* 

The attention of archs&ologists has been invited by Mr. Frederick Boyle 
to the very striking character and interest of the sepulchral Vestiges of the 
tribes by which Central America was occupied at a very early period. The 
numerous relics of antiquity, pottery, and other remains disinterred in ex- 
plorations by Mr. Boyle and Mr. Jebb have been generously presented to 
the British Museum, with the valuable collection of drawings illustrative 
of their discoveries, and to which reference has been made in this volume. 
See p. 41, ante. An expedition is in course of arrangement for the 
ensuing spring under Mr. Boyle's, direction, and it will probably leave 
England in April next ; the difficulties and perils of the adventure are con- 
siderable ; our friends are anxious to strengthen their party with some 
enterprising ethnologists. The objects in view are the sepulchres, antiqui* 
ties, geology and botany of the Rio Frio district, at present absolutely 
unknown, and also the opening up of Costa Rica by a road to the Atlantic 
shore. The Rio Frio, it may be observed, flows into the Lake of Nicaragua 
about 200 yards from the spot where the San Juan river flows out of it ; 
the country around the head waters of the Frio has never been explored, 
and hitherto the most boldly-organised expeditions have proved unsuccessful. 
Any persons who may feel interested in promoting Mr. Boyle's spirited enter- 
prise, or may be disposed to participate in his examination of very singular 
vestiges of the early inhabitants of the Western Continent, are requested 
to communicate with him, at Bebington, Birkenhead. 

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FIff. 1. SIgnot of Q. ComeliuB Lupus. On sard. In tho Watorton CoDection. 
(Double the crigiaal size.) 

Fig. 2. The Oullio Mars. From a Coin of Constantino. 

Fig. 3. Combat between Romans and Gauls. From an Intaglio in possession of Mr. C. W. King. 
(Double tho original size.) 

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Z\it ^rcfiaeological :SfournaU 

JUNE, 1866. 

By C. W. KINO, If.A. 

Antique gems, though chiefly valuable (in respect to their 
subjects) for their illustration of mythology, religious and 
poetical, often present us, besides, with important memorials 
of history preserved in them alone. Of such records, per- 
haps the most valuable that has ever come to my knowledge 
is the sard from the Waterton Dactyliotheca, here figured of 
twice the actual size (fig. 1). This gem, somewhat exceeding 
the customary dimensions of a ring-stone, is engraved in a 
singularly bold and large manner, with two distinct devices 
occupying the field : a horse's head and neck, bridled and 
couped (to use the heraldic term), and two large Gallic shields 
covered with barbaric ornamentation placed en saltire. In 
the field is deeply cut the legend Q. cobneli lvpi. 

That the shields can be no other than Gallic is certain, 
from their peculiar oblong shape, that perpetually strikes the 
eye in the various representations of armed Gauls or their 
spoils, so frequently affording the types upon the denarii of 
the Roman conquerors during the later ages of the republic. 
The horsSi prancing at freedom in the field, was the estab- 
lished national emblem upon the autonomous gold coinage of 
the Gauls ; one cannot help suspecting that in the design 
before us the bridle is purposely introduced to mark the sub- 
jugation of the fiery spirits who assumed him for their type. 
In their choice, it is not improbable that a rebus was intended 
upon the national appellation, either invented at the time or 
subsequently perceived and embraced — for Gatd is yet cur- 
rent in German for A(ww, though in a disparaging sense. 

The duplication of the shields is intended, according to the 

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rule in such cases, to proclaim to the world that the trophy 
was won from two allied peoples of the Gallic stock. Now 
this circumstance it is, that, coupled with the family name of 
the owner of the signet, enables us to discover, with more 
than conjectural accuracy, the event commemorated by this 
remarkable intaglio. 

As our starting-point, it must be assumed for certain that 
a member of ihe gens Cornelia would adopt for his own 
signet-device the glorious achievement of some ancestor of 
his own family, or, in preference, one wherein he had himself 
played the chief part — just as we know that the greatest of 
this very family, Sulla, took for his signet, first the " Sur- 
render of Jugurtha," and afterwards the " Three trophies'' 
commemorating his victories over Mithridates, the crowning 
glories of his ever successful military career — ^an example 
subsequently followed by Pompey. 

These two conditions bring the attribution of the parti- 
cular event within very narrow limits of time, for, on 
, referring to Livy for the victories illustrating the Cornelian 
name in connection with the Gauls, we find none with which 
all tbe particulars of our gem exactly tally, except the great 
battle won by the Consul C. Cornelius Cethegus over the 
confederate Insubres and Cenomani, upon the banks of the 
Mincio, in the year B.c. 197. Of the Celts, 35,000 men fell 
in the action, having lost it partly through the foul play 
of the Cenomani, gained over the night before by the pro- 
mises of the wily Roman, who had vowed a temple to Juno 
Sospita in event of his success. 

In the same campaign his colleague, Minucius, reduced 
the Boii, who had made common cause with the Insubres, 
but had deserted them before the battle for the sake of pro- 
tecting their own territory. Amongst the prisoners waa • 
Hamilcar, a Carthaginian, the prime mover of the revolt 
against the Romans.^ 

The duplication of the shields is conclusive evidence, as 
already pointed out, that the Gallic army was raised from 
two tribes combined, not from one singly. But for this 
restricting circumstance I should have assigned the occasion 
to the vastly more important victory gained some forty 
years later (b.c. 159) by another of the gens, the Consul 
P. Cornelias Scipio Nasica, over the single nation of the Boii. 

* Liv. xxsiL 30. 

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Livj's account of the Boian spoils, as paraded through the 
streets of Rome upon his triumph, aflFord a truly interesting 
glimpse of the state of civilisation to \vhich these Italo- 
Celts had thus early attained. In this triumph he carried 
in parade upon the Qallic waggons, the arms, the standards, 
and the spoils of every kind, gold vessels of Gallic make, 
and together with the prisoners of note were led in pro- 
cession herds of the captured horses. The victor displayed 
1,4 itO torques of gold, 245 pounds by weight of gold (coin) ; 
of silver, both in ingots and wrought up into plate ader 
the native fashion^ and by no means unskilfully, 2,340 
pounds ; and likewise of the coinage bigati,^ 233 pounds by 

'' Lupus " was a favorite cognomen in the gens Cornelia : 
thus we find, in the year B.c. 156, P. Com. Lentulus Lupus 
Consul, and he may very well have been son of the Q. Corn. 
Lupus, whose name is only preserved from oblivion by this 
gem. The latter was, in all likelihood, a near relative of 
the Consul Cethegus, and had held some important post 
under him in the army gaining that victory, the credit of 
which appears to have been in some measure ascribed to 
him by popular consent. Had it not been so, he would 
hardly have ventured to claim for himself so much of its 
glory as to appropriate its trophies for his own personal 
device. The peculiar execution of the intaglio also points 
to the same date as does its subject, for it exhibits the 
grandiose yet somewhat careless manner of the Campaniau 
engravers, such as cut the dies for the first silver and gold 
coinages of the Hepublic. 

Some observations upon the military equipment of the 
Gauls will not be out of phice here, for the peculiar fashion 
of the shields upon our gem remarkably illustrates the 
description given by Diodorus Siculus of that portion of 
their defensive armour. Julius Csesar has, strangely enough, 
omitted all mention of the arms or costume of his Gallic 
adversaries ; he probably considered them too well known 
to his Roman readers to require any further notice in the 
sketch he gives of their institutions. But Diodorus, writing 
only a few years later, and in Greek, for the world at large, 
has fortunately, to gratify the curiosity of those more 

' The primitive RonMndenarittsliaTiog ' LWy, xxxvi. 46. 
for roToi-se a Inga^ 

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remote, gone into the minutest particulars of the subject. 
His account applies equally well to the period of our Lupus, 
for the Gauls had merely been rendered tributary to Rome 
by Caesar's victories, continuing unchanged in everything 
else until after the re-organisation of their country by the 
Emperor Claudius.* "They wear a curious kind of dress, 
dyed tunics ornamented with colours of every possible sort, 
and trousers, or, as they themselves call them, braccce. 
Over these they wear, fastened by a fibula, large striped 
mantles {sagi)y of a shaggy stuff in winter, oif a smooth in 
summer, chequered all over in squares, of many colours set 
close together. For armour they use shields as tall as the 
man, and painted over after a peculiar fashion. Some of 
these shields have figures of animals in relief of bronze, not 
merely for ornament, but also for defence, and very well 
wrought. They wear bronze helmets, having lofty projec- 
tions rising out of them, and which impart a gigantic 
appearance to the wearers ; for upon some are fixed pairs 
of horns united, upon others the heads of birds, or of 
beasts, forged out of the same metal. They have trumpets 
of a peculiar form and of a barbaric fashion ; these they 
blow and produce a hoarse sound, well suited to the din of 
battle. As for body-armour, some have shirts of iron chain- 
mail ; the rest are content with that given by Nature, and 
go into battle naked. Instead of the sword (6'<^os) they have 
claymores {<rnABaC) hung from long iron or bronze chains, 
and depending along their right side. Their tunics they 
gird in with belts, overlaid with gold or silver. They carry 
spears, or, as they call them, la?ices, with heads of iron a 
cubit in length, and even more than that, the width of the 
blade being little short of two palms (6 in.). For their 
swords are as long as the darts used by other nations, whilst 
the heads of the spears they use are actually longer than 
other people's swords. Of these spear-heads some are 
forged of a straight pattern ; others have a wavy indentation 
all along the edge, so as in striking not only to cut, but to 
mangle the flesh, and in the withdrawal of the spear to tear 
the wound." ® The last sentence but one has been entirely 
misunderstood by M. Desor, in his Memoir on the Jiacus- 

* Who destroyed their nationality by birth-place), and aboliahiog the casto of 
making them all Roman citizens (he was Druids, 
their fellow-countryman in virtue of his ' Diod. Sio. ▼. SO. 

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trine Antiquities of Neufchatel,* and by some other writers 
following him. Not perceiving the drift of Diodorus's com- 
parison, they, very .needlessly, have recourse to the usual 
expedient of supposmg a corruption, or interpolation in the 
text But it is obvious to me that the histoiian here intends 
to exemplify his previous remarks, by comparing the Gallic 
spear-heads with the Greek and Roman swords, never ex- 
ceeding eighteen inches in the blade, and the long claymore, 
of a yard and more in the blade, with the total length of the 
javelins of other nations, in which latter point a little 
rhetorical exaggeration may well be admitted. The cut 
(fig. 2), taken from a coin of Constantino (formerly in my 
possession), minted at Treves, exhibits the Gallic Mars, 
equipped with the national lancea, with its enormously 
dilated blade and cuspidated barbs: a singular proof of the 
persistence of the fashion. And again, on many other coins 
of his sons,^ from the several Gallic mints, the cavalier on the 
obverse wields a lance fully two feet in the head, to judge from 
its relative proportion to the rest of the design. An incident 
in the boar-hunt, described by Apuleius, where the hero's horse 
is hamstnmg by a blow from a lancea, informs us that this 
weapon was used for striking with as well as stabbing, like 
the mediaeval Welsh glaive, or the Italian spontoon. 

The exact arms described by Diodorus are often displayed 
upon the consular medals, notably upon the very common 
denarius of the family Furia, which exhibits a trophy formed 
of the horned helmet, the mail shirt, and the peculiarly- 
ornamented oval shield, together with the huge wooden 
trumpet (cmmyna^), terminating in a horse's head. On 
another denarius (Servilta), a gigantic naked Gaul with the 
horns above-mentioned fastened upon his head, appears 
aiming, back-handed, with his long blade, his '' swashing 
blow" at his diminutive Roman antagonist. This is the 
very scene so vividly portrayed by the old annalist, Claudius 
Quadrigarius, that the philosopher Favorinus declared he 
could never read it without becoming an actual spectator 
of the combat. The peculiar attitude of the Gaul, and his 
strange guard with his shield aptly illustrate the " status " 
and ** disciplina sua'' of that early author.* The " Cornuti'' 

' Les Palafittes du Lac de Neufcli&tel, ' The wbolo passAge is preserved by 

Pari?, 1865, p. 79. A. Gellius (ix. 13), and well deserves tlie 

' As well as of the Qallic tyrants, encomium he passes upon it. 
Magnentius and Decentius. 

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and " Braccati,^ as well as the *' CeltaB/' are named by 
Ammian as forming distinct corps in Julian's army, which 
had been chiefly levied in Gaul. The first appellative will 
at once indicate the origin of the unique hmned head- 
piece in enameled bronze, found some years back in the 
Thames at Waterloo Bridge (now in the possession of the 
Conservators of the river), which, being mistaken for a 
mediaeval relic, goes, in virtue of those appendages, by the 
name of the '^ Jester's Helmet/' And, to conclude this part 
of the suTyect, I know of hardly any other historical monu- 
ment due to the engraver's art more interesting than the 
spirited representation of a combat between Romans and 
Gauls, drawn by a contemporary hand, of which a very 
faithful copy is given in the woodcuts that accompany this 
memoir (fig. 3). 

These unwieldy swords were made of untempered iron, 
as we learn from Polybius. " Their swords have only the 
first down-stroke, that is fatal ; after this they immediately 
become unserviceable, bending both longways and sideways 
to such a degree that the second blow is entirely without 
effect unless the owners get the chance to retire, to press 
them against the ground, and straighten them with the 
foot. . . . The Gauls are only able to fight in loose order, 
because their sword has no point at all"^ 

The weapons* recently discovered in the fosses of the 
celebrated lines drawn by Csesar around Alesia, afford a 
striking illustration of these passages of Polybius. Amongst 
them the swords are of incredible size according to 
Grecian notions, being of three feet and more in length. 
They are pointless^ with their flat broad blades of the same 
width throughout; the body forged from a very stiff, or 
fibrous, iron ("tres-nerveux,") hammered out lengthwise, on 
each side of which is welded a cutting-edge of soft iron, with 
the evident object that the owner might be himself able, 
after using it, to repair any damage done to the edge, by 
hammering it up again cold, exactly as our mowers do to 
their scythes when they get notched by striking against a 
hard substance.^ 

• Polyb. il 83. logy of " acciaio/' and of " acier," 9teeL In 

' See Lea Armea d'Alise, Annalcs fact, acia must havo been used in the 

Arcb^ologiques for 1861, giving pboto- same sonse in classical Latinitj; for 

graphs of the most noteworthy examples. Pliny, to express the superiority of the 

3 This discovery supplies the etymo« Indian iron, terms it "mera acie?," an 

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On the other hand, the few Roman swords found mingle<l 
with them are of less than half their measure, have a rib 
down the middle, giving them great stiffness, and taper 
gradually from the hilt to the point. 

The lance-heads accompanying the swords in naturally 
much greater numbers, fully justify Diodorus's astonish- 
ment at their magnitude and strangeness. Some are two feet 
long, and therefore exceed in that respect the old classic 
sword ; and, above all, exhibit that coniiguratipn of the 
edge he so particularly remarks, many having a fiamhoyant 
outline of extreme elegance ; others, again, the well-known 
myrtle-leaf shape of the primitive bronze sword. 

These iron lance-heads resemble their bronze predecessors 
of the same kind in having the centre-rib, the prolongation 
of the socket, forged hoUow (a masterpiece of the smith's 
craft), a make inseparable from all spear-heads cast of bronze. 
This arrangement diminished the weight, though not mate- 
rially the strength, of these otherwise unwieldy weapons, 
which may, as above remarked, be compared in their cha- 
racter to the 8/jontoons of the fifteenth and sixteenth cen- 
turies. The metal of them, upon analysis, proves to be 
time steeL^ 

These Gallic lances, retaining the elegance of form derived 
from much earlier ages, strikingly contrast with the Roman 
j^ila lying beside them — ill-fevoured, murderous-looking 
weapons, whose only object was to kill. These likewise can 
still be accurately described in the words of Polybius, to be 
found in his dissertation upon the military system of the 
Romans. They are long solid shafts of iron, of a spit-like 
pattern, clearly exempliirjing Virgils " veru Sabellum," and 
the term ** verutrum" given to the national weapon. These 
"spits" terminate in small solid pyramids (sometimes barbed 
at each corner of the base), sometimes in cones, or small 
heart-shaped points; the other end being a tang, either 
pointed or chisel-shaped, for sticking into the shaft, which to 
prevent splitting was secured by iron collars slipped over it. 
The latter demonstrate the diameter of the shaft itself to 

ezpresRion exactly answering to our the Helyeiio Celta of the same A^ires in 

** sheer ttcf*]." Mr. Lee's Taluable trauslatiou of Dr. 

' The reader deairoua of further infor- Kellers treatises on the Lake Dw«:lliii|ss 

mation on tbU subject will find numerous of Switzerland. 
ezaoiples of these weapons belonging to 


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have been 28 mm., (about one inch) ; Polybius giving the 
same as rpta fiynhaKrvXia^ or 1^ inch nearly. 

It is curious to observe how completely the pilum went 
out of use under the Caesars ; for, although it may be seen 
carved on certain monuments at Mayence of the reigns of 
Augustus and Tiberius, and has been foupd there in Roman 
sepulchres of the same date, yet on all public monuments 
of importance, like the triumphal arches and columns, the 
soldiers carry the long Greek spear, the Roman " hasta," 
which indeed from the beginning was the weapon of the 
second line in their battle array, hence termed ** hastati." 
But, strange to say, in Byzantine times the old pilum re- 
appears quite unchanged, in the distinctive arm of the 
Franks, the "angon," and secured to those barbarians the 
same success in war that in its pristine days it had brought 
to the Roman Legionaries. But so entirely obsolete had 
its form grown with their degenerate descendants, that 
Agathias describes it, and its direful efficiency, with unbounded 
wonder. His account, coupled with the specimens ex- 
humed by the Abbe Cochet from the Merovingian tombs, 
leaves no doubt as to the identity of the angon with the 
former pilum. 

It is almost needless to add, after what has been said 
above, that no bronze weapons accompany these relics of 
the times of Julius Caesar. And, to go farther back, that 
the Gallic sword, at the time of their first irruption into 
Italy, was precisely the same as Polybius describes, is proved 
by the precautions taken by Camillus (detailed by Plutarch 
in the last chapters of his Life), in order to spoil its " soft- 
tempered and tliin iron." Following his example, at the 
great battle described by Polybius \\\ the chapter above quoted, 
the centurions armed the first line with the hastoi of the 
second, instead of their own missile pila, against which the 
Gauls bent their swords, and so being disabled gave an easy 
victory to the Romans. It is hard to imagine how these 
monstrous weapons so easily disabled in action, so useless at 
close quarters, came to supersede the elegant leaf-shaped, 
cut-and-thrust swords of the Bronze age ; the latter being 
certainly, both in material and figure, better edged and more 
efficient than their successors in untempered iron. Never- 
theless the metal bronze for warlike purposes had gone out 
of use in Europe long before the period when authentic 

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history begins ; Hesiod speaking of its employment for such 
purposes as marking the Age of Fable ; and Lucretius 
following him to the same effect, — 

" Inde minutatim processit ferreua ensis, 

Versaqiic in opprobrium species est faicis aheDse.*' 

Though the Gauls had not in the age of Polybius learnt 
the art of tempering iron, yet their neighbours, the Celti- 
berians, were perfect masters of the secret when the Romans 
first came in contact with them, and borrowed from them 
the " Spanish sword " as the most perfect model of its class. 
Diodorus describes the Celtiberian sword as '^ so well 
hardened that nothing can withstand its stroke, neither 
shield, nor helmet, nor bone/'* The process was simple 
enough, — to bury thin plates of iron in the earth until all the 
baser particles were consumed by the rust, and nothing 
but the pure metal remained.^ Later, Bilbilis was as famous 
for its sword-blades as Toledo now ; their excellence being 
ascribed to some peculiar quality in the icy water of its 
river, the Salo, as Martial informs us, — 

" Pugio quern curva signat brcvis orbita vena, 
StrideDtem gelidis hunc Salo tinzit aquis." 

This consideration brings us to a curious subject, but to 
which antiquaries seem to have paid very little attention. 
Every intelligent reader of Homer must have been struck 
at the facility with which his heroes' spear-heads of bronze 
(for only arrow-heads with him, and that but rarely, are 
made of iron) pierce through the cuirasses and shields of 
the self-same metal. Though something must be allowed 
for the superior strength of the Heroic sinews, yet the poet, 
a true painter of nature, would not have so frequently re- 
peated the incident as he does had it set at defiance the 
daily experience of his hearers. The mention of it, there- 
fore, shows that some method of tempering bronze almost to 
the hardness of steel was then commonly practised. And 
this inference is supported by examples actually remaining 
to us from Homer's age, however remote we please to throw 
that age back. Sir Gardner Wilkinson obtained a bronze 

< V. 33. taining a razor of most oxquisito temper 

* A method still recommeaded for ob- when reground after disinterment. 

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dagger, sheath, hilt, and all in perfect condition, from a 
mummy-pit, which rivals steel in hardness, sharpness, and 
elasticity : the last a quality that, in such a composition, 
astonishes the modern metallurgist. 

A century ago the attention of Caylus* was arrested by 
this very subject, and he has detailed some interesting expe- 
riments he made as to the possibility of hardening not 
bronze, but the much softer metal copper. The question was 
first suggestiad to him by his observing the hardness and 
temper of some Celtic swords (but supposed by him, after 
the fashion of his times, to be Roman) found at Gensac, 
which, when analysed, proved to be nothing' but copper with 
a small native alloy of tron, but no trace of tin. Upon this, 
on communicating with M. Geoffroi, the chemist, they found 
that precisely the same results could be obtained by com- 
bining copper with one-sixth of its weight of iron. There- 
upon Caylus himself proceeded to try the result of tempering 
as well as of alloying copper, taking the first hint from a 
passage in Philo Byzanttnus, where that writer directs the 
spring for a dart-thrower to be made out of pure copper 
mixed with one-thirtieth of tin, and afterwards well hammered 
when cold. Employing an intelligent brazier to carry out 
his theories, he was rewarded by finding he could make 
serviceable knives, scissors, and even razors,^ out of brass 
and copper {cuivre jaune, et rouge) : he did not try bronze^ 
which was unfortunate for the completeness of the inquiry. 
The result was obtained merely by dipping.the articles red-hot 
into a mixture of soot, sal-ammoniac, urine, and kennel- water. 

I have somewhere seen it stated that Chantrey once tried 
what cutting instruments could be produced out of bronze, 
and actually succeeded in making a bronze razor, wherewith 
he was able to shave " after a fashion." He discovered that 
the best proportion for the alloy was that found pretty con- 
stant in Archaic-Greek, Etruscan, and Celtic weapons, viz., 
one-tenth part of tin added to the copper.® The metal 
was hardened by cold-hammering. 

As for the case of surgical instruments found at Pompeii, 
all having their blades of bro7ize set in handles of iron, the 

^ Qiven in bia Ilecueil d'Autiquit^a, manufactured, this succest wiU not go 

vol. i., p. 242. for much. 

7 To anyone acquainted with the non- ^ Feuerbach's analysis of the Helvetio 

cutting quality of French steel articles of bronze swords makes the proportion of 

the sort, especially as they were formeily tin vary from 5 to 25 per cent. 

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phenomenon may possibly be explained by a medical super- 
stition, traces of which are preserved in the whimsical 
explanation the scholiast gives of ci^vwp, the favorite Homeric 
epithet o{xi\Kosy ''good/or man, because wounds made with 
that metal heal more readily than those made with iron/' 
Though this "allopathic'' property may have done some- 
thing to retain the primitive metal in Roman surgical prac- 
tice, yet, for all that, it must have been susceptible of a 
passable degree of keenness, otherwise, in spite of its 
reputation, it could not have maintained a place there, in an 
age when the best steel was as well known, and as com- 
monly used as in our own. Another remarkable instance 
of the late use of bronze for cutting-instruments by the 
Romans, is known to myself : it is a pair of small sheara, 
found at Caerleon; very neatly made, and retaining both 
their elasticity in the bend, and their keenness. See Mr. 
Lee's " Isca Silurum," pi. xxxiv., p. 66. 

One is at first surprised to find that most ingenious 
invention of the armourer's, chain mail, enumerated amongst 
the accoutrements of so uncivilised a race as these Celts ; 
but our wonder is increased by the circumstance that the 
Romans actually considered them as the true inventors of it. 
Varro, under "Zarfca," states that it got its name from 
being at the beginning made out of leather, " lorum" but 
that the " Galli-lorica," formed of iron' rings, had then com* 
pletely usurped the appellation. In the fosses round Alesia, 
a few links still connected together suffice to attest its use at 
the time of the siege ; but no considerable remains could be 
expected to have lasted under the circumstances, the ditches 
being filled with water, and the iron web by its nature 
extremely peiishable. 

The use of this species of defence can be traced back, 
obscurely indeed, to the remotest ages. There is even 
reason to suspect it was brought into Europe along with 
the Aryan immigrants from India, in which latter country it 
has ever been, and still continues, the sole kind of defen- 
sive bod^'-armour known to the inhabitants. Although 
Homer never alludes to its use (his warriors, if not clad in 
plate, wear the cuirass of quilted linen, kivo6<ipri(^), yet 

• The latter, as appears from Hero- dedicated by Aniaais, king of Egypt, to 
dolus' deacriptioa oi the pattern one the LiudUu Tallas, HUodes, was woven 

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heroes covered with what seems intended to represent a 
vestment formed of metal links appear on some Etruscan 
vases, and the archaeologist, Virgil, could not have been 
without some ancient authority for making Mneas give as a 
valuable prize at the funeral games — "Loricam consei-tam 
hamis auroque trilicem" — "a coat woven out of rings, and 
fringed with a triple row of gold links/' The Hon. R. 
Curzon states' — "Some years ago I saw at Naples the 
fragments of an ancient Greek shirt of mail of rings/' And 
Livy,* describing the equipment of the Samnites, in the early 
ages of the Republic, has the singular expression, " spongia 
pcctori tegumentum,'' where spongia is always interpreted 
as a soldiers' cant term for a mail shirt, in allusion to its 
porous texture. 

To come down a little later in Roman history, Athenaeus,' 
in describing the forces of Antiochus Epiphanes, mentions 
his 10,000 picked men, arrayed in mail shirts after the 
Rotnan fashion, ** 'Pw/iaioi/ iyovres Ka06ir\i<rfxov iv Bdpa^iv 
d\v<rtdwTots/' Although chain mail is not often represented 
upon Roman statues, yet I suspect it was all the while in 
general use under the Empire, but that the sculptor pre- 
ferred exhibiting his heroes in the old Greek thoi^a^ of plate, 
imitating the exact conformation of the body underneath, on 
account of its superior picturesqueness. For if the latter 
kind of armour had been still in such general use as the 
monuments of the age would lead us to infer, why should 
Pausanias (in his description of the grand fresco by Poly- 
gnotus in the Lesche, Delphi) have taken so much pains to 
explain the nature of a suit of armour of this very make 
{yva\d)^ stating in so many words, as the reason for his minute- 
ness, that it had been for many ages out of fashion ? 
Again, we should conclude that chain-mail had been the 
more usual form of armour in the time of Statins (the pre- 
ceding century), for he notices amongst the other preparations 
for war * — 

** ferrum— quod niille cateiiU 
Squalleutcs nectat tunicas.*' 

out of threads of many strands, the one ^ Achilleis, 1. 431. His patron Domi- 

in question having each thread composed tian, however, preferred, says Martial, a 

of S65 others, all quite distinct. novel and light yet arrow-proof cuirass 

1 Arch. Joum., vol. xzii., p. 13. made of scales of boar-hoof, — 

3 ix. 45. " Texuit innumeri lubricus unguis apri." 

» iii. *J2. 

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Nevertheless vre have some Roman statues clad in mail- 
shirts. I have observed a bust of Pertinax so covered in the 
Galleria, Florence ; whilst Constantino, full length, in the 
triumphal procession upon his arch, Rome, wears a long 
shirt of mail very accurately represented. And yet the same 
prince, in his imperial statue, now standing in the portico of 
the Lateran, is accoutred in the time-honoured and elegant 
Homeric tltcyraa?; a circumstance strongly supporting the 
theory above advanced. A sepulchral bas-relief in the 
Museum, Mayence, exhibits a Dalmatian cavalier in a mail- 
shirt with short sleeves : and in digging a well for a house 
in the Schillerstrass there (1857) was discovered amongst 
a quantity of Roman sandals, broken tools and weapons, &c., 
part of a mail-shirt of iron rings. The links are of unusu- 
ally small diameter, not exceeding a quarter of an inch, and 
not riveted. 

Ammian^ indeed describes the Persian cavalry, at the time 
of Julian's invasion, as completely covered with steel plates 
{laminae) and wearing helmets fashioned into human heads 
with faces, only vulnerable in the perforations at the eyes and 
nostrils; whilst his contemporary, Heliodorus, gives a minute 
and valuable account^ of the construction of this armour by 
the linking together with rings of a number of such small 
plates (iron or bronze), a hand's breadth each in size, the very 
•* tegulated" armour^ of the Norman crusaders, doubtless bor- 
rowed by them from their Saracen opponents. Nevertheless 
in the fine bas-relief of the Takht-i-Bostan, the cavalier, pro- 
bably Sapor L, sculptured in the preceding century, is armed 
in a long mail-shirt having the hood drawn over f. skull-cap 
and falling over his face like a veil, serving thus for a vizor, 
exactly as still worn by the Circassians. Such mail-clad 
cavalry were first introduced into the Roman service by 
Severus Alexander, who, after his Persian campaign, where 
he had learnt their efficiency, formed a body of 10,000 of 
them. " Cataphractarios quos illi clibanarios vocant decern 
millia interemimus, eorum armis nostros armavimus,'' says 
the victor in his letter to the Senate.® They speedily be- 
came the most important part of the army under the Lower 
Empire, like the gens d'armes in the mediaeval service. 

* xzv. 1. Hen. L, wears on his seaL Archseologia, 

• ix. 12. vol. xiv., pi. 47, p. 276. 
I Such M Milo of Qloucester, kmp. * Lauipiid. 55. 

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Constantius II. had 30,000 cataphractarii at the battle of 
Mursa, who with their armour of proof and long heavy lances 
broke the brave Gallic legions of Magnentius. 

I cannot but allude to that groundless theory broached 
by Sir S. Meyrick, and adopted without question, upon his 
authority, by many subsequent writers, our sagacious friend, 
Mr. Hewitt, perhaps, alone excepted, upon mediasval armour. 
It is the name " edge-mail " coined by him as the appellation 
of that seen upon knightly eflSgies previous to the time of 
Edward I., with his explanation that this kind of defence was 
formed by sewing the rings edgeways upon a basis of stout 
canvas. One would have thought that their own common- 
sense might have suggested to some at least of his readers 
that links thus arranged would not serve in the slightest de- 
gree to keep out the thntst of a weapon, or even the cut of 
one, should its edge chance to alight between any two parallel 
rows, in which case it is evident it would encounter no other 
resistance than that of the canvas substratum* But so it is ; 
no one seems ever to have troubled himself to bestow a mo- 
ment's thought upon the senselessness of such a contrivance, 
but each writer in his turn has gone on indorsing this self- 
condemning hallucination of the far from sagacious antiquary. 
Yet a vestment so composed would be much more due to the 
tailor than to the smith, who, as in Aldhelm's well-known 
enigma on "Zorica,'' and by all others after him, is ever named 
as the fabricator of mail-shirts. The author of this untested 
theory has taken infinite pains to collect passages from Nor- 
man writers to support it, but they are all totally irrelevant 
to the question. 

His mistake seems to have arisen from his observing the 
parallel rows into which the surface of a mail-shirt naturally 
falls in all cases where its links are not riveted ; ^nd the 
regularity of which rows is again somewhat heightened in 
mediaeval sculpture and drawing, for the sake of facilitating 
the work. It seems certain that, up to the end of the 
thirteenth century, the links were not riveted^ (a procass to 

' A remarkable exception to thia rule cai'efully riyeted, some in alternate, some 
has lately been brought to light. In the in every link. The author of the de- 
find of anna and armour, dating from scription, however, doubts of their being 
the Lower Empire (denarii of Severus of equal antiquity with the rest : so the 
occurred amougnt them) extracted from di-jcovery can hardly be deemed suffi- 
the Thorebjerg Moss, Flensbcrg, certain ciently complete to decide the question, 
pieces of chain mail were met with, most 

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be explained farther on), but merely bent up into rings. 
These rings were slipped, or Jiooked, one within the other, 
"whence the .propriety of the Virgilian term hami for them 
is obvious. In such a mode of uniting them into a con- 
tinuous texture, it is evident that these rings must neces- 
sarily be of very stout wire, and of small internal diameter, 
othervnse the vesture wopld be liable to tear asunder by 
its own weight, as we see in the carelessly-wrought mail- 
shirts made in London for the African trade that occa- 
sionally find their way into sale-rooms in Town as the 
" armour of Runjeet Singh/' A Circassian, however, onco 
informed me that his countrymen still prefer the unri voted 
mail to the riveted, because it allows the musket-ball (if not 
repelled by it) to enter by its links opening before the blow, 
so that none of the wires are carried with it into the wound ; 
that fatal objection to the use of chain-armour, and which 
banished it from the camps of Europe upon the introduction 
of hand fire-arms. 

But this open-linked maiV from the necessary stoutness 
of the wire used, was of enormous weight, as is shown by 
those rare examples still preserved; for . instance, the suit 
now in the Hon. R. Curzon's armoury. The same thing is 
attested by the manifest eflforts of the porters who carry the 
single suits suspended upon poles, two men to each, in the 
Bayeux Tapestry. Again, it is mentioned as a proof of 
William's gigantic strength, that, though himself so clad, he 
carried the mail-shirt of a disabled comrade, who, having 
fallen into a quagmire, was unable to extricate himself, 
imtil he was relieved by the Duke from his cumbrous 

The links, the hami of the Romans, had, in making the 
shirt, each to be slightly opened, and so passed into its 
neighbour; the wire, being steel, closed firmly again of 
itself, and secured the continuity of the whole net-work. 
Hence Anna Comnena describes the armour of the Norman 
crusaders as a " tunic, ring interwoven upon ring,'' x^™^, 
KpiKos l-nX KpiK^ TT€pnr€'nk€yiiivos : and this,. be it observed, at a 

1 The Bedouin BuiU- above alluded to designed to keep out Indian flint-headed 

•weigh 401U. each, to which weight must arrows, are as light as 251b. But the 

be addedthatof the thickly-padded tunic Korman had to encounter the shock of 

required underneath to prevent its rough the steel lance-head driven with all the 

texture galling the wearer. The suits, impetus of his advenoiys charge on 

however, made for the Yenesuelians, only horseback. 


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time (1081 — 1118) when, as Meyrick would make us be- 
lieve, nothing was known but his "edge-mail'' of rings 
stitched upright on canvas. 

As the next step towards improvement, the junction of 
the wire in the links was secured by bi-azing, an addition 
supplying a vast increase of resisting force to the steely 
web ; and of this an example is^ preserved in the shirt of 
Philippe le Bel, dedicated by him, about the year 1307, at 
the Cathedral of Chartres. There can be no doubt that in 
other cases, where the great additional labour and expense 
were not taken into account, other mail-shirts perhaps long 
before had had their defensive power similarly augmented. 

This led to the final and great improvement in the manu- 
facture of mail, viz., the riveting of every link at the open- 
ing> by beating out each end of the wire forming it, making 
one overlap the other slightly, piercing both, and driving a 
rivet through them, thus rendering the joint the very strongest 
place in the whole ring. By this ingenious invention, due no 
doubt to the sagacity of some Saracenic armourer, it was found 
that the mail-shirt could afford equal protection with half 
its former weight of metal, inasmuch as the diameter of each 
ring in it could now be doubled, all danger of their gaping 
being in this way obviated. In fact, we see the links now an 
inch in diameter over all, when made of stout wire as in the 
old Turkish, and about half that diameter when slighter wire 
is employed, the customary size for European suits. When 
woven a^er this fashion the whole texture lies flat upon the 
person, and no longer assumes the parallel-ridged surface of 
the former thick and rigid mail of unriveted links, to which 
indeed the name of " edge-mail " was in one sense applicable, 
for the small internal diameter of the rings, and their little 
play one within the other, rendered the thickness of the 
fabric exactly equal to the width of the links composing it. 

Such armour, light and easily concealed under the clothes, 
long continued in use (although far from being musket-proof), 
but more especially as a " privy coat '* against the dagger or 
pistol of the assassin. 

*' Had not my coat been better than thou deemedst, 
That thruBt had been my enemy indeed," 

exclaims Michael Cassio. Cellini and his apprentice Ascanio 
are equipped with such in their ride from Paris back to 

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Florence, Anselm de Boot, physician to Rudolf II. (1576- 
1612), writes of such armour (sub "Smiride'O as being then 
common ; ^ and even as late as Elizabeth's times it occasion- 
ally appeared on the battle-field, Spenser describing the Irish 
'' galloglasses " as wearing long shirts of mail : and, in the 
glorious old ballad of that reign " Mary Ambree/' — scene, 
the war in Flanders, — ^we have — 

** She clothed herself from the top to the toe, 
la huff of the hravest, most seemly to shew : 
A foire shirt of mail then slipped on shoe : 
Was not this a hrave honny lasse, Marj Amhree." 

There is no saying when its use as a " concealed defence " — 
in the parlance of the day " a secret " — came to a complete 
end. Late in the seventeenth century (1657) Monaldeschi, 
Queen Christina's faithless and indiscreet paramour, was so 
provided when put to death by her orders in the garden at 
Fontainebleau, on which circumstance Ludolf, in his '^ Schau- 
biihne der Well,'' published immediately after, coolly remarks 
that "he suffered very much, but it was entirely his oum 
faulty for, wearing armour under his clothes, they were 
obliged to despatch him by stabs in the face and neck ! '' 

'See the notice of this use of emery ia nulos sapios decidente partesque illius 

De Boot's ** Gemmarum et Lapidum affricante, ita lorica absteiigetar at nova 

HiBtoria/' lib. IL, cap. ccx. De Bmiri yideatur." In the time of Edward III., 

lapidi. '^ Ad loricas annulatas emtin- mail-armour was cleaned bj rolling it in 

dandaa et a rubigine liberandas yasi ro- a barrel, with sand probably, or emery, 

tundo cum loricis imponitur, quod fre- See the " Dover Castle Inventories," 

quenti rotatione oommotom, ao hio inde Arch. Jour., voL xi., pp. 882, 386^ 
jactata lorica, smirisque pulvere per an- 

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By J. J. A. WOBSAAE, Hon. F.8.A., Dlreeior of the MuMum of Northern AnUquiUos at 

CopenhMpen. Truulated, with the oonouirenee of the Author, by 

^hTcL AUGUST GOSCH, Attachd to the Danieh Legation. 

Part II. — The Iron Age. 

V. The Early Iron Age (from about 200 a.d. — 400 a.d.). 
— The date of the commencement of the Bronze age is every- 
where shrouded in mystery, and it is only in the north of 
Europe that its conclusion coincides "with the dawn of 
history. Well-known nations appear as bearers of the new 
civilisation, which characterises the Iron age. In the 
western, middle, and northern parts of Europe, we thus 
observe Celtic, Teutonic (German, Frisian and Scandina- 
vian), Slavonic and Finnic (Lapponic) peoples succeeding 
one another. But neither the scanty written information 
nor the antiquities enable us as yet to determine whether 
all these nations lived there akeady in the Bronze age, 
or only arrived about the commencement of the Iron age. 
It is, however, scarcely probable that the Iron age, any 
more than the Bronze age, was ushered in by a complete 
extermination or expulsion of the mass of the population 
in the several countries, although in some places individual 
foreign tribes may have obtained dominion over the former 
inhabitants by their knowledge of iron and superior culture. 
In any case, it is beyond all dispute that up to the beginning 
of the Iron age not the slightest indication has been discovered 
of a peculiar German population of South Jutland or Sles- 
wick. The monuments and antiquities, which still constitute 
our only certain source of knowledge, certainly prove that 
South Jutland shared the fate of the neighbouring parts of 
what we now describe as North and Middle Germany ; but 
they demonstrate, at the same time, an equally complete 
uniformity with the other ancient Danish and Scandinavian 
countries — all the countries round the Baltic forming, as we 

1 Continued from p. 4C, tupra. 

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haye said before, but one and the same ^ell-defined group 
during the Bronze age. 

Iron was known and used for more than a thousand years 
before our era in Egypt and Western Asia, from whence the 
Greeks and Romans seem to have derived their knowledge 
of it From these nations it may have spread to the west 
and north of Europe, and the inhabitants of Spain, the south 
of Prance, and South Germany were, no doubt, acquainted 
with this metal several centuries before Christ. But it seems, 
strangely enough, to have taken a couple of centuries more 
before the knowledge and use of iron penetrated as far as 
Britain, North Germany, and the Scandinavian countries, 
where it was not in use till shortly before the beginning of 
our era. It was, at any rate, as far as we can judge at 
present, only by the great Roman conquests in Germany, 
Gaul, and Britain, at the beginning of the Christian era, that 
the victory of the civilisation of the Iron age was quite con- 
filmed in the north. It is not probable that Denmark should 
have formed an exception in this respect, although we are 
as yet unable with certainty to carry back the Iron age 
farther than about to the year 200 A.c. The transition 
from the Bronze age to the Iron age appears at present far 
more abrupt than that from the Stone to the Bronze age, 
and constitutes upon the whole one of the most obscure 
points in northern archasology. 

Nmnerous discoveries of Roman antiquities and coins in 
the eastern parts of Scandinavia (Bornholm Oland, Goth- 
land), together with corresponding discoveries in the north- 
east of Germany, in Posen, Poland, and Hungary, have led 
to the belief that the communication between the Romans 
and the North was principally carried on by an eastern route, 
starting from the Roman possessions in Pannonia. Recent 
discoveries, however, have proved that this communication 
was maintained as actively by a southern and western route 
through Germany, Gaul, and Britain, where numerous large 
Roman colonies were found, and that the peninsula of Jut- 
land, and particularly its southern part, was, as indeed 
might naturally be expected, influenced by the powerfully 
advancing Roman and New-European civilisation, at an 
earlier date and more strongly than most other parts of the 

It is therefore, perhaps, not altogether accidental that 

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discoveries of antiquities, indicating a transition from the 
Bronze age to the Iron age, and exhibiting a mixture of 
objects belonging to these two periods, have been made not 
unfrequently in South Jutland, while in other parts of the 
North they have been very rare. In a sandy field near 
Smeaeby, between the towns of Flensborg and Sleswick, a 
great quantity of urns have been dug up from time to time, 
differing unmistakeably in form and substance from the 
ordinary urns of the Bronze age, but containing, as these 
do, burnt human bones and occasionally bronze objects of 
the kind peculiar to that period, or objects of iron worked 
in the style and taste of the Bronze age. Generally, how- 
ever, these urns contain objects which directly point to the 
early Iron age — viz., iron knives and shears, buckles, 
tweezers, mountings of different kinds, either of iron or of the 
kind of bronze peculiar to the Iron age, which consists of 
copper and zinc instead of tin. Similar cemeteries, with 
burnt human bones in urns, are not unfrequently met with 
in South Jutland, in the flat fields or in natural hills, amongst 
which we may mention the beautiful Skjersbjerg, in the 
parish of Kvaern in Angel, where bent and half-burnt iron 
swords, fragments of bronze mountings for scabbards, spear- 
heads, knives and shears of iron, gold pendants, beads of 
gold and glass, silver brooches, have repeatedly been found 
amongst the burnt bones in the urns ; once a bridle-bit, and, 
on another occasion, a flint knife was found. Entirely 
corresponding swords and axes of iron, knives, Roman and 
semi-Roman fibtiUey and other objects of bronze, silver 
ornaments, glass beads, &c., in some cases burnt with human 
bones and deposited in urns, have also very frequently been 
brought to light from artificial barrows in different parts of 
South Jutland. It follows that the same burial customs have 
been in use here in the early Iron age as in the next 
preceding late Bronze age, the only difference being, that 
in the Iron age the objects buried with the bodies were 
more frequently put on the funeral pile than formerly. 

Similar graves and common cemeteries with burnt remains 
are met with in the ancient Vendic parts of North Germany 
(where they are often referred to a much later time under 
the name of Wendenkirchhofe) and in England, where they 
seem to date from the Roman-British period (C. Roach Smith, 
Inventorium Sepulchrale, pp. xvi,-xvii). In North Jutland no 

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cemeteries of this kind have hitherto been discovered ; but 
urns containing burnt bones with broken iron swords and 
other armSy as in South Jutland and in the ancient Vendic 
parts of North Germany, are not rarely met with in barrows, 
both in North Jutland, in Norway, in the Danish islands, 
and in Sweden as far as the lake of MS>lar, and in all these 
places (as well as in South Jutland), the urns are occasionally 
Roman or semi-Roman bronze va^es. 

It appears, therefore, that the ancient custom of cremation 
was continued during the early Iron age, or at least during a 
great part of the same, in considerable districts of the north 
of Europe ; at the same time, however, both single graves 
and general cemeteries in natural sandhills, containing whole 
skeletons, have been met with in several of these districts — 
viz., in North Jutland^ in Skaane, and, most frequently, on 
the islands of Sealand and Fyen. In these cases the bodies 
have been buried in the ground a few feet deep, together 
with Roman and semi-Roman vases, saucepans and strainers, 
cups and drinking-horns (sometimes of glass), wooden 
buckets with metal handles and hoops, ornaments and coins 
of Roman emperors both of silver and gold, from the first 
Christian centuries, and occasionally, though not very fre- 
quently, swords and other objects of iron. Graves of this 
kind, indicating a return to the ancient custom of burying 
the dead whole (caused, perhaps, by the same new foreign 
influence which is expressed in the character of the objects 
found in the graves) have not been discovered hitherto, 
either in Sweden proper (though met with in Skaane), or in 
Norway, or in South Jutland, or in North Germany ; but, in 
all these countries, both where cremation seems to have been 
the universal practice and where the dead were more or less 
frequently buried unburnt, purely Roman antiquities have 
been found in considerable number, both in the remains of 
destroyed — but not properly investigated — graves, and loose 
in the ground, as if accidentally lost These antiquities are 
quite similar to those found in the cemeteries just mentioned, 
and a number have been found in South Jutland, as, for 
instance, a small bust of Jupiter in bronze, fragments of 
vases, cups, saucepans and strainers, brooches, spurs, coin from 
the two first centuries, etq. They are often found with 
pther objects which can scarcely be considered Roman or 
even Ronaanised, and such a mixture of Roman and non* 

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Eoman objects has been observed in a great number of finds 
outside the graves — which have been made in North Ger- 
many, and in all parts of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. 

Roman Spur, with iron spike, from Bodum. 
Grig. size. 

Roman Bronse cup, overUiid with 
flilvor from Forballum. \ orig. size. 

The Roman objects, however, some of which are inscribed 
with the trade-mark of the manufacturer, become rarer as 
we advance towards tbe North. 

A further and very striking proof of an active communi- 
cation between South Jutland and the Romans themselves, 
or nations nearly connected with the Romans, as early as the 
second or third century of our era^ is afforded by the remark- 
able discoveries in the mosses of Nydam in Sundeved and 
Thorsbjerg in Angel. Careful investigations have shown that 
the great quantity of objects which were brought to light in 
both these localities, and which belong mostly to warlike 
equipment, had been originally deposited with intention and 
care in the mosses (which then, probably, were lakes), and 
that they must have been in an entirely useless condition 
when deposited, not only mutilated by use in battle, but 
purposely destroyed or spoiled, bent, cut, burnt, and half 
melted by fire, &c. With regard to the details of these 
finds, we may refer to Mr. Engelhardt's illustrated works, 
of which an English edition has just appeared,^ and confine 
ourselves here to the general features of each deposit. 

Thorsbjerg Moss occupies a small valley surrounded by 
hills, without any connection with the sea, from which it is 
about two English miles distant. It contained proportionally 
few objects of iron, much corroded and mutilated, mostly 
fragments of swords, spear-heads, &c., of good workman- 

2 C. Engelhardt : Denmark in the early Iron age. Williams and Norgate. 
London. 4to. 


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(Early Iron Age.) 




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ship, but a great many antiquities of bronze (copper and 
zinc), as well as of gold and silver, of which the costly and 
splendid objects used for the equipment of distinguished 
warriors attract our special attention. Complete dresses, 
with buckles, made of woollen material woven in elegant 
patterns, shoes or sandals with silver nails, were discovered 
here, as well as helmets of bronze and of silver overlaid with 

Crown of a Silver Helmet, found at ThorsltJer. g Silver Helmctp found at Thontbjerg. 

gold ; .chain mail, with shoulder and chest-buckles decorated 
with gold and silver; remains of sword-hilts, scabbards, 
belts, and shields, similarly ornamented ; wooden bows and 
spear-shafts, several feet long ; besides remarkable metal 
mountings, occasionally decorated with precious metals, for 
harness, riding and driving reins, &c. ; fragments of gold 
rings, ornaments, a die, draughtsmen, coins, but particularly 
numerous objects of leather, burnt clay, and wood, diflFerent 
kinds of vessels, baskets, tools, fragments of cart-wheels, 
rakes, tent-poles, &c., were discovered in this locality. 

The Nydam moss, in Sundeved, opposite the island of Als, 
is distinguished from that of Thorsbjerg in the important 
feature of having originally been connected with the Als- 
sound, and it contained remains of three vessels, of which 
the largest is built for twenty-eight oars, and which appear 
originally to have contained at least the greater part of the 
objects found in the moss, the boats — or at any rate, the 
largest —having apparently been intentionally sunk by holes 


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cut in the bottom. The Nydam deposit was, besides, cha- 
racterised in comparison with that of Thorsbjerg by its great 
abundance in elegantly manufactured iron objects, as, for 
instance, beautifully damascened swords, the hilts decorated 
with silver, spear-heads, arrow-heads, and axes. But al- 
though beautifully ornamented brooches, metal mountings, 
ornaments, and harness were not wanting in Nydam, this 
moss did not equal that of Thorsbjerg in the splendour of 
its contents of this class. For the rest, both finds are 
evidently quite similar and parallel in essential points ; they 
must even have been very nearly contemporary, as the coins 
found in both places belong to the same period, the latest 
coin from Thorsbjerg being of the year 190 a.d., whilst the 
latest coin from Nydam is from 218 a.d. Most probably the 
objects were deposited a little before, or perhaps a little 
after, the year 300 a.d. Besides those .on the coins, inscrip- 
tions on difFerent objects were discovered, partly in Roman 
lettei*s (some being Roman names, as ^'iElius iElianus,'" but 
others not Roman, perhaps Gotho-Germanic, as *' Umorca,*' 
"Riccim,") partly also in those Runes, that were for- 
merly erroneously described as Anglo-Saxon, but which 
now appear to have been in use at a much earlier period 
than was hitherto supposed, namely, more than a century 
before the Anglo-Saxon conquest of England. Both mosses 
contained several decidedly Roman objects, but still more 
semi-Roman, almost barbarian, which clearly prove them- 
selves to have been manufactured by people which have 
been compelled to yield to the overwhelming power of 
Roman civilisation, and therefore tried to imitate Roman 
models, without, however, entirely relinquishing their own 
taste or old traditions. 

The reason why so numerous and in part costly objects — 
many, too, of foreign origin — have been deposited with so 
great care in these two mosses in South Jutland at that 
remote period, is still shrouded in mystery. If, however, 
these two deposits were unique in their kind, or if such 
discoveries had been made only in South Jutland, it might 
always be considered an acceptable explanation that these 
objects were possibly derived from warlike expeditions of the 
natives to foreign countries, or, perhaps, rather from suc- 
cessful combats against invading armies or foreign tribes 
attempting to effect a settlement in the country. It might, 

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for instance, be conjectured that the victorious natives col- 
lected the arms left on the battle-field, and hid them for 
safety in neighbouring lakes. 

But entirely corresponding hoards of antiquities, hidden or 
deposited in mosses in the self-same manner and apparently 
very nearly at the same time, — at any rate in the course of 
the early Iron Age, — ^have been discovered in several parts of 
North Jutland and the Danish Islands (including Bornholm), 
particularly on Fyen, where not less than three such anti- 
quarian mosses are known, of which two, — Vimose and 
Eragehul, both without access from the sea, — are remarkable 
for the extraordinary quantity of antiquities found in them, 
and their surprising similarity in essential points to those 
found in Nydam and Thorsbjerg moss. The similarity often 
extends to the smallest details in the treatment, to which the 
objects had been subjected, and the manner in which they 
had been deposited ; and the mosses in Fyen contain, be- 
sides, coins from the two first Christian centuries,^ and 
inscriptions in the oldest hitherto-known Runic alphabet, 
similar to those found in the mosses of South Jutland. It is 
evident that these finds are much too numerous, too uniform 
in their character, distributed over too large an area, to have 
originated in merely accidental circumstances. Continued 
investigations of the peat-bogs, which are in progress, will no 
doubt assist us in solving this problem. But even in the 
present state of our knowledge, it seems worth considering 
whether this careful deposition of articles of warlike equip- 
ment in the mosses may not have taken place in obedience 
to some religious custom, by which the victors were bound 
after the battle to sacrifice to the gods a part of the captured 
animals and of the other spoils, by sinking them in sacred 
lakes, which have now become transformed into peat-bogs. 
This hypothesis would explain, that in Nydam and other 

> All the Roman coins known to have found together with antiquities character- 
been found in Denmark and properly istio of the first diyision of the late Iron 
esamined— more than 800 pieees^ate, age, and just aa Arabic or Gufto coin is a 
with very few exceptions, from the time constant element of deposits from the 
before 219, and have been found in very Viking period, or the conclusion of the 
different places, sometimes in very large late Iron age. Late West-Roman coin 
hoards, — once as many as 400 together, — has very rarely been found in Denmark, 
but never in company with any other the so-called "minimi" never, and the 
antiquities than those which I ascribe to quantity of the coin discovered adds 
the early Iron age. This class of antiqui- great force to the argument derived from 
tiefi and ooina from the first two or their date (a..d. 1 — 2 1 9), as to the date of 
three centuries invariably accompany each the " Early Iron Age " antiquities, 
other, just aa Byzantine coin always is 

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mosses, remains of animals have been found, — not whole 
skeletons, but certain parts, particularly horses' heads, some- 
times with bits between their jaws ; that several of the 
antiquities from the moss-finds have not only suiFered injury 
in battle, but have evidently been afterwards bent and half- 
melted by (the sacrificial) fire ; that they have been depo- 
sited with so great and evident care ; and that they have been 
left untouched in so many places, although the fact of their im- 
mersion must necessarily have been known by many. This 
hypothesis would also receive support from the existence of 
reliable historical information to the eifect that such a custom 
prevailed in the first Christian centuries amongst the inhabi- 
tants of Gaul, with whom the inhabitants of South Jutland, as 
of the other northern countries, may have had intercourse in 
diiFerent ways, and with whom they may have had in some 
respects common customs and habits, even if they were of a 
diflferent race. CsBsar states, in his work, " De Bello Grallico " 
(Lib. vi., cap. 16, 17), after having mentioned the piety of 
the Gauls and their inclination for sacrifices, that " when 
they go into battle they usually promise to offer the spoils 
to the god of war. After the victory they sacrifice the 
captured animals, and the rest of the spoils is collected in 
some particular place. In many states large accumulations 
of such objects may be seen in sacred placets, and it is rare 
that anybody so disregards religion that he should dare 
either to hide away any part of the spoil for his own benefit, 
or to possess himself of any part of the collected spoils, a 
crime, moreover, for which the hardest and most painful 
punishment is awarded.'' Besides this, a somewhat later 
author, the geographer, Strabo, states expressly that the 
Gauls used to sink treasures of gold and silver in sacred 
lakes. His account is as follows : " The report of Posidonios 
is more trustworthy. He says that the treasures found at 
Tolosa (Toulouse) amounted to 15,000 talents, which were 
hidden partly in safe closets and partly in sacred lakes, and 
this was unmanufactured gold and silver. The country 
being rich in gold and inhabited by a superstitious people, 
leading a parsimonious life, treasures had been collected in 
many places, and that these were left untouched was due in 
a great measure to the circumstance that the treasures of 
gold and silver were deposited in lakes. When the Romans 
liad made themselves masters of these countries, they sold 

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the lakes for the benefit of the state, and many of those who 
bought them found welded lumps of silver in them. The 
temple of Tolosa was highly honoured by the neighbouring 
peoples, and was therefore filled with riches which many had 
dedicated, but which no one dared touch '' (Lib. ir., cap. 
1, §. 13). Diodorus Siculus also testifies (Lib. v., cap. 27) of 
the superstitious fear of the Gauls, which restrained them 
from touching the great treasures dedicated to the gods, in 
spite of their usual cupidity and love of display. Even as 
late as the sixth century annual sacrifices of clothing, linen 
garments, sheep-skins, cheese, bread, and wax cakes, were 
brought to a sacred lake in France (Dept. Loz^re), and the 
sacrificial feast lasted three days, according to the testi- 
mony of the contemporaneous writer, Gregory of Tours (De 
Gloria Confess, cap. 2, in Maxima Bibl. Patrum, xi., p. 872). 
With regard to the Scandinavian North, we have ancient 
accounts to the effect that offerings to the gods took place 
near certain wells and wateifalls, into which the objects 
offered were thrown.* It is true that these accounts belong 
to the conclusion of the heathen period ; but^ combined with 
the moss-finds of which we are treating, they may be looked 
upon as indicating that offerings to the gods in the north, as 
well as in other countries, were sometimes connected with 
sacred wells, springs, and lakes.* 

In order to arrive at a true decision of the still open 
question of the real origin of the moss-deposits, and a proper 
estimation of the state of civilisation prevailing during the 
first centuries of the Christian era in the Cimbrian peninsula 
and in the north generally, it is of the greatest importance to 
ascertain whether the antiquities found in the mosses are all 
of foreign origin and imported,^ or whetlier a part of them 

* See the Scholiast to Adam of Bre- Fy6xi,VimoBe and Villestofte moss are very 
men de aitu Danite, cp. 26, Kjalnesinga close to Odense (Odinsey, that is, Odin's 
Sasa 2, and Landndma, iii. 17. island, or Odinsve, the principal place of 

* If it should be confirmed that these sacrifice of Odin in Fyen). In Kragehul 
moss-finds are traceable to ancient saori- a piece of wood with runes, an angular 
fices, the same explanation may perhaps piece of bone with runes, and some 
apply to some of the large stores — delicately made brass balances and 
dating mostly from the Bronze age — of weights have been found about 120 years 
bronse and gold objects, which are con- ago. Might they not be the ** Blotspaan " 
stantly discovered in our peat-bogs in and balances for prophesying so often 
such remarkable numbers. For it is not mentioned in the Sagas ? 

very likely that they should all have ^ The mutilated state of the antiqui- 

been lost or simply hidden there. At ties, and the circumstance tiiat they 

any rate, it seems to deserve attention have been found in so many places, 

that of the two antiquarian mosses in which have uo communication with the 

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may be supposed to have been manufactured by the in- 
habitants of the country itself 

It is then, first of all, to be observed that antiquities of 
exactly the same kind and of the same date as those from 
the mosses of South Jutland, including Roman as well as 
non-Roman objects^ have been discovered, not only — ^as we 
have already stated — in other Danish mosses, but also in 
graves and loose in the earth in numerous localities all over 
the Cimbrian peninsula, the Danish Islands, Norway, and 
Sweden ; and the same is the case with the inscriptions in 
the oldest Runic alphabet. The inscriptions of this kind 
hitherto discovered in South Jutland, as well as in the other 
ancient Danish provinces, are engraved on loose objects, as, 
for instance, the remarkable golden horns found .near 
Mogeltonder, a large golden ring from the neighbourhood of 

Golden Hahr-xing, fh>m Strurup. Two-thirdB orig. liza 

Haderslev, and on some of the gold bracteates ; and traces of 
the oldest Runic alphabet are perceptible in some of the 
inscriptions on monuments belonging to a later time, a kind 
of transition period. But numerous inscriptions on monu- 

Bca, are sufficiently strong arguments to 
refute entirely a tlicory started in Ger- 
many, and founded solely on the pre- 
liminary aooounts of the Nydam deposit, 
viz., that they had been imported by way 
of sea, and the ships sunk in the har- 
bour. The author of this tbeoiy has, 
however, the excuse that^ at the time he 
proposed it, Mr. Engelhardt's full de- 
scription had not yet been published. 
But it is entirely unpardonable when 
German arohsologisfcs, in spite of all 
the information published on the subject^ 
still write in such a strain, as, for in- 
stance: Fr. Maurer, who in a recent 
paper (Ausland, 1865, p. 154), accuses 
the Danish archseologists of having kept 
secret these discoveries, and adds, <' The 

discoveiies made were of that descrip- 
tion that they effected an enormous 
breach in the system invented by the 
Danes establishiog three sharply (Ustin- 
guished periods of civilisation — those of 
Stone, Bronse, and Iron, and these there- 
fore desired to gain time in order to 
regulate the discoveries." It is evident 
that the Ifttter, on the contrai'y, served 
eminently to strengthen and further 
illostrate that system, and this unworthy 
accusation is of course utterly unfounded; 
but it would be useless to attempt a 
scientific diBCussion with authors who are 
so blinded by national fanaticism that 
they do not hesitate to put forth such 

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mental stones, entirely written in the earliest Runic alphabet, 
occur in the Scandinavian peninsula as far south sus Bleking, 
and as far north as the Lake of Mselar and the interior of 
Norway. The deposits in the mosses of South Jutland 
exhibit, therefore, nothing peculiar to that province, or even 
to that kind of locality. 

In the second place, I would observe that such a mixture 
of Roman and non-Roman antiquities is not confined to the 
north of Europe. The Iron age commenced in the western 
and middle parts of Europe several centuries before it begun 
in the Baltic and Scandinavian coimtries, and we have 
sufficient proof to show that even in such places — outside 
Italy and Greece — where Roman or Greek civilisation for a 
time entirely got the upper hand, a national or native 
industry was still preservec^ of which numerous productions, 
as arms and ornaments, have come down to us, which most 
strikingly remind us of the objects found in the Danish 
mosses, but which, at the same time, in most cases are 
distinguished by some local or national peculiarities.^ I 
think we are justified in saying that the antiquities of this 
class discovered in Denmark to some extent do present such 
a peculiar character, and I believe that an examination of the 
illustrations of Danish antiquities of this period in Mr. 
Engelha^rdt's work and in my own work on Northern 
Antiquities, which is largely quoted by Mr. Engelhardt 
(pp. 8-22), will be found to confirm this view. 

In the third place, I wish particularly to urge that neither 
the inscriptions in the most ancient Runes, nor the semi- 
Roman representations found on some of them, can, as some 
have thought, be fairly adduced in favour of a foreign 
origin. It is true that some very few inscriptions in similar 

' Compare Braseliaa'a Syenska Foni- Antiquities found at Lagore, Arohaeol. 

lemningar, ii. 65-79 ; Troyon, Habitations Journal ▼!. 101-109 ; Proceedings of the 

Lacustree: Lausanne, 1860, pp. 179-212 ; Arch. Inst. Meeting (at York: London, 

Desor, L'Age du Fer dans les Construe- 1848; Catalogue of Ant pp. 10,11, illus- 

tions du Lac de NeufchAtel ; Mus6e trations, pp. 86, 89. Sevend similar finds 

Neufcb&telois, Sept, 1864 ; J. de Bons- are preserved in the British Museum ; for 

tetten. Notice sur des Armes etc. d^oou- instance, from Polden Hill, Somerset 

▼ertes k Tiefenau prte de Berne en 1851 ; and Stan wick, Yorkshire; the latter was 

Morlot fitudes Q^ologico-Arch^ologiques diBCOvered " deposited together in a pit " 

ne, 1860; Lindenschmidt, Alter- (perhaps not without analogy to our moss- 

thiimer unserer Leiduiscben Yorzeit, i. deposits). A number of interesting objects 

tab. 1, it tab 5 ; G. Roach Smith, Oollec- are preserved in the Museum of the 

tanea Antiqua, iii. pp. 67-72, tab. xvi. ; Koyal Irish Academy at Dublin, particu- 

pp. 152-155, tab. xxxiii-iv. ; iv. 28, tab. xii larly from a bog near Dun.«haughlin. 
(from France) ; Lord Talbot de Malahide, 

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characters have been found in Wallachia, in the Rhenish 
provinces, and in North Germany ; but, as yet, the number of 
these instances is altogether insignificant in comparison with 
the number of those found in the Scandinavian countries, 
wliich, probably, even outnumber the English, or so-called 
Anglo-Saxon inscriptions of this kind. These latter seem, 
besides, to belong to a somewhat later period. The name of 
" Gothic " or " German Runes," which is sometimes applied to 
these Runes, is utterly arbitrary, and we are, a« yet, com- 
pletely in the dark as to their true home. But even if they 
have not been invented in the Scandinavian countries, so 
much is certain, as proved both by the most ancient Rune- 
stones in Norway and Sweden and by those from the 
transition period in Denmark, that these characters have 
been most extensively used all over the north of Europe, in 
the early Iron age and even after its conclusion, by the 
people who then inhabited those countries, and who may 
perhaps have invented them whilst living in other more 
southerly homes. A great step towards the solution of this 
question will have been gained when all the known inscrip- 
tions of this kind have been properly interpreted, which, as 
yet, is the case only with a very small number ; for we shall 
then learn in what languages those found in different 
countries are written. But in this respect so much im- 
certainty still prevails, that not even the inscription on one of 
the large golden horns from Mogeltonder, which seems to be 
written in an ancient Gothic dialect, is interpreted by all in 
the same manner. The second point, whether the occurrence 
of ornamental semi-Roman representations can be said to 
prove a foreign origin of the objects on which we find them, 
has been recently mooted with particular regard to these 
very golden horns, a learned author having advanced the 
opinion that these horns must have been of foreign origin, 
not only because the inscription in his opinion is foreign, but 
also because there are representations of centaurs on them— 
a figure which he thinks could not be supposed to have been 
known in these northern countries at so early a time. It is, 
however, an established fact, that not only more southerly 
nations, neighbours of the classic nations, but also the 
inhabitants of ancient Denmark, received in those days, by 
trade and commerce, a very great quantity of Roman vases, 
vessels, ornaments, and other objects with classic ornaments ; 

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and when we remember what great skill in metal work these 
northern people exhibited in their home manufacture, in 
which they were scarcely surpassed by those more southerly 
" barbarous '' nations, there is no reason to doubt but that 
they have been both willing and able to imitate to a certain 
extent these objects of foreign manufacture and their orna- 
ments. There is no reason why a native goldsmith might 
not have made these horns, and on them imitated 
figures of centaurs which ho had seen on imported Roman 
objects, even if these particular imitations of centaurs 
should prove to be the only ones left from so old a time; and 
the same of course holds good with regard to other anti- 
quities, with semi-Roman ornaments, both those from the 
mosses, in South Jutland and elsewhere, and those found in 
graves or loose in the earth. This argument is further 
strengthened by the circumstance that of the so-called gold 
bracteates, — which, though of a somewhat later date, are 
evidently of the same class as the relics just mentioned, — 
those found in the different parts of Scandinavia exhibit very 
appreciable peculiarities in each locality, which prove them 
to be of home manufacture. 

If now we weigh these various facts and considerations, I 
think we must conclude that there is no reason why a great 
part, if not all, of the non-Roman objects from the early Iron 
age found in mosses, in graves, and loose in the earth, should 
not have been manufactured in Denmark in spite of their 
evident traces of a more southerly and higher civilisation. 
Nay, there is, on the contrary, every probability of their 
being of native make ; and as no other country has as yet 
been pointed out, which could with any degree of certainty 
be assumed to be their original home, we are not even 
justified in ascribing to them a foreign origin. But whether 
a greater or a smaller proportion of the antiquities of the 
early Iron age in South Jutland ultimately will turn out foreign 
or native, so much is at any rate certain, that no general 
result can be gained in this respect conceniing South Jutland, 
which does not apply with equal force to the whole 
Peninsula — nay, to all three Scandinavian kingdoms, with 
which South Jutland, in point of antiquities, has every thing- 
including the Runic inscriptions — in common, in this period 
as well as in that preceding it. Although, therefore, these 
Runic inscriptions may prove what they very probably will 


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prove, that the Scandinavian countries already in the first 
centuries of our era Tvere inhabited by a Gotho-Germanic 
race, including Dan^s, Swedes, Goths (in the most restricted 
sense of the word), and Norwegians, and related to the 
Germans in Germany, these inscriptions afford, nevertheless, 
no proof whatever of the existence at that time of a peculiarly 
"German" population in South Jutland. Not even of the 
Frisian settlements on the western coast of South Jutland do 
we find any characterLstic vestiges in the early Iron period. 
Nor have we, as far as this period is concerned, anything 
besides the antiquities to guide us, for it is only from its 
conclusion, about the time of the downfall of the West Roman 
Empire in the fifth century, that we possess written infornaa- 
tion, which, though scanty, yet sufiices in connection with 
the antiquities to throw a somewhat clearer light on the 
population of Northern Europe. 

VI. Tfefe Late Iron Period (from a.d. 450 to a.d. 1000). 

DuRmo the remarkably splendid early Iron age, which in 
the western and north-western parts of Europe must have 
comprised about five centuries, but to which we are as yet 
unable to assign so long a duration in Denmark and the 
other Scandinavian countries, the influence of Roman civili- 
sation was very strongly predominant. But in proportion as 
the Romans, the teachers of the " Barbarians,'' degenerated, 
the latter advanced in strength and civilisation. At the 
downfall of the Western Empire, barbarous — mostly Gotho- 
Germanic — nations assumed dominion over the remnants of 
the Romans and of the far more numerous older — mostly 
Celtic^ — Romanised populations ; and on the victorious Bar- 
barians devolved the task of founding and developing a 
new state of things on the ruins of the Roman Empire. As, 
however, they met with an almost completely Roman 
civilisation in those provinces of that Empire where they 
settled, they necessarily yielded to its influence in certain 
respects, and separated themselves from the kindred tribes 
which had remained in their old habitations, or at least not 
penetrated beyond the frontiers of the Empire. This was so 
much the more inevitable, as the foreign settlers in the 
Roman provinces within two centuries from their arrival all 
assumed the Christian faith, which only for a time was 

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checked ia its progress by tlie destruction of the Roman 
Empire, whilst the ancient heathenism still survived for 
centuries in the more remote parts of Europe, as in 
Scandinavia and North Germany. From this again resulted 
an important difference in character between the early Iron 
age and the late Iron age, in so far that, whilst the former 
was characteri' .d by a remarkable uniformity in the greater 
part of the middle, the west, and the north of Europe, the 
late Iron period, on the contrary (of which the conclusion is 
generally fixed at the time of the introduction of Christianity 
there), exhibits great differences in extent and character in 
different countries. 

In Scandinavia, where Christianity did not gain the upper- 
hand till the eleventh century, and where the late Iron 
period therefore extended over nearly six centuries, we 
can distinguish at least two very marked subdivisions, of 
Vhich the earlier is characterised by a remarkable and con- 
siderable Byzantine influence, which made itself felt at the 
side of the predominating semi-Roman or " new-European " 
current of civilisation ; whilst, in the later of these periods, 
heathenism, supplanted by Christianity in the south and 
west, still retained its dominion in the north and north-east 
of Europe, particularly in the Scandinavian countries, whereby 
the old northern genius obtained a favourable opportunity of 
expressing itself in a peculiar taste in forms and ornaments, 
and even in a new Runic alphabet which is confined to the 
homes of the Scandinavian peoples and their colonies in 
other countries. 

VIa. The First Division of the Late Iron Age (from 
about A.D. 450 to a.d. 700). 

It has until lately been universally believed, on the faith 
of certain written authorities, that the peninsula of Jutland, 
and particularly its southern division, played a great part in 
history about the time of the downfall of the Roman Empire, 
and the transition from the early to the late Iron age, 
inasmuch as it was supposed that Angles and Jutes in the 
middle of the fifth century emigrated from these parts in 
connection with their neighbours the Saxons, in order to found 
a new Anglo-Saxon Commonwealth in Britain, which now- 
received the name of England from the Angles, whilst their 

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supposed original home, the district of Angel, in South Jut- 
land, for a long time remained waste. Several, mostly Danish, 
authora have, moreover, supposed that not only the Jutes, 
but also the Angles, said to have emigrated from the ancient 
Danish Angel in South Jutland, must have been a Danish tribe, 
or at any rate a people forming a connecting link between 
Danes and Germans. Other historians, mostly Norwegian 
and German, have striven to prove that the Angles who 
settled in England, to judge from their language, local names, 
and other monuments, were a German, not a Scandinavian 
people ; and, supposing that the Angles and Jutes came 
from the peninsula of Jutland, these authors have concluded 
that this peninsula must at that time have had a German 
population. Norwegian authors have finally added to this 
series of assumptions and conclusions a theory of their 
own, namely, that Jutland, which they suppose must have 
been to a great extent deprived of its inhabitants after the 
emigration to England, only after that event received its 
present Danish population through settlers from Norway ; an 
hypothesis, which in all essential points has been indorsed by 
German writers, who have availed themselves of it as a 
welcome argument in support of their favourite theory, that 
the whole peninsula of Jutland, including Sleswick, originally 
belonged to the German nationality. In favour of this 
theory they appeal, besides, to the fact that the Danish dialect 
of the peasantry in some districts of Jutland differs from 
that of the neighbouring districts and the Danish provinces 
generally in placing the definite article before the noun, 
instead of affixing it to the end of the noun as is usually the 
case in Danish. 

But all these theories of the emigration of Angles from 
South Jutland, and the supposed subsequent conquest of the 
peninsula of Jutland by the Danes, rest on a foundation 
which is not only unreliable, but entirely erroneous. It is 
in the first place extremely improbable that a district pro- 
portionally so small as the so-called Angel, between the 
Flensborgfjord and the Slie (about 300 square miles Eng- 
lish), could have sent forth those numerous hosts of Angles 
who peopled such large tracts of the northern and eastern 
parts of England, and from whom even the whole country 
was named England (Anglia), rather than from the power- 
ful Saxons, who occupied the south of the country. In the 

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second place, we are actually without any reliable and con- 
temporary historical testimony to the effect, that the Angles 
who settled in England had come from Angel in South 

It was not till a couple of centuries after the Anglo- 
Saxon conquest of England, that Venerable Bede committed 
to writing loose traditions on the subject, stating no doubt 
that the Angles had come from Angel, " between the realms 
of the Jutes and the Saxons,'^ but without any express 
indication of this Angel being situated in South Jutland. 
This may of course have been his meaning, but even in that 
case it does not follow that he or his informant were not 
misled by an accidental similarity of name, for the name 
" Angel," which originally meant a corner, was by no means 
uncommon. We know more especially that a people called 
Angles lived during the first centuries of the Christian era, 
and even at a later date, in certain districts bordering on 
the Elbe, near the home of the ancient Saxons in North 
Germany, a locality to which we may apply Bede's words 
'' between the countries of the Jutes and the Saxons,'' with 
just as much probability as to Angel in South Jutland, par- 
ticularly if we remember how very limited Bede's geogra- 
phical knowledge probably was, and how unreliable his 
account of the Anglo-Saxon conquest is, in far more im- 
portant points. For he describes it as a sudden event 
effected in a very short time, whereas in reality it had been 
prepared through centuries, by immigrations of Saxon 
tribes, and was accomplished only by degrees, a circum- 
stance which altogether forbids us to attach any great 
weight to his statements on such minor subjects as the one 
we are now discussing. His allegation that, on account of 
the emigration to England, '* Angel was said to be lying 
waste until this day," would, if true, at any rate be inap- 
pliciable to Angel in South Jutland, because it would imply 
that the Danes had not yet settled so far south as the Slie 
and the Danevirke at the time of Bede, that is, in the eighth 
century, an assumption which would be altogether incredible. 
I therefore think that those Angles who Hved near the Elbe 
were far more probably the ancestors of the English Angles, 
than the " Angelboer*' of South Jutland. 

In the third place, we cannot doubt that the English 
Angles were really a German, not a Danish or Scandina- 

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viaa tribe ; but in Angel in South Jutland we find not 
the slightest vestige of any German population in those 
remote times. With regard to the nationality of the Eng- 
lish Angles, I might appeal to Bede's expressions to the 
effect that the Angles were one people with the Saxons 
(Anglorum sive Saxonum gens), and that Jutes, Angles, and 
Saxons were three of the most powerful nations of Germany, 
if I did not reject as untrustworthy both his account and 
those allusions in later written sources (the laws of Edward 
the Confessor and others), which have been appealed to in dif- 
ferent ways by some authors, and which very probably may 
be founded on Bede's account. But I rely on the fact, that 
the Anglo-Saxon language, as indeed has been acknowledged 
long ago by Rask, is essentially a Low German language, 
with but very few unimportant Danish elements — a result 
which would be unaccountable if the Angles had been a 
Danish tribe ; and besides, that all the old Anglian names 
of persons and places, which are older than the ninth cen- 
tury, are in every respect like those occurring in the Saxon 
parts of England. It is true that Danish local names 
abound in the eastern and northern parts of England ; but 
they are, in my opinion, not so numerous there that they 
may not very well be ascribed to the settlements of Danish 
Vikings since the beginning of the ninth century ; and if 
the Angles, in whose land the Danes principally settled, had 
been Danes themselves, the difference in dialect, in the pro- 
portion of Danish and Saxon local names, &c., between the 
old Anglian and the Saxon counties, would, I think, have 
been very much greater than it actually is. Not even those 
Jutes, who are said to have accompanied the Angles and 
Saxons, were, in my opinion, Danes ; it is, at any rate, a 
fact, that in the districts where they are said to have settled 
— in Kent and the Isle of Wight — there are no certain 
Danish remains at all. If these so-called Jutes came from 
the peninsula of Jutland, I suppose them to have been 
emigrants from the Frisian districts on the west coast of the 
peninsula, who may have been misnamed Jutes. Some Frisians 
no doubt settled in England, but they were too few to leave 
any other traces behind them than a few local names. If then 
the English Angles were a German tribe, they cannot be sup- 
posed to have lived at any time in Angel in South Jutland ; 
for if so, they would assured!}' have left some vestige behind. 

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But neither in Angel nor in South Jutland genenlly (ex- 
cepting the ancient Frisian settlements on the west coast) 
do we find the slightest vestige of ancient Low German 
local names. All the local names in Angel have, on the 
contrary, as far as historic tradition reaches, always been, 
what they still are this day, as completely and originally 
Danish as those met with in any other part of Denmark — 
closely allied to the later Danish local names in the north 
and east of England, dating from the Viking period. As 
for the peculiarity of the dialect spoken in Angel and other 
parts of •Jutland, viz., that the definite article is placed 
before the noun, of which the 'Germans have made so much 
ado, that the celebrated philologist, Jacob Grimm, on the 
strength of that, and of that alone, in the Frankfort Parlia- 
ment in 1858, declared that Germany had a lawful claim to 
the possession of the whole of Jutland, this isolated pecu- 
liarity can neither be proved at any time to have prevailed 
in the whole of Jutland, nor has it indeed come into use 
till a comparatively modern period. 

If, finally, we turn to the antiquities, and compare those 
of Angel in South Jutland with those of the ancient An- 
glian parts of England, we find that they are so far from 
confirming that the (Low German) Angles of England 
should have been of one race with the (ancient Danish) 
Angelboer of South Jutland, that, on the contrary, their 
testimony tends in the directly opposite direction. Nume- 
rous investigations in all parts of England have .proved that 
the Anglo-Saxon tombs of the fifth, sixth, and seventh cen- 
turies, which generally form large cemeteries, mostly contain 
unbumt skeletons (in opposition to the Roman-British 
graves with burnt remains), buried in coflBlns rather deep in 
the ground, sometimes covered by small round tumuli, and 
that they present a marked uniformity all over the country, 
both in form and in contents, whether the districts in which 
they are situated were inhabited by Saxons or by Angles, 
or, as is supposed in some cases, by Jutes. English authors 
therefore frequently comprise them all under the common 
appellation of " Saxon graves/' Some small variations with 
regard to the ornaments and other objects deposited in the 
graves have indeed been observed in different localities. 
Thus, for instance, the beautiful brooches with inlaid work, 
found in Kent, are peculiar to that county and denote at 

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any rate that there must have been greater wealth there 
than elsewhere. But these differences aie too insignificant 
to be looked upon as indications of ancient differences of 
races, or indeed of anything more than local peculiarities of 
taste, caused perhaps in some cases by the different condi- 
tions of life of the population in different parts, nor do they 
render the uniformity prevailing in all essential points less 
striking. If now we compare these English tombs with 
those of the same period found in other countries, we find 
on the one hand that in Prance, in Switzerland, and in Ger- 
many (particularly in the Rhine countries and in South 
Germany), a great number of the tombs of the Franks, 
Burgundi, Alemanni, Saxons, and other German tribes 
allied to the Angles and Saxons have been discovered, which 
in all essential points connected with the form of the graves, 
the deposition of the corpses, the character of the accom- 
panying arms, ornaments, and implements, present the roost 
striking resemblance to the English tombs of the fifth, 
sixth, and seventh centuries.® On the other hand, we find 
that these English graves differ most pointedly from the 
contemporaneous remains in the peninsula of Jutland, and 
in those parts of North Germany which were then inhabited 
by Vendic tribes. For, whilst cremation was so rare in the 
settlements of Angles and so-called Jutes in Kent, that Mr. 
Charles Roach Smith deduces the following result from the 
investigations of the Rev. Bryan Faussett, " that the Kentish 
cemeteries ... do not present one single instance of an 
original deposit containing an urn with burnt bones in or 
about the graves," this custom was, on the contrary, all but 
universal both in the old Vendic parts of North Germany 
(including Holstein), and in the southern part of the penin- 
sula of Jutland, at least that part which lies between the 
Eider and the town of Veile, comprising the supposed home 
of the Angles, and in which not one cemetery, nay, not one 

' Compare Th. Wright) Antiquities of tains a map showing the extent to which 

the Anglo-Sitxon Cemeteries, Liverpool, this claaa of tombs occur in Europe. 

1854 ; Oh. Roach Smith, ColU'Ctanea Holland, the whole North, Eaai, and 

Antiqua and Inventorium Se^ulch^ale, great districts of the middle part of 

Introduction; Baudot, M^moire sur les Germany, as well as the Scandinavian 

sepultures des barbares de I'^poque countries, are here left outside the boun> 

Meroyingienne, Dijon, 1860 ; Linden- dary of these tombs, which towards the 

Schmidt, Alterthiiraer, ims. heidnischen east is drawn from the river Ems to the 

Vorzeit^ and particularly Count Wilbelm sources of the Inn and the Isar, whiUt 

of Wiirtemberg's Qrnphisch Arch89ol«>- towards the south it is formed by the 

gische Vergleicbungon IIL, which con- Alps, and in Prance by the river Loire. 

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single grave like the Anglo-Saxon, Frankisb, and other 
ancient German tombs of the fifth, sixth, and seventh 
centuries, has ever been discovered It is true that single 
tombs and burial-places containing unbumt skeletons, bronze 
vessels, wooden buckets with metal mountings, glass cups, 
&c., and resembling so far the foreign graves just mentioned, 
are met with in some parts of Denmark, particularly in 
Sealand and in Fyen, rarely in North Jutland ; but they 
belong to the preceding period, the early Iron Age, or at^the 
utmost to the very beginning of the first division of the late 
Iron Age, and differ from those foreign graves by not forming 
such extensive cemeteries, and by an older or more Roman 
style of antiquities, as well as by a remarkable scarcity of 
iron weapons. But in Angel or in South Jutland generally, 
not a single instance of such a tomb has been met with, 
— ^a circumstance which in my opinion strongly militates 
against the theory of the English Angles ever having lived 

Even apart from the mode of burial, a careful conside- 
ration of the antiquities, such as ornaments and implements, 
leads to the same result. The antiquities of South Jutland, 
as of the Scandinavian North in general, certainly exhibit 
a general resemblance in all essential points to those found 
in England, as well as in the countries then inhabited by 
Franks, Saxons, and other German tribes, — in fact, the 
greater part of Europe, north of the Alps, — and it is thereby 
evident that South Jutland and the other Scandinavian 
countries participated in the new semi-barbarous civilisation 
which developed itself on the ruins of Kome. But at the 
same time they present remarkable peculiarities. Of course, 
each of these many tribes imitated their Roman models in 
their own peculiar manner, and in this way the differences 
of race and country found an expression in their ornaments 
arms, and implements. We may thus, for instance, observe 
that the ornaments with inlaid work which have been 
found in Frankish tombs certainly possess a striking re- 
semblance to those from Kent; but they differ, at the 
same time, by their much less refined workmanship, prov- 
ing that they have not proceeded from the same manu- 
facture. The same also holds good with regard to the 
ornaments from South Germany, though these are perhaps 
still more like the English. Even within the Umits of one 


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and the same country such differences occur, and we 
have mentioned an instance in speaking of the Kentish 
brooches of this period, which are so remarkably different 
from those found in other <x)unties. Similar differences are 
observable in Denmark, with regard to this very class of 
ornaments, which in different parts exhibit local variations, 
proving that they are of home manufacture ; and they have, 
besidesj a peculiar interest to us, because they throw addi- 
tional light on the question whether the English Angles 
came from Angel in South Jutland. The fact is, that, 
although these brooches are by no means unfrequent in other 
parts of ancient Denmark, only a very few have been met 
with in South Jutland, — partly of gold, ornamented with 
paste and filigree work, partly of silver, with ornaments of 
niello and fantastic representations of human and animal 
heads, — and even these few have mostly been found near 
the frontier of North Jutland, not one having as yet been 
discovered in Angel. Certain types of brooches, which are 
peculiar to the ancient Anglian districts, in the northern and 
middle part of England, are hitherto entirely unrepresented 
in the collections not only from Angel but from Denmark 
generally, whilst strange to say, they re-appear in the west 
and north of iNorway, indicating that the intercourse be- 
tween Norway and England in those days was more active 
than between Denmark and England- Nor is this the only 
fact which proves that during the first division of the later 
Iron age, as well as during the early Iron age, the inter- 
course of the ancient Danish provinces with Gaul, Germany, 
and Pannonia, was more active than with Britain, though 
this was so much nearer. It is a remarkable fact, that, 
whilst Roman coin of the two centuries of the Empire, as 
late as 230 a.d., is rather frequently met with in Denmark 
and the Baltic provinces, the finds of West-Roman coin of 
the two following centuries have been extremely few and 
far between. Now, it so happens, that, precisely about the 
year 230 the Romans began to withdraw from Germany 
and Pannonia, which countries therefore seem until then 
to have afforded the principal channel of communication 
between the Romans and the inhabitants of the North. 
And still more striking is the fact, that no Anglo-Saxon 
coins from the first three or four centuries of the Anglo- 
Saxon rule in England have been found in the North. Surely 

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(Late Iron Aga : First Divlcion.) 

Gold brooch OmperibctX set with colored fflaas and garnets, found at Skravo. 
Origiaal tlie. 

Fragments of rings of electmm, found at Ullerup and Fobl. 
Scale, half orlffiiutl sbe. 

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(Late Iron Age: First DivisioD.) 

Gold brooclk from KoUuiul 
Orlgiiul siM. 

Fngment of a flrilt silver brooch, from Galsted. 

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if the Angles had come to England from Angel in South 
Jutland, >ve must assume that there would have been an 
active intercourse between Denmark, or at least that pro- 
vince, and England, both before and after that great event, 
and we should certainly in that case expect to find both 
Roman coin brought from England, where the Romans 
ruled for two centuries after having withdrawn from their 
advanced posts in Germany ; and also Anglo-Saxon coin 
from tbe earliest time of the newly founded commonwealth 
in England. The absence of such coin tells very lieavily 
against the supposition that such intercourse existed. Arms 
of this period have hitherto only rarely been found in South 
Jutland, or elsewhere in Denmark ; but what we possess 
points to the same conclusion as the coin. The hilts of the 
Danish swords of this period, for instance, resemble in shape 
to some extent those of the sathe age discovered in other 
parts of Europe, but we have, as yet, neither in South Jut- 
land nor in other parts of Denmark, found a single spear- 
head of that peculiar kind of which the socket is not quite 
closed, and which is so well known from Anglo-Saxon, 
Prankish, and ancient German tombs. 

Nevertheless, traces of foreign influence are by no means 
wanting, and many objects, such as glass cups, were no 
doubt imported from abroad. A pecuUarity which must be 
explained in this way, is the occurrence of a curious kind of 
pottery in the extreme southern districts of South Jutland, 
between Angel and the Eider, particularly in tombs with 
burnt bones. These vessels have not as yet been found 
farther north, but are strikingly like those found in con- 
temporaneous Vendic and Low German tombs. It is still 
uncertain whether this kind of pottery is originally Vendic, 
or originally Saxon, or rather an imitation of some perhaps 
Roman model, foreign to both these people. But, at any 
rate, its occurrence in South Jutland, near the southern 
frontier, is easily accounted for when we remember that the 
neighbouring Holstein was then inhabited both by Vendic 
and by Saxon tribes. Traces of a Vendic influence are even 
discernible on the south coasts of Laaland and Falster, in 
local names, although the Baltic intervenes between these 
islands and the ancient seats of the Vends in North Ger- 
many. The principal foreign influence at this time, how- 
ever, was doubtless Byzantine. We trace this, not only in 

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the numerous Byzantine gold coins, mostlj" from the fifth 
and sixth centuries, found in the countries surrounding the 
Baltic, of which several being provided with eyes or loops 
have been used as ornaments. But it is also perceptible in 
the so-called bracteates of this period, which no doubt were 

From Ullenip. 

From SkodboiiGr. 
Gold Bracteates, orig. size. 

From Qalsted. 

manufactured in the northern countries themselves, in order 
to serve as ornaments, and which mostly are imitations, 
sometimes only on second or third hands, of Byzantine coins. 
Such bracteates, of which a great number have been found 
in Denmark — not a few in South Jutland — have certainly 
also been met with in Anglo-Saxon, Frankish, and ancient 
German tombs of this period ; but those found in the north 
are mostly distinguished by their being imitations of Byzan- 
tine coin, and bearing inscriptions in the most ancient Runes, 
which is otherwise the case only with a few discovered in 
North Germany. These finds of bracteates, and particularly 
of Byzantine coin, often accompanied by splendid ornaments 
and rings of gold or electrum, are amongst the costliest that 
have occurred. They have been most frequent on the 
Danish islands, and been met with as far west as Hanover ; 
but, although France and the British Islands have been 
influenced by Byzantine civilisation, it reached them through 
another route. 

Of course, this Byzantine influence contributed to mark still 
more the distinction between the Scandinavian countries, in- 
cluding South Jutland, and the more westerly and southerly 
countries of Europe. And although that influence subsided, 
at least for a time, in the seventh and eighth centuries, this 
distinction did not on that account become obliterated. It 

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(lAte Iron Ag»: First; Division ) ' 

Gold brocch, fh)m Skodborg, inlaid with glass. 
Original tise. 

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became, on the contrary, stronger by degrees, as the west 
and middle of Europe was more Christianised, whilst hea- 
thenism still survived in the north, and from the beginning 
of the eighth century the Scandinavian countries, as far as 
the Eider, separate themselves with great distinction from 
the neighbouring Yendic, Low-Saxon, and Frisian countries, 
which, in the course of the following century were Chris- 
tianised, whilst the north preserved its heathen faith for a 
couple of centuries more. 

(To he continued,) 

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From NotM oommunlcatod by EDWARD HAWKINS, Esq., F.8.A.1 

It has been customary, on severa} previous occasions, to 
bring together such notices as may be available relating to 
the ancient mints that existed in localities successively visitod 
by the Institute in their Annual Meetings, and to invite 
attention to any subject of numismatic interest, associated 
either with the county which has been the special field of 
exploration, or the worthies of bygone times whose memory 
is there held in honor. Although the numismatic informa- 
tion to be obtained regarding Dorsetshire is almost as scanty 
as that which we were enabled last year to glean, on occasion 
of the meeting in Warwickshire, it is obviously desirable that, 
amidst numerous subjects of archaeological attraction pre- 
sented in the ancient territory of the Durotriges, the scat- 
tered facts familiar doubtless to the adept in numismatic 
science, and that relate to the local coinage in ancient times, 
should not be overlooked. It is moreover scarcely neces- 
sary to point out that, in tracing the history of the royal 
mints in any particular district, we are necessarily led to 
certain conclusions, not without general interest to the topo- 
grapher, as tending to throw light on the relative importance 
of ancient towns there situated, and on their probable con- 
ditions in early times in regard to commercial relations and 
local industry. 

There were four places in Dorset where coins were minted 
in early times — namely, Dorchester, Bridport, Shaftesbury, 
and Warehara. By the Laws of iEthelstan, who succeeded 
Edward the Elder in 924, and who appears to have been the 
first of the Anglo-Saxon monarchs that enjoined regulations 
for the coinage, it was ordained at the Synod at Greatan- 
leage (probably Greatley, near Andover) that there should 

1 Tins memoir wm read at the Anuual Meeting of the Institute at Dorchester, 
July, 1865. 

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be one money over all the king's dominion, and that no man 
mint except within a town (" butan on porte "). A certain 
number of moneyers were assigned for each place : — for 
London, 8 ; at Winchester, 6 ; at Warehani, 2 ; at Shaftes- 
bury, 2 ; else, at the other " burhs *' only one.^ Dorchester 
is not here specified; it may doubtless have been one of 
the towns (" burhs *') at which a single moneyer was sanc- 
tioned. It must, however, be noticed that Leland, in an 
extract ^* ExDecretis iEthelstani,'^ apparently from an ancient 
copy of the Anglo-Saxon Laws, gives, after the two moneyers 
at Wareham, *'In Dorcestra j. '** No coin of iEthelstan 
struck at Dorchester appears to be known. In the Domes- 
day Survey two moneyers are mentioned as there established 
in the reign of the Confessor.^ '' In Dore Cestre tempore 
Regis Edwardi erant clxxij. domus. . . . Ibi erant ij. 
Monetarii, quisque eorum redd' regi unam mark' argenti, 
et XX. solidos quando moneta vertebatur. Modo sunt ibi 
quater xx. et viij. domus, et c. penitus destruct^.^' No coins 
struck at Dorchester are known to collectors earlier than the 
time of iEthelred II., who succeeded on the murder of 
Edward the Martyr at Corfe, a.d. 979. He appears to have 
had a mint at Dorchester, designated on his coins by the 
legend dor. It is remarkable that, notwithstanding the 
large contributions exacted by the Danes in his reign, 
amounting to no less a sum, according to Florence of Wor- 
cester, than 167,000/. in various invasions, the last payment, 
in the year 1014, amounting to 30,000/., the monies of that 
reign, of common types, are by no means very rare : a fact 
to be attributed to the number of his mints far exceeding 
that of any preceding king. His moneyei-s were very 
numerous, and his laws, as Ruding points out, evince con- 
siderable attention to the preservation of the integrity of his 

The mints of King Cnut were likewise extremely 
numerous, and we find in his laws many ordinances relating 
to the coinage; the names of his moneyers are always 
placed upon his coins together with those of the mints. The 
coins struck at Dorchester are designated, as in the reign of 

3 Laws of ^thelstan, o. 14 ; Ancient * DomMday Book, vol. i. f. 75 a. 

Laws and Institutes of England, vol. L pp. ' Laws of JBihelred, Ancient Laws and 

207, 209; Wilkius, p. 60; Ruding, vol. i. Institutes, vol. i. pp. 302, SOS; Kuding» 

p. 126. vol. i. p. 133. 

s Leland, ColL vol. iii. p. 218. 

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Ethel red, by the legend dor. There are many coins of the 
Conqueror struck at Dorchester, marked dorc — dori — 


The moneyers' names are Osbern, Wulfstan, Oter, Godwine, 
Lieric, and Lifric. A coin of that reign in the British 
Museum collection, and also in that in the Bodleian Library, 
inscribed swirtimc on dorth, may also be attributed to that 
place.^ In the large hoard of coins of the Conqueror found 
in 1833, at Beaworth, Hants, there were 25 of yarious types 
struck at Dorchester.^ There are likewise coins of William 
Rufus from the mint in that town.® 

Bridport, as we learn from Domesday, had been a town 
of some importance before the Conquest : there was one 
moneyer there at that time. " In Brideport tempore Regis 
Edwardi erant cxx. domus . . . Ibi erat unus monetarius 
reddens regi j. mark^ argenti, et zx. sol. quando moneta 
yertebatur. Modo sunt ibi c. domus et xx. sunt ita destitutae 
quod qui in eis manent geldam solyere non yalent.*'* In 
yain, howeyer, had collectors searched for any example of 
money coined there until the discovery at Beaworth, Hants, 
before mentioned.* Amongst the number of coins of William I. 
and William II. there were found on that occasion twelve 
struck at Bridport.^ The moneyeiV names are brihtpi 
(Brihtwi ?) and iblfric or iElfric ; on Saxon money IB often 
occurs for iB, the diverging lines being somewhat irregularly 
introduced, thus ii may be read either as A or v. The name 
of the town on the coins assigned to the Bridport mint is 
written brd and bridi. 

Shaftesbury appears to have been a place of even greater 
importance. In the enumeration of places where, according 
to the Laws of King iEthelstan, moneyers were established, 
as before mentioned, two were ordained for Shaftesbury,* 
and Edward the Confessor had three. The Domesday record 
is as follows : — " In Burgo Sceptesberie t. r. e. erant 

* Ibid., vol. ii. p. 163. mint. He adds that no ooins have yet 
7 See Mr. Hawkini^ Memoir, Arcbseo- been diacovered that can be appropriated 

logia, vol. xxTL p. 10 ; Ruding, vol. i. p. to the Bridport mint with certainty. 

155. ' Arcbnologia, vol. xzvi. p. 8; Ruding, 

^ Ibid., p. 162. vol. L p. 154. The place of mintage of two 

* Vol. i. f. 75 a. of the Beaworth coins, inscribed islpbio 
^ A penny of Cnut is noticed by Ruding. — bripvt, is oonsidered as somewhat 

▼ol. ii. p. 168, inscribed bri, and wbicii doubtful. 

may, as he remarks, possibly have been * Ancient Laws and Institutes, toL L 

struck at Bridport It is, however, more p. 209. 

probable that it was from the Bristol 

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c. et iiij. domus in dominio regis . • • Ibi erant iij. monetarily 
quisque reddebat j. mark' argenti, et xz. solid, quando moneta 
vertebatur. Modo sunt ibi Ixx. domus et Ixxiij. sunt penitus 
destructe/' &c.^ Euding includes this town in his list of 
mints of which coins are extant assigned to the reign of 
iBthelstan ; the name being indicated by the legend sceft.^ 
No example, however, is preserved in the British Museum, 
and the existence of any such coin has not, as we believe, 
been ascertained. In the Museum collection coins minted 
at Shaftesbury are to be seen of the following kings ; — 
iBthelred II., Cnut, Edward the Confessor, Harold II., 
William I., and William II. The moneyers' names are 
iBthestau, Goda, jElwig, iElwne, Lufa, Loda (possibly for 
Goda), Wulfric, Godric, Aelnod, lilnod, Godsbran, Gods- 
brand, Godesbrand, Cinihtwine or Cihtwine. The town is 
indicated as Ceftan, Scefte, Scea, Sefte, Sceftesb, Scieft, 
Sciefti, &c. Not less than 72 silver pennies of the reigns of 
William I. and William II. found in the great hoard at 
Beaworth have been ascribed to the mint of Shaftes- 

Ruding conjectured that Shaftesbury was indicated on 
coins of Henry HI. by the legend santed — seinted or 
SENTED, as it was anciently called St. Edwardsbury, — Burgus 
Sancti Edwardi, — the coins minted at St. Edmundsbury 
being distinguished by the insertion of the letter m, thus 

Wareham, which had two monetarii in the reign of 
^thektan, was a town of considerable importance from an 
early period. In Domesday we find the following record : — 
** In Warham tempore Regis Edwardi erant cxliij. domus in 
dominio regis ... Ibi erant ij. monetarii, quisque redde- 
bat j. mark' argenti regi, et xx. solid, quando moneta verte- 
batur. Modo sunt ibi Ixx. domus et Ixxiij. sunt penitus 
destructe,'' &c. ® The sparing use of letters in the legends 
of early coins, always in very contracted form, renders it 
exceedingly diflScult to determine with any certainty the 

^ Domesday, vol. L f. 75 a. lege of coining in the reign of the Con- 

' Ruding, vol. i. p. 127. queror. As no other pennies occur in 

* Aroh»ologia,vol.xxTi.p.l3; Ruding, the Beaworth list that can be given to 

▼oL i p. 156. The coins inscribed scie, that place, Rudlng's suppoeition may be 

with the moneyer's name cinihtpinb, correct 

have been assigned by Ruding to St. ' Ruding, vol. iL p. 163. 

Edmondsbury, a place that had the privi- ' Domesday, vol. i. f. 75 a. 


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places where they were minted, veri occurring on a coin 
of -ffithelstan has led collectors to assign it to Worcester,* 
as well as to Wareham ; we also, which is found upon 
a penny of Edwig, has been assumed by various numis- 
matists as indicating either Wareham, Worcester, or Walling- 
ford. WERE on coins of ^thelred II. has likewise been 
regarded as indicating the Wareham mint. Amongst the 
pennies of William I. and William II. found at Beaworth, as 
before noticed, there were not less than forty-five that may 
with strong probability be ascribed to Wareham; these 
coins bear the legends iegelrio on wer, were, or wrb; 


WERi ; siDELOC ON WERE, or WERHE.* The insertion of H in 
some of these names seems to support the supposition that 
they designate Wareham; and, as the moneyer legelric 
uses indiscriminately Wer, Were, Werhe, and Wre, to 
express, as it is believed, the name Wareham, it is probable 
that the more contracted forms We ^ and Were, occurring on 
coins of other kings, may be taken as likewise denoting the 
mint of Wareham. Henry I. had a mint at that place, but 
Ruding was unable to trace it later than his reign.^ 

A remarkable medal commemorative of a Dorset Worthy 
claims notice on the present occasion, especially as associated 
with the name of our lamented friend the Earl of Ilchester, 
under whose auspices as President it had been our hope to 
have assembled in his county. This example of the artistic 
skill of the period, which it may be remembered was brought 
before the Institute by Lord Ilchester in 1856 and is noticed 
in this Journal,* bears, on the obverse, the bust of Col. 
Strangways of Melbury, profile to the right, the hair long, 
the head uncovered, the neck bare ; he is represented in 
armour, the lower part of the bust draped in a mantle. 
Legend, .egidivs . strangways . de . melbvry in com. dor- 
CESTR. ARM., and, under the shoulder of the bust, ian. r. p. 
Reverse, the White Tower, or Caesar's Tower, London ; 
above is the sun breaking forth from a cloud, and shining 
on the Standard of England that floats from one of the 
comer turrets. Legend, decvsqve adversa dedervnt. In 

* It has been thus given by Dr. Nash, ' A eoin of Cnut is thui marked ; 
the county historian, and by Mr. Green. Uuding, vol. i. p. 188. 

* Archi)eologia,vol.xxvi. p.l4; Ruding, * Ibid., voL ii. p. 164. 

vol. i. p. 167. ^ Arch. Jouru. voL xiiL p. 182. 

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the exergue, incarcbratvs bept. 1645. libbratvs apr. 1648. 
Diam. nearly 2 in.^ This fine medal is one of the works of 
John Rotier, whose signature JAN. R. appears on the obverse. 
The family came to England after the Restoration ; the father 
had assisted Charles II. in exile, and in return the king 
promised, if he was restored, to employ his sons, who were 
gravers of seals and coins. Charles, on his return, dissatis- 
fied with Simon, who had served Cromwell and the Com- 
monwealth, sent for the brothers John and Joseph Rotier, 
and placed them at the Mint ; the eldest, John, was in 
greatest repute.^ In Pepys' Memoirs a list of his principal 
productions may be found, with prices for which they were 
oflFered to him by Mr. Slingsby of the Mint, in 1687.^ In 
this enumeratioa the Strangways Medal is valued at 1/, I7s. 
It is pc^ of great rarity, and has generally been sold when in 
good condition for 5/. or 6/., though occasionally for a small 
price. It is to be seen in the British Museum collection, in 
the Hunter collection, and in several private cabinets.® Two 
examples of gold are known. 

This medal may probably be one of the supposed series 
struck in honor of those who sufiered or distinguished 
themselves in the cause of Royalty. Giles Strangways was 
of one of the families of ancient note in Dorset ; a pedigree 
may be seen in Hutchin's History of the County. He was 
born at the family seat, Melbury, in 1615. Early in the 
reign of Charles I. his father. Sir John Strangways, opposed 
the proceedings of the court, but, when he was convinced of 
the factious views of the party with which he had connected 
himself, and became dissatisfied with them for their violence 
against the Earl of Stafibrd, he attached himself to the royal 
party, and continued a faithful adherent to his king, for 
which he was honored by having his name inserted amongst 
those who were never to be pardoned. In the loyalty and 
consequent persecutions of his father, Giles Strangways 

< This .medal has been figured by Selby's sale ; 1775, at Mr. 0vren*8 sale, 
Evelyn; olao in Pinkerton's Hedallic 6/. 128. 6d. ; 1770, at Mr. Stacey's sale, 
History, pi. xviii. fig. 9, p. 54; and in 5L lOs.; 1784, at Mr. Lindegreen'a sale, 
Hutobina' History of Dorset. ZL 10s.; this last was sold again in 1790 

< Walpolo*8 Anecdotes, Dallaway*8 for 1/. 7s. ; in 1819 one sold for 6^. 7s. 6d. 
edit., vol iii. p. 187. at Mr. Bindley 's sale. All these were of 

7 Pepys' Correspondence, App. to his silver. Mr. Browoe of Shepton Mallet 

Diary edited by Lord Braybrooke, vol. v. had one of gold ; the late Mr. C. Wynne 

' This medal has been sold for the had also one of gold, 
fallowing prices :— In 1774, 6/. 6s. at Mr. 

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largely partook ; he commanded a regiment of horse in the 
West under Prince Maurice, and represented Bridport in 
Parliament, being disabled as member 22nd June, 1645. 
In August in that year he was fined 10,000/., and shortly 
afterwards was, with his father, imprisoned in the Tower. 
Upon payment of the moiety the father was to obtain his 
release, but the son was to remain till the full amount was 
liquidated. So much had this loyal family suffered that 
they were unable to discharge the fine ; composition was 
refused, and both remained in prison till April, 1648, when 
upon acknowledging the fine they were liberated ; the son, 
however, was confined to a distance of twenty miles from 
London, till the last instalment was paid, the time for 
which was extended to October 14, 1649. Both father 
and son were members of the convention parliament in 
1660. Notwithstanding the distress to which the family 
had been reduced, and the pressure upon his finances 
which rendered a thirty months' imprisonment necessary, 
Colonel Strangways contrived to collect 300 broad pieces, 
which he sent to Charles II. whilst a fugitive after the battle 
of Worcester. Lloyd tells us that their loyalty cost this 
family at least 30,000/. Bishop Parker, in his Commenta- 
ries, gives a high character of Colonel Strangways in lan- 
guage to which translation can do inadequate justice : — 
" Strangways, a man of ancient and illustrious family, 
eminent for the greatest opulence and loyalty. Through 
the entire war under Charles I. he was renowned for the 
utmost fortitude. He did and suffered for the king every 
thing which a brave man could. Upon every occasion firm 
and steady in the strict line of duty, the intrepid and 
undaunted champion of the royal cause, even when it lay 
prostrate. Still was he extremely popular from the cour- 
teous affability cf his manners towards every one, for 
which reason no one in his county was more valued, and 
by his influence the parliamentary elections were principally 

Of this loyal Dorsetshire gentleman there is a scarce por- 
trait engraved by Loggan, to which are subjoined six lines, 
of which one, frequently quoted and frequently imitated, is 
as follows : — 

''None, but himself, himself can parallel.*' 

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There is also a silver medal of the seyenteenth century 
connected with Dorset, being in commemoration of the 
acquittal of the first Earl of ^aftesburj. He was born at 
Wimborne St. Giles, Dorset, July 22, 1621, and took an 
active part against Cromwell ; after the Restoration he was 
advanced to many positions of note ; and was one of the 
most active statesmen of his times, the unflinching supporter 
also of the Protestant interest in England. Obverse, the 
bust of the Earl to the right ; the hair is long ; legend, 
ANTONIO COMITI DB SHAFTESBVRT ; Under the shoulder is the 
signature o. B. F. (George Bower fecit). Reverse, a view of 
London, with London Bridge, the sun emerging from a cloud 
over the Tower. Legend, letamvb. In the exergue, 24 
Nov. 1681. Diam. If in. The Earl, falsely accused by one 
Bryan Hans, who pretended to make important revelations 
concerning the Popish plot and the murder of Sir Edmund- 
bury Godfrey, was apprehended July 2, 1681 ; after being 
examined by the king in coimcil, he was committed to the 
Tower ; his papers were searched, and the draught found, 
as alleged, of an '' association ^^ to exclude the Duke of York 
from the succession, and for treasonable violence towards 
Charles 11. No evidence, however, of the Earl's participa- 
tion in any such conspiracy being adduced, the Grand Jury, 
on the day mentioned on the medal, ignored the bill. There 
were rejoicings amongst the citizens, bonfires in the streets, 
and the bells rung for joy.® 

George Bower is noticed by Walpole as "probably a 
volunteer artist," whose works were not numerous ; the best 
being the medal of the Earl of Shaftesbury.^ 

In the possession of the Bingham family, whose ancient 
lineage is held in honored remembrance in the county, a 
silver medal of Queen Anne is preserved, which, although 
not struck specially in connection with the county, cannot 
be regarded as undeserving of mention in these notices. It 
was presented to Richard Bingham, Esq., great-great-grand- 
father of our friend the Rev. C. W. Bingham, to whose 
kindly assistance and influence in his county the Institute 
has often been under great obligations. The following 
record has been received with this medal, treasured as a 
family relic at Bingham's Melcombe : — 

* Burnet; Collins, by Sir E. Brydges, ^ W&lpole's Anecdotes, ed. Dallaway, 

&c vol. ILL p. 193. 

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" This Medal was given to Richard Bingham, Esq., my 
ever honoured Father, at the time it was struck, he being then 
Knight of the Shire of the County of Dorset, by the order 
of the Queen whose image and superscription it bears, and 
I desire and will that it shall for ever hereafter be esteemed 
and taken as an Heirloom, and descend to the Heirs of the 
Family of the Binghams who shall be entitled to the Capital 
Mansion House, Manor and Farm of Melcombe Bingham. 

(Signed) "R. Bingham, 7th Jan. 1743.'* . 

The medal in question is that known to collectors as 
struck on the signing of the Treaty of Utrecht, March 30, 
1718, and presented by the Queen's orders to the members 
of both Houses of Parliament. A medal of larger size 
(diam. 2^ in.) was struck for the Lords ; a smaller one 
(diam. If in.) for the Commons. The two medals are pre- 
cisely similar, except in size ; they were struck in England. 
The larger medal bears the signature i. o. (John Crocker).* 
Obverse, bust of Queen Anne to the left, with her usual 
titles. Reverse, on the left ships sailing on a calm sea, on 
the right husbandmen ploughing and sowing ; in front, 
Britannia standing (on the larger medal), represented on the 
smaller as seated ; a spear in her left hand, an olive-branch 
in her right. The legend is from Horace, Carm. lib. iv. Od. 
xiv. V. 52, — COMPOSITIS VBNBRANTVR ARMis, In the oxcrgue 
is the date kdcoxiii.^ 

The Dorsetshire series of small Tokens struck without 
authority " for necessary change," after the death of Charles 
I., is considerable. Snelling and other writers have de- 
scribed many of these small monies ; Hutchins has figured a 
large number in his History of Dorset ; a more ample inven- 
tory has been given by Mr. W. Boyne, to which we may 
refer those who desire more precise information. The 
Dorset Tokens are chiefly farthings ; the halfpennies are 
very few, and there are no pennies. Town-pieces were 
issued at Dorchester, Shaftesbury, and several other places 
enumerated by Mr. Boyne. Of these pieces several have 
been engraved for Hutchins' History of Dorset. 

3 MedalllBt temp. William III., Anne, Tindol'd Contin. of Rapin's Hisi, toI. v. 

and Qeorge II. Walpole's Anecdotes, pi. ix. p. 19. 

edit. Dallaway, roL iii. p. 804. See Mr. * Tokens iBSued in the seven teentli 

Pfister's account of Crocker, Num. Chrou. , century, described by W. Boyno^ F.S. A., 

vol. XV. p. 67 ; 1852. Lond. 1868, p. 61. 

' These two medals are engraved in 

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16, 1600. 

By GBOROB 80HABF, F.8.A., Swnreiwy to the Natioxud PortnUt GftUeiy. 

Perhaps the most vivid and attractive of the many pictures 
that have come down to us from the time of Queen Elizabeth 
is one in which the Queen is represented seated in a kind of 
litter, carried on the shoulders of six noblemen, and fol- 
lowed by a large concourse of ladies and gentlemen belonging 
to her court. 

This picture is No. 256 of the present (1866) Exhibition 
of National Portraits- at South Kensington. The cheerfulness 
of the subject, gaiety of colours, and apparent truthfulness of 
the representation naturally lead to the desire of obtaining 
a somewhat more satisfactory explanation than either the 
official catalogue or any previously published descriptions have 
as yet aflforded. To endeavour to supply some trustworthy, 
information bearing on this subject is the object of my present 
paper. The earUest record we possess of the picture belongs 
to the year 1737, when Vertue saw it at Coleshill in War- 
wickshire, the seat of the Digby family. Vertue's engraving, 
executed soon after, and accompanied by a sheet of letter- 
press conveying a fanciful hypothesis of his own, was pub- 
lished in 1742. The picture was subsequently removed to 
London, and finally to Sherborne Castle in Dorsetshire, 
whence Lord Digby permitted it to be conveyed, for a few 
months, to Manchester in 1857, when it formed a principal 
feature in the Portrait Gallery, No. 64, of the Great Art 
Treasures Exhibition. 

The Manchester Historical Portrait Gallery of 1857 was 
placed under the able management of Mr. Peter Cunningham, 
and he, in entering the picture in his catalogue, followed 
the title adopted by Vertue. The exact title on the engrav- 
ing, as one of his " Historic Prints," runs as follows : — 

'* The Royal Procession of Queen Elizabeth to visit the 


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Right Honble. Henry Carey Lord Hunsdon, Governor of 
Berwick-upon-Tweed, Captain of the Band of Gentlemen 
Pensioners, Kt. of the most Noble Order of the Garter, Privy- 
Councillor and Cousin German to her Majesty by the Lady 
Mary, sister to Queen Anna Bolen. The original of this picture 
was painted {in oyt) at the command of this noble Lord 
Hunsdon {dr. 1580), and is now in the possession of the 
ilt. Honble. the Lord Digby, who permitted a limning to be 
taken in water-colours for the Rt. Honble. Edward Earl of 
Oxford and Mortimer, and this plate to be engraved by 
their most humble and obedient servant, Geo. Vertue, 

This inscription, taken altogether, has a gratuitously cir- 
cumstantial character about it, and the statement here dis- 
tinguished above by italics can hardly be reconciled with 
the following frank avowal of the absence of documentary 
evidence, afiForded by Vertue himself, in the pages of letter- 
press already referred to. 

" It is much to be admired that in this picture, so large 
and historical, there should be no date on it, nor arms, nor 
other insignia, unless the story was then so well known and 
remarkably public, that the nobleman who caused it to be 
done, and to whose honour this ceremonial was performed, 
might believe it would never be forgot in his family, or to 
posterity." * 

This at all events is a clear admission that the picture was 
wanting in date, pedigree, and history. 

It had, notwithstanding, retained some glimmering of a 
tradition which, although wilfully rejected by Vertue, has by 
his means alone been handed down to us. In a subsequent 
passage of his Descriptive text, he proceeds : " I was assured, 
when I waited on^ the Rt. Hon. the Earl of Oxford to see it 
at Coleshill in Warwickshire, October, 1737, that the noble 
peer, in whose family it has been at Coleshill for fifty or sixty 
years past, had no certain account handed to him of it, but 
only that it was painted in memory of Queen Elizabeth's 
doing honour to a young married couple — uncertain who, or 
when, or where." 

> Quoted from Vertue in NichoU'a in his Life of Vertue, that, in 17S7. Lord 

ProgreeBcs, yol. i. date 1671, pafcee 2-8. Oxford took him to Lord Digbj's at 

ThU lettcr-preaa is signed Q. V. and Coleshill : page 994 of Walpole'a Anec- 

daied December 20, 1740. dotes, edited by Dallaway and Womum. 

' Meaning accompanied, Walpole says, 

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The picture was brought to London in 1738. 

Vertue then adds : " At length, by particular enquiry and 
study, I found out the site to be Hunsdon in Hertfordshire ; 
thither, purposely, I went to see the place, which, upon the 
first sight, confirmed what I had read of such a visit men- 
tioned in Strype's Annals, in the Queen's progress of the 
year and date first mentioned (1571)/'^ 

Walpole, however, deliberately perverted these statements 
in the following passage from his Life of Vertue : '' The 
next year (1738) he went into Hertfordshire to verify his 
ideas about Hunsdon, the subject as he thought of Queen 
Elizabeth's progress. The old Lord Digby, who, from tra- 
dition, ^e Queens procession to St. PatiPs after 
the destruction of the Armada, was displeased with Vertue's 
new hypothesis." * Walpole certainly seems to have misrepre- 
sented what Vertue had put upon record; and Granger^ 
vol i., page 219, unfortunately repeats the statement with 
implicit confidence. Vertue's supposed identification of the 
locality was a very imperfect one. He merely found a few 
slight accidental points of resemblance between the house in 
the picture and a back-front of Hunsdon House, represented by 
a modem engraving given in Nichols's " Progresses of Queen 
Elizabeth" (vol. i., p. 10, of 1788 edition) ; and even on com- 
paring these points we find merely one trifling example of 
accordance — ^namely, that both have a plain circular window 
within an architectural pediment. The building in the paint* 
ing is very simple, consisting mainly of badly proportioned 
Ionic pilasters, an arcade of round-headed arches, having 
broad entablatures, and a roofing of blue slate in the style 
of Italian renaissance then so generally prevalent. 

The lithographic illustration of this picture, given in the 
second edition of Nichols's " Progresses," vol. i., p. 283, is 
worthless ; but it is remarkable that in the small copper-plate, 
done with extreme care, for the first edition of the same 
work in 1788, the building has been considerably augmented. 
The picture, compared with the original, is nearly doubled in 
height. Lofty square walls, with windows, composed of two 
storeys, surmounted by a richly decorated roof, with fanciful 
dormer windows, and tall, smoking, Elizabethan chimneys, 
are added to the house. These are quite out of accordance 

' Nichola's Progreases, p. 4, note. 
* The Earl of Orford'n Works, vol. !▼. p. 125. 

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with the lower part, and seem to have been gratuitously 
added by the engraver I 

If Hunsdon House really be the one so prominently in- 
troduced in the picture, it is somewhat strange that all the 
principal persons are either coming directly away from, or 
passing by, it. I never could feel satisfied with any of the 
arguments, if such they may be called, advanced by Vertue, 
or accept the conclusions which he arrived at. His arbitrary 
and positive manner of specifying Lord and Lady Hunsdon 
as the persons represented, and the evident discrepancy 
between his so-called figure of Dudley Earl of Leicester, 
and all the really trustworthy portraits of him, naturally led 
me to suspect that his theory was destitute of any solid 

In the theory propounded by Walpote, of the Procession 
to St. Paul's after the Armada, I felt even less confidence, 
since we find it so many times related, that on Sunday 
November 24th, 1588, the Queen went in procession, ac- 
companied by her nobles, the French ambassador, judges, 
heralds, and trumpeters, all on horseback, to St. Paul's. The 
Queen herself rode from Somerset House to the Cathedral 
in a chariot throne, under a canopy, drawn by two white 
horses. An engraving by Crispin de Passe, of Queen Eliza- 
beth, taken from a picture by Isaac GUver, is said to repre- 
sent her in the dress in which she went to St. Paul's : but I 
am not aware that this statement is of any long standing or 
impUcitly trustworthy. It is however so recorded on Wood- 
burn's mezzotint copy engraved by the late Charles Turner, 
The costume of the engraving accords very generally with 
that of the Queen in Lord Digby's picture. In the latter 
she wears a lofty framework of jewels on her head instead 
of a crown ; but the broad wire-stretched pieces of gauze, 
like butterflies* wings, spreading out on each side of her ruff, 
visible in the engraving, are omitted in the picture. The 
engraving exhibits the Queen carrying both globe and 
sceptre, neither^of which appears in the Sherborne painting. 

Having to some extent pointed out the hitherto received 
opinions as to the purport of the picture, and recorded my 
own hesitation in accepting them, I will endeavour to offer 
a few observations on what I venture to think may be ac- 
cepted as a reliable interpretation of the scene. 

I received the first clue of this from ray friend Mr. 

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3". G. Nichols, P.S.A., during the course of some lectures 
which I recently delivered at the Royal Institution, Mr. 
Nichols then expressed to me his belief that the picture 
related to a visit paid by Queen Elizabeth to Blackfriars ; 
on which occasion she was carried up a steep hill from the 
water-side; in a litter, on the shoulders of certain noblemen. 

The topographical details I do not attempt to verify ; but 
it is to be hoped that Mr. Nichols may be induced to pursue 
this branch of the subject^ and to afford us the benefit of his 
minute research and extensive acquaintance with the his- 
torical remains of this locality. 

The exiict date, and more detailed circumstances, I unex- 
pectedly met with a day or two after, in course of reading 
Miss Lucy Aikin^s excellent, and too much neglected '^ Me« 
inoirs of the Court of Queen Elizabeth,'^ in which work, at 
Vol ii., p. 466, occurs the following narrative : — 

" Her Majesty repaired to Lady Russell's house in Black^ 
friars, to grace the nuptials of her daughter, a maid of honour, 
with Lord Herbert, son of the Earl of Worcester ; on which 
occasion it may be mentioned, that she was conveyed from 
the water-side in a lectica, or half-litter, borne by six 

Here unquestionably we have the true subject of the pic- 
ture. On referring to the second volume of Nichols's " Pro- 
gresses of Queen Elizabeth '^ (first edition), under the date 
1600, I found the following very curious details respecting 
the preparations for the event, the procession, and the masque 
performed afterwards. 

Rowland Whyte, writing to Sir Robert Sidney, June 23rd, 
1600, gives the following account of the festivities: — 

" This day se'night her Majesty was at Blackfriars to 
grace the marriage of Lord Harbert and his wife. The bride 
met the Queen at the water-side, where my Lord Cobham 
had provided a lectica, made like a litter, whereon she was 
carried to my Lady Russell's by six knights. Her Majesty 
dined there, and at night went through Dr. Puddin's (Paddy's)* 
house (who gave the Queen a fanne) to my Lord Cobham^ 
where she supped. Xfter supper the masks came in, as I 

* Sir William Faddj,- For ibis emen- physioiaD beloDging to the hall of St. 

dation I am again indebted to Mr. J. Q. John's College, Osdbrd. It ia No. 234 

^icholB, F.S.A. There is a valuable of the Portrait Exhibition, 
whole-length portndt of this celebrated 

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writ in my last ; and delicate it was to see eight ladies so 
prettily and richly attired. Mrs. Fetton leade ; and after they 
had donne all their own ceremonies, these eight ladys maskers 
chose eight ladies more to dawnce the measures. Mrs. 
Fetton went to the Queen, and weed her to dawnce. Her 
Majesty asked what she was 1 * Affection,^ she said. * Affec- 
tiony bsaA. the Queen, 'is false' Yet her Majestie rose and 
dawnced : soe did my Lady Marquis (of Winchester). The 
bride was lead to the church by the Lord Harbert of Car- 
difFe and my Lord Cobham ; and from the church by the 
Earles of Rutland and Cumberland. The gifts given that 
day were valewed at £1000 in plate and jewels at least. 
The entertainment was great and plentiful!, and my Lady 
Russell much commended for it. Her Majesty upon Tuesday 
came backe again to the court: but the solemnities continued 
till Wednesday night, and now the Lord Harbert and his 
fiaire lady are in court.*'' 

The names of the eight lady -dancers were given by Whyte 
in a previous letter, dated June 14th, 1600. They occur 
in the following order : — 

1. My Lady Doritye. 

2. Mrs, Fetton. 

3. Mrs. Carey. 

4. Mrs. Onslow. 

5. Mrs. Southwell. 

6. Mrs. Bess Russell. 

7. Mrs. Darcy. 

8. My Lady Blanche Somerset.^ 

Mr. Nichols, in a note to the pre&ce to his Progresses, 
p. xiii, says : — 

'' They were married in a church ; and the queen passed 
through Dr. Puddin's house. The fine conventual one of 
the Blackfiiars was pulled down before, and with it the 
parochial one of St. Anne, but the latter rebuilt 1697 
(Stow's Survey, p. 375). With a view to illustrate this 
particular solemnity, the Rev. Mr. Romaine has obligingly 
searched the parochial registers of St. Andrew Wardrobe 
and St. Anne, Blackfriars, but finds there ' no notice of the 
marriage, or circumstance alluded to/ The registers of most 
of the adjoining parishes were consumed in the Fire of 

* Sidney Papen, vol. ii. p. 208. * Ibid., p. 201. 

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It shouldy perhaps, be borne in mind that both families 
^ere strict adherents to the ancient form of religion, and 
that several of the friends here present may also have been 
Roman Catholics. 

This change of date, from 1571 to 1600, has the effect of 
removing from the scene six out of the seven noblemen 
specially named by Vertue. They all died before the open- 
ing of the seventeenth century. 

It now remains for me to endeavour to identify the prin- 
cipal persons represented in the picture, taking as my guide 
the most authentic portraits of the period, following the 
names of persons known to have been present through 
means of the curious letters which have just been quoted, 
and bearing in mind the important instances of those entitled 
to wear the badge of the Garter, and the date when each in- 
dividual had attained to that honour. Two figures alone 
retain the names which Vertue had assigned to them : these 
are the venerable Earl of Nottingham, to the left, and the 
Queen herself in the centre of the picture. 

It may be observed with reference to the costume of the 
Queen, Uiat the wide-spreading, radiating ruff, open in front 
so as to show the neck, appears to be a peculiarity of the 
Queen's latest years. The open neck was more particularly 
reserved for unmarried ladies. It does not appear either in 
pictures or on coins of this reign bearing dates earlier than 
1601. Most of the portraits of the Queen, on the coinage 
especially, exhibit her wearing a small ruff, carried com- 
pletely round and supported by a high stiff band or collar 
belonging to the dress, such as was worn during the reign of 
her predecessor. In this picture, however, a second inner 
ruff also appears, passing immediately under the chin, and 
corresponds exactly with a small frill in Lord Salisbury's 
curious portrait, exhibiting the robe embroidered with eyes 
and ears. No. 267 of the Kensington Portrait Exhibition. 

The bald-headed nobleman standing in front below the 
Queen, and nearer to the spectator than any other figure 
in the picture, is clearly Edward, fourth Earl of Wor- 
cester, father of the bridegroom, holding a pair of gloves 
somewhat ostentatiously in his right hand. They were 
probably intended as a present for the bride, if not for 
the Queen herself. Scented gloves had already been pre- 
sented to her majesty on the occasion of several royal visits ; 

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^nd it, will be observed as somewhat singular that up other 
gloves are worn or to be seen in the picture. 

This earl may be easily identified by a reference to the 
portrait, No. 380, in tho present Kensington Exhibition. 
The portrait is engraved in Lodge.® The bride, Mrs. Anne 
Russell (daughter of John Lord Russell, son of Francis, 
second Earl of Bedford, and of Lady Russell, daughter of 
Antony Cook, of Giddy Hall, Essex®), is the prominent 
figure in white immediately following the Queen. She 
wears a widespread rufiT, open at the neck, which, aa 
Hentzuer * observes in his travels, was customary with all. 
the English ladies till they marry. The bride is supported 
by two older married ladies, whose ruflfs completely cover 
their necks. They are dressed in black and grey, with rich 
jewels. The lady between the bride and the Queen I take, 
from the resemblance to her portraits, to be Lucy Harrington,. 
Countess of Bedford, whom I at first supposed to be the 
Lady Russell spoken of in the letter above quoted. Mr. 
Nichols, however, has pointed out to me in a recent com- 
munication, that Collins was under a false impression when 
he stated in his Peerage^ that Lady Russell died so early as 
1584. She was living at the time of her daughter's mar- 
riage in 1600. I must, therefore, waive my supposition that 
Lucy Harrington was the actual entertainer of the Queen, 
and limit her claim to the position she occupies as the then 
reigning Countess and head of the Russell family. The 
mother of the bride would naturally be her other supporter, 
and her figure is at the extreme right end of the picture. 
Other names of ladies who were present, and who after- 
wards assisted at the masque, we gather from Rowland 
Whyte's letter, dated June 14, 1600.' 

At the beginning of this year, the Queen gave new year's 
gifts to most of these ladies, and their names occur in the 
official list, nearly in the exact order as given, thus : — 

'' To Mistress Anne Russell, in guilte plate, E. 11 oz. 

" To the Lady Dorathy Hastinges, in guilte plate, K. 
10 oz. qr. 

" To Mrs. Marye Fytten, in guilte plate, K. 9 oz. 3 qr. di. 

•* To Mrs. Anne Carey, in guylte plate, K. 10 oz. qr. 

» Lodge, Tol. T. pL 81. 1797, p. 84. 

9 ColUna* Peerage (1779), vol. i. p. 252. » Colliiw, voL L p. 252. 

* Paul HeDtzner'a Travels in England ' Sidoey Papers, vol. il p. 201. 
during the year 1598), 8vo. ed. London, 

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" To Mrs.Cordall Anslowe, in guilte plate, M. 9 oz. di. di. qr. 

" To Mrs. Elizabeth Russell, in guylte plate, K. 17 oz. 
3 qrs. di.'^ 

The Countess of Bedford, " widowe," and the Countess of 
Bedford, "junior," both received gifts of plate, the one 51 
oz., and the other 19 oz. The Countess of Worcester also 
received 19 oz. of plate.* 

It is scarcely probable that the varied group of heads of 
ladies at this extremity of the picture can ever be indi- 
vidually distinguished by names. I recently visited Woburn 
Abbey for the express purpose of tracing any likenesses of 
this period that might still be preserved there. Lucy Har- 
rington, in two distinct portraits, presents the peculiar features 
which I recognise in the figure already specified in the 
wedding picture. 

I wish, however, in reviewing the remaining portraits, 
to dwell mainly on those in which I feel most confidence. 
The noblemen walk two and two, excepting the Earl of 
Worcester, who stands, as it were, apart. The six knights 
carrying the Queen wear no insignia of the Garter. The 
six noblemen preceding her Majesty are all distinguished 
by the collar of that order, and also by a mediillion of the 
Queen hanging below it by a long ribbon. 

In consideration, therefore, of the subject of the picture, 
we naturally enquire for the bridegroom. He, Lord Herbert, 
afterwards first Marquis of Worcester, may easily be recog- 
nised, with his peculiar face and upturned moustaches 
(through means of the portrait, also in the Portrait Exhibition, 
No. 640), carrying the right end of the pole of the Queen's 
litter, and with his left hand indicating his future wife, who 
"fetands immediately behind him. The dignified and aged 
nobleman, towards the extreme left, looking back, wearing 
a small black cap, is assuredly the Lord High Admiral, 
Charles, Earl of Nottingham, created K.G. in 1575. He 
married Catherine Carey ; and next to him is his brother- 
in-law, George Carey, second Lord Hunsdon, bearing a white 
wand as Lord Chamberlain. He led the bride to church. 
He was created K.G. in 1597. Nottingham's son-in-law, 
Henry Brooke, sixth Lord Cobham, Warden of the Cinque 
Ports, and created K.G. 1599, walks immediately in front of 

* XicholbB Tiogrc^ts (2u.l cJ.), vol. iii. p. 404. 

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the Queen, bearing the sword of state. As the sword, on state 
occasions, was carried by different persons of high rank and 
holding various oflBices, this portrait is ascertained and authen- 
ticated by a reference to Hogenberg's very rare contempo- 
rary print of him. George Clifford, Earl of Cumberland 
(who led the bride from the church), is easily identified as 
the head between Lord Hunsdon and Lord Cobham. He 
was elected K.G. in 1692. The Earl of Rutland, Roger 
Manners (Earl from 1588 to 1612), did not receive the 
honour of the Garter. He led the bride from church, and is 
probably the left-hand bearer of the pole, looking back, next. 
to Lord Cobham, Another distinguished person, namely, 
Lord Herbert of Cardiffe, son of the Earl of Pembroke, and 
resident at Bay nard's Castle in the near neighbourhood, would 
also be expected to be present at such a ceremony.* He, to- 
gether with Lord Cobham, led the bride to chuich, and I 
think his figure is to be recognised as the one bearing the 
pole between Lord Cobham and the Earl of Worcester. His 
face is seen directly in profile. He also was not distinguished 
by the order of the Garter. 

The next that I shall touch upon is the gaily-dressed slim 
figure standing between the bridegroom and his father. 
The richness and peculiar ornamentation of the dress remind 
me of the well-known full-length portraits of Sir Walter 
Raleigh, bearing date 1602. Nor does it seem utterly im- 
probable that this figure might have been intended for him. 
The prominent part taken by Lord Cobham in the ceremonial 
here represented, and the circumstance of Raleigh having 
been joined with him on a special mission to Flanders, 
from which both had only just returned (see Oldy's Life 
of Raleigh, p. 134), tend materially to strengthen the sup-' 
position. Again, the introduction of Raleigh in a position 
of such high favour with his sovereign would only serve to 
mark with still greater emphasis the fact that the Earl of 
Essex, the Queen's former favourite, was not only absent 
from the scene, but, at this very juncture, languishing in 
disgrace. It is somewhat remarkable that seven of the prin- 
cipal noblemen represented in this picture sat the following 
year as commissioners at the trial of Essex. Their names, 
according to Camden's Annals,® are as follows : — 1, Earl of 

* Collins(l77P),vol.iii. p. 122; Lodge, * P. 033, a« printed iu Keucutt'a Uis- 

vol. v., pi. 86. tory of Eughiud. 

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Nottingham ; 2, Earl of Worcester ; 3, Earl of Cumberland ; 
4, Earl of Hertford ; 5, Lord Hunsdon ; 6, Lord Cobham ; 7, 
Lord Howard of Walden. 

On the other hand, it must be admitted that the position of 
the figure now under consideration, by being brought so dis- 
tinctly within a family group, and completely filling the only 
space between the Earl of Worcester and his bridegroom- 
son, would most probably have been connected with them 
by near ties of relationship* In that case, the personage in 
question might possibly be taken for Thomas, the second 
son of the Earl of Worcester, and brother to the bride- 
groom. He was sent by the Privy Council to Scotland » to 
notify the Queen's death in 1603. He was created K.B. 
the following year, and held the office of Master of the 
Horse to Queen Anne of Denmark. He was created Vis- 
count Somerset of Cassell in 1 626,^ There certainly is, as 
Mr. Nichols subsequently remarked to me, a tinge of family 
likeness about the countenance. 

But, of all persons, the one most naturally to be found in 
this position would be Edward Russell, the third Earl of 
Bedford, and husband of Lucy Harrington, already men- 
tioned. With the purpose principally of identifying this 
nobleman in the picture, I visited Woburn Abbey, and there 
met with two very characteristic portraits of him. Both 
were distinguished by a wart on the left cheek towards the 
mouth,- a part of the face which in this picture unfortunately 
falls into shadow. I could not, however, recognise any 
decidedly satisfactory points of identity about the features ; 
nevertheless, allowance must be made for the difierence of 
years, as one of the Woburn pictures bears date 1616, and 
the other appears to have been painted still later. This 
Earl seems always to have led a secluded life, and never 
distinguished himself by any public action. His decease 
took place in May, 1627. He did not receive the honour 
of the Garter ; and the absence of this badge, combined 
with the extreme elegance and richness of the figure in 
question, considerably increases the probability of the Earl 
having been the person really intended by the painter. 

The last figure to which I shall invite attention is on the 
extreme left hand, in advance of the Earl of Nottingham, 
and appears to be Thomas, first Lord Howard of Walden, 

' Vide CoIUdb's Peerage, 1812, vol. i. p. 229 ; and Eduiondson's Tables, toI. i. p. 20. 

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afterwards Earl of Suffolk, Constable of the Tower. He was 
elected Knight of the Garter, 1597. His portrait is well 
known ; there is a fine whole-length of him at Woburn 
Abbey, dated 1608, and another, taken in later years, at 
Castle Howard. It was this nobleman who observed the 
stores of gunpowder under the Parliament House, which led 
to the apprehension of Guy Fawkes. We must admit that 
the various faces introduced in the picture are not remark- 
able for boldness or decision of character. This is, perhaps, 
owing to a weakness on the part of the artist, whose work is 
neat and clean, add with a purity and delicacy of colour which 
are extremely agreeable. But the mild treatment of the 
features renders positive identification a matter of consider- 
able difficulty. Flattery would scarcely be withheld from 
the countenance of the Queen, and, as in the already quoted 
representation of her Majesty, contributed by the Marquis 
of Salisbury to the present Exhibition, no absolute reliance 
can be placed upon it, in the light of strict portraiture. 
** Age " certainly was not allowed to " wither hei-.^' Some 
of the ornaments upon the Queen's hair, in No. 359, the 
Marquis of Exeter's, show a close resemblance to those in 
the Sherborne Castle picture. The badges worn on the ladies' 
left arms do not appear to have any special significance, nor 
do they exhibit any particular feature in common. Judging 
by the delicate and careful way in which the picture is painted, 
combined with a considerable amount of judicious manage- 
ment of light and shadow, blended with elaborate finish, I 
infer that it is the production of some skilful pei-son not 
altogether in the habit of working in oil colours. The paint- 
ing reminds me of the miniatures of Isaac Oliver, — or, more 
correctly, Olivier^ since he invariably signs his works in this 
manner. Olivier, like his illustrious successor. Van Dyck, 
was a resident in Black Friars, and would only have been 
depicting a scene with which he was familiar. To him, 
therefore, rather than to Marc Gheeraedts, I would assign 
its execution. Isaac died at his house in the Black Friars 
in 1617, aged sixty -one or sixty-two. He was buried in St. 
Anne's Church in that parish.® It is much to be regretted 
that no monogram, date, or indication of the painter's name 
has hitherto been detected. The picture is painted on 
fine canvas in opaque colours, and with much body of 

* Walpole'd Anecdotea, edited by Dullaway aud Woruum, p. 182. 

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paint Vertue, in his engraving, has introduced feet to 
the figure of the bride, >vhich do not appear in the original 
picture. The steep ascent of the ground, and roughness of 
the irregularly-shaped paving-stones, are carefully expressed 
in the painting. The shadows from the figures are more 
decidedly marked than in most pictures of this period. With 
regard to the distant landscape, no importance can be attached 
to the various features there represented. Numerous instances 
could be adduced of absurdly fanciful backgrounds being 
introduced behind well-known buildings, the latter being, in 
themselves, most accurately portrayed. Every Dignitary in 
the picture is bareheaded, with the exception of the Lord 
High Admiral, who wears a small close-fitting black skull- 
cap. Ko person carries a hat in his hand. Two or three 
females among the distant spectators wear high-pointed 
hats, but they ai-e very remote. The dresses are minutely 
painted, and there is a total absence of gilding throughout 
the picture. None of the men wear earrings ; all the noble- 
men's cloaks are black satin, and of the short Spanish cut. 
All legs are remarkably thin. The shoes are uniformly 
white, with ties of same colour on the instep. All the 
courtiers, with the exception of the Earl of Cumberland, 
wear full-spreading lace rufis. 

A repetition of this painting is said to be at Lord Ilches- 
ter*s, and it would be interesting to ascertain whether the 
proportions of that picture remain the same, and whether 
the central house exhibits such additional upper stories, 
roofs, and chimneys, as to justify the features shown in the 
engraving in the first edition of Nichols's "Progresses," 
already referred to. 

There appear to have been two great houses at Black 
Friars, immediately near the smaller one of Lady Russell's, as 
the following letter from Chamberlain to Carlton shows : — 
•'June 13, 1600. We shall have the great marriage on 
Monday, at the Lady Russell's, where it is saide the Queene 
will vouchsafe her presence, and lie at the Lord Chamber- 
lain's or the Lord Cobhani's." Lord Cobham had married 
Frances Howard, daughter of the Earl of Nottingham, and 
widow of the Earl of Kildare, which readily accounts for 
the Lord High Admiral's prominent position. The Lady 
Cobham is probably among the crowd of attendants follow- 
ing the bride. It would also have been very satisfiictory to 

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identify the Countess of Nottingham, that enemy of Essex, 
whom Queen Elizabeth handled so roughly three years later 
on her death-bed, but the materials are scarcely sufficient. 

A limning, or drawing in water-colours, of Queen Eliza- 
beth's procession, in her visit to Hunsdon, was sold among 
the Earl of Oxford's pictures, March 13, 1741-2. It is No. 
46, the last entry but one, in the catalogue, and was pur- 
chased by Mr. Rudge for the sum of £61 9^. This limning 
was in all probability the one alluded to by Vertue, as 
haying been taken for Lord Oxford, by special leave from 
the owner. 

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Ottgmal lBocument0« 


Ttom the muniments of WHITEHALL DOD, Beq., at LUnerch Pork, Flintshire. 

To the courtesy of Mr. WLitehall Dod, through the obliging request of 
Dr. Kendrick of Warrington, vie are indebted for permission to examine 
several documents preserved amongst the evidences of his family at Llanerch 
Park, near St. Asaph. With these documents, valuable as throwing tight 
on the descent of property chiefly in Shropshire and Staffordshire, the 
subjoined Indulgence has been found. 

On a former occasion some remarks were offered on documents of this 
description ; an example was then given of an Indulgence issued in 1461 
by the Pope's Commissaries- General ad hoect and authorising the appoint- 
ment, by the person for whose benefit it was intended, of a confessor, wlio 
might hear his confession and grant him absolution of all sins, A&c., with 
certain exceptions specially mentioned.* Some notices were also given of 
certain Indulgences granted by Papal authority to members of certain con- 
fraternities, such, for example, as those connected with the Hospital of the 
Holy Trinity and St. Thomas the Martyr of Canterbury, in Rome. The 
following Indulgence, however, differs in some of its details from those to 
which attention has been already invited. Documents of this nature are, 
moreover, by no means of frequent occurrence, and they may serve inci- 
dentally to throw light on the history of conventual establishments in this 
country, and also on the privileges that they enjoyed. We gladly avail 
ourselves of the kind permission of Mr. Whitehall Dod that the subjoined 
Indulgence should be printed in this Journal, and hope that it may prove 
acceptable as supplementary to the notices that will be found in a previous 

The Friars of the Order of the Holy Trinity, called Trinitarians or 
Maturines, enjoyed probably a large measure of public syinputhy, from the 
special purposes of benevolence to which they were devoted. The order 
was instituted in France about 1197, and confirmed by Pone Innocent III. 
(1198-1216), by whom their ** Regula," which will be found in Dugdale's 
Monasticon, was approved.' The great excitement, it will be remembered, 
that 80 rapidly spread through Western Europe, had for a century been 
8U:itained with unabated ardour. The first crusade was published in 10J4. 
How many must have beeu the wounded and captive victims of tiie Holy 
Voyage, that had worn out their misery in the dungeons of the infidel ! 

* Aivliaeo. Jouru., vol. xvii. p. 250. 

* Diijsilale's )iou. Aug., edit Caloy, vol. vi. p. 1553. 

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The delivernnce of Christians incarcerated for the faith was an ohjcct which 
could not fail to win the sympathy of all classes. The Trinitarians appear 
to have been brought into England in 1224, their first house bein^ founded 
in that year at Modenden, in Kent. Eleven houses are enumerated in the 
recent edition of the Monasticon. Amongst these is the house at Knares- 
borough, established in the reign of Henry III. by the king of the Romans. 
It seems to have occupied the site of an hermitage on the rocky banks of 
the Nid, where, according to Leland, Robert Flower, subsequently desig- 
nated St. Robert of Knaresborough, had taken bis dwelling-place in a cave, 
still an object of curious interest.' 

The Friars of the Order of the Holy Trinity enjoyed numerous privileges, 
conceded doubtless in consideration of their benevolent purpose ; these 
privileges were, moreover, extended to the confraires and conzororeSy to 
each of whom a formal recognition in writing (** scriptum confraternitatis ") 
was delivered, specifying the benefits to which they were entitled respec- 
tively, and the conditions on which they were granted. The privileges 
conceded to the House of the Order at Hounslow by Clement V., and to 
the brethren and sisters by Alexander IV. and other pontiffs, seem to have 
been even more ample, according to the statements of Thomas Becon, than 
those enumerated in the subjoined document.^ 

The Indulgence that has been so kindly entrusted to us by Mr. Whitehall 
Dod, was granted by Robert Bolton, designated *' Minister " of the House 
of Knaresborough. It may deserve observation that the Masters of the 
houses of the Order of the Holy Trinity seem to have been thus styled. 
In the Regula before mentioned, approved by Innocent III., we 6nd that 
the official sometimes called, in other orders, a Procurator, was in this 
order to be named Minister, to whom obedience was enjoined.' There 
was, however, a Minor as well as a Major Minister; their duties are dis- 
tinctly defined respectively. No list of the Ministri of Knaresborough has 
been published. We believe that collections for the history of this House 
have been made by an antiquary well versed in the monastic history and 
archa3ology of Yorkshire, and to whose obliging communications we have 
formerly been indebted. We hope that the author of the Memorials of 
Fountains Abbey, which may be mentioned as one of the most valuable 
works that have appeared under the auspices of the Surtees Society, may 
at some future time undertake the history of the Priory of Knares- 
borough, and its origin in the ancient hermitage on the banks of the Nid. 

Mr. Burtt has called our attention to an imperfect impression of the seal 
of the Minister of the House of St. Robert, near Knaresborough, in 1465. 
It is appended to a document amongst the muniments of the Dean and 
Chapter of Westminster : we have obtained a fac-simile from Mr. Ready. 
The device of the seal, which is of pointed-oval form, represents a seated 
figure of a paint, probably intended for St. Robert, seen in profile towards 
the right. The head, which is surrounded by a nimbus, is inclined slightly 
downwards towards an open book that the holy person here portrayed 

' See the Legend of St. Robert, given S71. See also HnrgroveVs Knaresborough, 

by Mr. Walbran, in the memorials ot &c. Leland's Itiu., vol. i. p. 98. 

Fountoios Abbey, edited for the Surtccs ' The Keliques of Home, Lond. 1563, 

Society. This curious legend is ex fo. 190. 

tracted from a MS. in possetiaion of ihe * See the Regula, Diig<l. Mon. Ang., 

Duke of Newcaatle ; it hod been iraper- vol. vi. p. 1649, Caley'a edition. 
fectly given in Diake'.* Kboracum, f. boO, 

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holclfl uponi his knees. Before him is a stem ot a tree with leafy boiighs, 
probably typifying tlie sylvan seclusion in whicb he dwelled. A portion 
of the legend, in bold capitals, remains on the right side of the seal. 

INISTRI DOMYS... and at the end may be deciphered one or two damaged 

letters, possibly the termination of the word Knaresborough. In its perfect 
state tlie seal may have measured about an inch and a half in height. The 
date of the matrix of which this is an impression may be assigned to the 
thirteenth century : the seal may have been coeval with the foundation of 
the House. 

• A. W. 


Universis Christi fidelibus presentes literas inspecturis Nos, Frater 
Ilobertus Boltone Minister domus Sancti Robert! juzta Knaresbroughe 
Eboracensis Diocesis ac ordiuis sancte Trinitatis et redempcioois captivo- 
rum qui sunt incarcerati pro fide Jhesu Christi a paganis, salutem in eo 
per quern omnium peccatorum plena sit remissio. Notum facimus quod 
cum plurimi Roman! pontifices omnes et singulos Gonfratres et Consorores 
niultis privilegiis dotaverunt, presertim in eo quod nostr! Gonfratres ct 
Gonsorores possint sib! annuatini eligero ydoneum presbiterum seculariuai 
vel cujusvis ordinis, eciam nieudicancium religiosum, in suum possunt eligere 
Gonfessorem qui eos absolvant ab omnibus casibus Sedi Apostolice non 
reservatis, et semel in vita ab omnibus pcccatis eciam a casibus Sedi 
Apostolice quomodolibet reservatis. Que quidem privilegia ipsa Sanctis- 
simus in Ghristo pater et dominus noster dominus Innocencius Papa octavus 
modernus confirmavit et approbavit, et in articulo mortis plenariam omnium 
peccatorum suorum Indulgenciam et remissiouem eis impertiri valeat, et 
quiiibet Gonfrater habobit scriptum dicte confraternitatis, et eiidem sepul- 
tura ecclesiastica non negetur quacumque morte moriatur, nisi nominatim 
fuerit ezcommunicatus, Presbiteris et Glericis ct aliis Sacerdotibus secular!- 
bus ac viris religiosis tarn mulieribus cujuscumque religionis et habitus 
quam Monialibus, si dicto ordiui de bonis suis trausmiserint, quidcumque per 
iiiipotenciam, neccligenciam, oblivionem aut corporis debilitatem, vel per 
defectum librorum in diviuis o£fic!is aut horis Ganouicis obmiserint, pcnitus 
est eis remissum. Gum igitur devot! nobis in Ghristo Johanuem Dod* et 
Matildam uxorem ejus fraternitatem suam mode confraternitatis confratrio 
sue promisit, dc bonis que suis contribuerit, tenorcm literarum Apostolica-r 
rum adimplendam, ideo ipsos associamus in vita pariter et in morte una 
cum omnibus amicis vivis ac defunctis in omnibus suffragiis nostre predicto 
, religionis. Datum sub sigillo nostre Gonfratcrnitatis, Auno domini Millc- 
simo cccc. nonagesimo prime. 

The three following formula are endorsed on tlio Indulgence : — 

Forma absolucionis annualis. — Dominus noster Jhc£us Christus per suam 
plissimam misericordiam absolvat te. Et ego, Auctoritate ApostoUca 

* A Urge blank seeins to have been pared for one porion, and not ouly are 

left for the umme; ''Johannem Dod" two Dimes inserted, but they are iu the 

seems to be written in the same pide ink aocusative case iustead of the nominative. 

as the form of confraternity, and possibly It is probable that the sentence shoul^ 

by the same hand; the word '* IdD&tildam" hare run thus :—" deroti nobis in Ghristo 

is in different ink, and unskilfully written Johannes Dod et Miitilda uxor ejus ... . 

quite out of the straight line. There promiserint, de bonisque suis contribue- 

appears to be a double error iu this part rint/ &c.] 
of the Indulgence. The form was prc- 


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michi in hae parte commiBsa et tibi concessa, absolro te ab omnibus 
peccatia tuis contritis confessiB et oblitis Sedi Apostolice non reserratis. lu 
nomine patridi etc. 

Forma absolucionis eemel in vita. — Dominua noster Jhesus Christus per 
saam piissimam misericordiam absolvat te* £t ego, Auctoritate ApostoUca 
michi in hac parte commissa et tibi concessa, absolve te ab omnibus 
pcccatis tuis contritis confessis et oblitis, eciam a casibus Sedi Apostolice 
quomodolibet reservatis. In nomine patris, etc. 

Forma absolucionis et remissionia plenarie in articulo mortis. — Dominus 
noster Jhesus Christus per suam piissimam misericordiam absolvat te. Et 
ego, Auctoritate Apostolica michi in hac parte commiasa et tibi concessa, 
absolve te ab omnibus peccatis tuis contritis confessis et oblitis. Et do tibi 
eciam plenariam omnium peccatorum tuorum remissionem et Indulgenciam, 
remittendo tibi penas purgatorii quaa pro peccatis et offensis tuis pati 
meruisti, in quantum clares sancte matris ecdesie se extcndunt in hac 
parte. In nomine patris, etc. 

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$roceeliln0)S at fiSitttiwQfi oC tfie Slrcljneolofllcal Institute*. 

April 9, 1866. 
The Marquess Camdex, E.G., Presideat, in the Chair* 

A SHORT memoir, by the Rev. Grxtille J. Chester, was read, describing 
a collection of ancient remains found on the site of Carthage, and preserred 
in the garden-house of the Rhasnadar, or First Lord of the Treasury at 
Tunis. The account of these interesting relics, including a singular leaden 
font, of Christian times, bearing an inscription in Greek characters, will be 
given hereafter. 

Col. Augustus Lane*Fox read an account of the remarkable antiquities 
that he had explored during the previous year in Ireland. His attention 
had been directed to an ancient stronghold in the parish of Aglish, co. 
Cork, known as Rooyesmore Fort, on the Western side of which he found 
an entrance to a small subterraneous passage, covered over by slabs of 
sandstone inscribed with Oghams* Col. Fez had successfully met the 
prejudices of the neighbouring inhabitants, and he gained permission to 
remove the inscribed .slabs. He has presented these remarkable monu- 
ments of paleography at an early period to the British Museum, where 
they will form a fresh feature of evidence, worthy of being placed with the 
" Fardell Stone " that was added to the National Collection through the 
efforts of Mr. Smirke, and has been figured in this Journal, vol. xviil. 
p. 175. 

A memoir by Professor Jambs Buckhan, F.G.S., was read, describing 
vestiges of British and Roman occupation found in the Isle of Portland, 
and accompanied by numerous drawings of ancient relics of bronze and 
stone, pottery, &c*, disinterred during the recent construction of the Vern 
Fort. These notices will be given hereafter, with engravings of some of 
the most interesting of the objects that have been brought to light in 

Mr. Hewitt offered somo observations on a collar of mail, of the early 
part of the fifteenth century ; it is preserved in the Museum of Artillery 
at Woolwich, and was brought for exhibition by permission of Brig.-Gene- 
ral Lefroy. Mr. Hewitt pointed out the sepulchral brass of Sir William 
de Tendring, in the Church of Stoke-by-Nayland, Suffolk (date 1408), as 
an exemplification of the fashion of wearing such a gorget or " standard 
of mail," which differs materially from the ordinary camail, and seems to' 
have been a defence supplementary to tho gorget of plate. The remark- 
able brass at Stoke is figured in Mr. Hewitt's Armour and Arms in Europe, 
vol. iii. pi. 56, p. 369 ; Cotman*8 Suffolk Brasses, pi. viii. Mr. Hewitt 

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also exhibited photographs of highly-decorated shields of the sixteentli 
century in the Armouries at Windsor Castle and at Paris. 

Mr. Burtt then read some observations by Mr. B. W. Godwin on the 
various phases of modern '' Vandalism," and especially in the injuries to 
which ancient structures are so frequently subject through "restorations." 
Occasionally, as he remarked, there seems to be some excuse for the de- 
struction of late work in order to uncover that which is of an older 
period ; it is, however, impossible to do this without sacnficing the histo- 
rical significance of portions of the fabric thus removed, and which con- 
stitute ^^sential evidence of its architectural history. Mr. Qodirin wished 
specially to invite the notice of the Institute, and of archssologists gene- 
rally, to the building in Small Street» Bristol, known as ** Colston's 
House." A site for Assize Courts having become necessary, that inte- 
resting structure peemed to be doomed : remonstrances were, however, 
urged by several Societies, and in Architectural and Archaeological publi- 
cations, the Insult being that, at a meeting of the Town Council of Bristol, 
it seemed i6 be admitted that if the old work could be saved, with due 
regard to the accommodation required, the Council had no objection to its 
prese^rvation. Shortly after, an advertisement for designs appeared, and 
three were prepared by Mr. Godwin, with the object of showing how the 
site might bo treated, — first, by the restoration of the first house, or Nor- 
man Hall, which was immured in the later work ; — by preserving all the 
medisBval buildings that the new line of street spared ; — and, lastly, point- 
ing out the most that could be done by clearing the site and preserving 
nothing. These designs were received with unexpected approval ; Mr. 
Godwin expressed the hope that the first might be adopted, in which he 
had provided for the preservation of the Norman Hall as a vestibule to the 
Nisi Prius Court* lie apprehended, however, that this course might be 
subject to serious objections, since the street, which happens to be parti- 
cularly narrow, must be widened, so that the traffic may be carried on 
with ordinary despatch and convenience ; indeed a new line of street had 
been laid down which cuts ofi* a considerable portion of Colston's House, 
destroying the gabled facade added when he took the property. This 
being destroyed, there remain, besides walls of Norman rubble masonry, 
two great features — one of them being the nave of a Norman Hall run- 
ning N. and S., with its Eastern nrcade of three arches buried in masonry 
of the later part of the fifteenth or beginning of the sixteenth century ; 
the other, a two-storied structure of the same period, being an extension 
of the Eastern Norman aisle. The architecture of this last, although at 
first sight very rich, is not rare ; in the West of England there are exam- 
ples, and the building in question is only a repetition of six panels one over 
the other. On the other hand, the Norman, or rather semi-Norman, work 
is the only example, in Bristol or the neighbourhood, of a Domestic Hall 
of that interesting period when the round arch began to give place to the 
pointed. The shafts are light And clustered ; the end arches rest on bold 
corbels. With tho exception of one corbel, these early remains were 
iiiviiiible until lately ; but, under direction of the Conservation Committee 
of the Bristol Architectural Society, the features of early masonry so 
long immured in Colston's House have been rendered so far visible that 
the archsBologist may feel assured that the greater part of a twelfth cen- 
tury Hall still remains. In conclusion, Mr. Godwin strongly urged the 
importance of more vigilant conservatism on the part of Archaeological 

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Societies, and of all who appreciate the value of ancient monumepts, in 
order to ensure their preservation not less from reckless advocates of local 
convenience, than from the ill-advised promoters of *' restoration." 

£j the kindness of Mr. Godwin a plan of Colston's Ilouse was submitted 
to the meeting. We are not aware that anj accurate Survey of that in- 
teresting structure has b^en published. A view of the House will be 
found in Mr. Parkers Domestic Architecture, Part 1. p. 35. 

Mr. F. M. Metoalfjs called attention to the proposed destruction of a 
portion pf the chancel screen of the church of Emneth, Cambridgeshire, 
which has recently undergone ^'restoration." The screen, a work of 
r^rpendipular chf^racter, had paneled and carved gates of coeval date, 
foi'ming ftu integral portion of the work. Mr. Metcalfe had tendered a 
contribution towards the repf^ir of the screen, an object which he regarded 
wjth interest ; having, however, ascertained that the Vicar had ordered 
the gates to be removed, Mr. Metcalfe remonstrated against the destruc- 
tion of ^n original portion of the screen spared ju ^ajh of reckless demo- 
lition in the piztcenth and seventeenth centuries. This appeal proving 
unsuccessful, Mr. Metcalfe sought to interest his archieological friends in 
the preservation of the screen-work at Emneth. 

The question, and also that set forth by Mr. Godwin, was referred to 
the Central Committee. A courteous remonstrance, subsequently addressed 
to the Vicar of Emneth, expressing regret that yestiges of olden times 
should be destroy edi however well-intentioned may be the so-called " re- 
storations" of our venerable parish churches, produced oqly an intimation 
of the displeasure of the Incumbent, who, in a letter addressed to the 
lamented President of the Institute, the Marquess Camden, strongly de- 
precated any interference of the lusUtute with the affairs of his Parish. 

By Mr. F. Potts. — A cameo, and an ornament formed of agate, that 
had originally enriched an antique vase of the Roman period. 

By the Rev. H. Aston Walkbr. — A folding devotional tablet of ivory, 
a work of thirteenth century art 

By Capt. E. Hoarb. — Cameo on onyx, set as a ring ; the subject, in 
very high relief, is the head of Hannibal, with the Phrygian helmet ; the 
work is of fine character. There is a cameo of similar design, but of 
larger sise, in the Marlborough collection. The cameo exhibited had been, 
as Capt. Uoare states, in possession of his mother's family (Barry of Dublin 
and CO. Cork), and of her mother's family (Lyons of the King's County), 
for nearly three centuries. 

Mbdijsval Seals. — By Mr. W. P. Elsted. — Impression from a silver 
iecretum or counterseal lately found on the beach at Dover, and now in 
the possession of Capt. Williams of that place. The antique intaglio, on 
sard, which forms the setting, is much injured, the gem being shattered 
probably by the shingle in which the seal had lain ; the subject, however, 
may be discenied, namely Mercury, with his accustomed attributes, the 
caducous and purse. The seal is of pointed oval form ; dimensions, 
slightly more than an inch by seven-eighths. The silver rim is inscribed 
as follows : — + siqill' : iohamnis : lb ftrmaoer. A star and crescent 
are introduced in a little space over the gem. Date, thirteenth century. 
The name Le Furmagor, Formager, Le Formger, also Furmage, Formage, 

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&c., occur repeatedly in the Huudred Rolls, but Mr. Elsted has not found 
it in connection with Kent. It is doubtless one of the numerous names 
derived from trade or occupation ; the dealers in cheese, fourmagiers or 
fromagiers^ were numerous in mediayal times. It appears by the TailU 
taken in Paris in the reign of Philippe le Bel that, in 1292, there were 
not less than eighteen Fourmagiers in that city. The name is still to be 
traced, as suggested by Mr. Lower, in the modem Firminger or Purminger, 
given in his Patronymica Britannica. 

By Mr. R. R. Catok, F.S.A. — Two silver matrices purchased at 
Boulogne. One of them, date early in the thirteenth century, is of circular 
form, diameter three quarters of an inch ; the handle six-sided, terminating 
in a trefoiled opening ; the device is an escutcheon charged with a bend 
between a lion rampant and three cinqfoils in base. This escutcheon is 
placed within a sex-foiled panel or compartment ; in the spaces between 
its cusps, around the margin of' the seal, is the legend — s' iako le bice. 
The Christian name may be a diminutive of Jehanot, equivalent to our 
familiar name Johnny ; the surname is probably le Biche, one of common 
occurrence. The other matrix, date the latter half of the fifteenth century, 
is likewise of ^ circular form ; diameter about H in. ; the handle is a piece 
of open scroll-work attached by a hinge to tho reverse of the seal, on which 
two little crosses are engraved, marking the top of the matrix. The device 
is St. Martin on horseback, dividing his cloak with his sword; a diminutive 
cripple crouches at the side of the horse. Legend, 8 * secretvic giyitatis . 
AMARSWILER. We are informed by Dr. Keller that Amersweiler or Mari- 
villier is a town near Colmar, dep. Upper Rhine. 

May 4, 1866. 
Tho Marquess Camj)EN, K.G., President, in the Chair. 

The Rev. J. L. Petit, F.S.A., read a memoir on MedisBval Architecture 
in tho East. He placed before the meeting a large series of drawings 
executed by Miss Petit and himself in the course of a recent tour in Greece 
and Egypt. The memoir is printed in this volume, with numerous illustra- 
tions presented by the autlior with his wonted kindness and liberality. 

Mr. R. H. SoDEN Smith, F.S.A., read some observations on the jewelry 
and decorations of the portraits now exhibited at South Kensington. He 
illustrated his remarks by the exhibition of several personal ornaments, 
similar to those which appear in the portraits to which he referred. In the' 
discussion that ensued some interesting particulars were stated by Mr. 
Octavius Morgan, M.P., and by Mr. George Scharf. It was pointed out 
that the black jewels frequently to be observed in portraits, especially 
those of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, were probably intended 
to represent diamonds. The artists of that period, unable to give the effect 
of great brilliancy, by which the diamond is characterised, contented them- 
selves with a conventional mode of delineating that precious stone. Mr. 
Soden Smith's remarks will be given fully hereafter. 

Mr. James Yates drew attention to a letter which appeared in the 
Daily News, February 26, showing the imminent danger to which the 
venerable Benedictine Monastery of Monte Cassino is exposed by the 
intended law for the extinction of all ecclesiastical corporations. This 
letter, written by Mr. Oscar Browning, one of the Masters of Eton, cor- 
rectly describes the circumstances. It shows what strong claims Monte 

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Cassino has on students of arcbeology and all friends of literature, in 
consequence of the services which it renders to Icarniog, and which it has 
rendered for 1500 years. "If we are saved," said one of the monks to 
Mr. Browning, " it will be by the public opinion of Europe." Mr. Yates 
had made further inquiries from Signer Bartholomeo Cini, a man of in- 
fluence and* distinction and especially well-informed, at Florence. This 
gentleman writes as follows : — 

'* I hare spoken to several members of our Parliament, and in particular 
to the Minister of Public Instruction, who introduced the law for the aboli- 
tion of religious corporations. It cannot, it seems, be expected that any 
exception in favor of the abbey of Monte Cassino can bo introduced into 
the law itself. It is occupied by the Benedictine monks, who occupy also 
several other convents in Italy, in which they no longer study as in former 
times, but absolutely do nothing. The law does not abolish one convent 
before another, but one order of monks before another. Hence it would 
either be necessary to except tho entire order of the Benedictines, and 
consequently all the convents which they inhabit, or to leave the law to bo 
applied to the convent of Monte Cassino as well as to the others. It is 
not to be inferred that the great services formerly rendered to civilisa- 
tion by Monte Cassino have been forgotten, and that in the frenzy of 
reformation it is wished to destroy a monument, which, as you say, is an 
ornament and an honour to Italy. The Minister has assured me, that the 
means will be found of maintaining Monte Cassino m its present condition 
by establishing in it some school or other institution, by which the monu- 
ment may be preserved, and the studies, formerly the glory of the Bene- 
dictines, be continued in it. If I shall obtain any further information upon 
this subject, which, you may be assured, here engages the attention of all 
friends of science and the arts^ I shall lose no time in communicating it to 

Notwithstanding the consolatory style of this letter, and the good inten- 
tions which it expresses on the part of the Italian Government, Mr. Yates 
could not help fearing that this singularly valuable and meritorious estab- 
lishment may be swept away with the others. It appeared to him expe- 
dient that, if popular clamor or financial necessity inclined the Italian 
Parliament to such a step, it might be arrested by the representations of 
men of learning, character, and high social position in this country, since 
our feelings are as friendly as possible, and we look with sympathising inte- 
rest on the brave struggles of that highly-cultivated people. 

In supporting the appeal thus made by Mr. Yates, Dr. Rock said that 
all who heard him could readily believe how deeply he thought and how 
warmly he felt upon the subject now before them. On the score of religion, 
jusUce, and ethics, he was strongly opposed to the contemplated suppression 
and spoliation of all monastic houses in Italy. Putting, however, aside 
these objections, he thought that he saw a ground common to all present — 
to every Englishman, in fact, — standing together upon which they might 
worrantably upraise a loud entreating cry in behalf, if not of the posses- 
sions of the Benedictine Order, at least of Monte Cassino, which ought 
to be now, as much as it had once been, dear to every Englishman. 
Of a surety he was not telling them for the first time what they did not 
know before, but merely bringing back to their minds the fact that, if 
Monte Cassino did not send forth those devoted men who towards the end 
of the sixth century brought Christianity, with all its softening, elevating. 

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civilUing influenceB to ibis, for the most part, then heathenish island, Monte 
Cassino undoubtedly was the cradle that nursed those masters who taught 
the self-denying band sent by St. Gregory the Great to evangelise the Anglo- 
Saxons. Those forefathers of ours soon forsook the rites of Woden for a 
belief in the Gospel, and, laying aside their superstitious songs, learned to 
siog the hymns of the Church to the music of Rome, and after the just- 
found notation of her England-loving pontiff. That was not all : our land 
quickly became fruitful in great and good and holy men, and took and kept 
a high place for learning, zeal, and civilisation among the nations. Through 
those same countrymen of ours the ages that havo been miscalled dark 
became, as far as this country was concerned, the ages of learning, pro- 
gress, and jurisprudence — in fact, of light. Few are the large towns in' 
England in our own days that have not grown out of some Benedictine 
monastery, around which our fathers had built their houses for instruction 
and protection, and were taught the various arts that sweeten life* Many 
were the men who were trained in learning within those cloistered walls ; 
many were the worthies who went forth, like those of old from Monte 
Cassino, to scatter blessings on their path. While Wilfred was busy in 
raising, at Hexham, a church surpassing in splendour anything that had 
been seen on this side of the Alps, he was reaiing in his school a youth, 
Eddi, who soon after knew how to appreciate, at the same time that he was 
able to describe in elegant Latin, all the beauties of the building. The 
same prelate, as he taught the use of nets to his countrymen when they 
were suffering starvation, though they lived by a sea full of wholesome fish, 
let them understand how, for the future, hunger and famine might be driven 
from their shores. At every one of his journeys to Rome, Benet Biscop 
came home more laden than before with costly codices of Holy Writ, with 
profane literature also, and works of sacred art, to enrich the libraries of 
his two monasteries ; whilst for the adornment of the churches he was 
building, he drew with him from Gaul the ablest artificers in glass* Boni- 
face went forth from his cell in Devonshire as a missionary, and by his 
preaching brought over from heathenism so many of the German people 
that even now he is by them looked upon as their apostle, especially as in 
tiieir cause he received the martyr s crown. If Beda kept to his humble 
cloister at Jarrow, it was to write tliose books which to our days havo beon 
tlio delight and study of the Christian world. From his beloved York our 
Alcum was called, by no less a personage than Charlemagne, to arouse by 
his extensive and varied learning the whole of Gaul from that deep sleep of 
ignorance into which it had been cast ; and fur the purpose that king 
cuabled the Anglo-Saxon monk to set up schools and to open universities 
wherever he thought fit. 

Beginning from the moment when he won from his fond mother, by being 
able to read it, the wished-for psalter, so bright with gilding, so gay with 
the illuminations on its pages, wrought by some Betiedictine*s hand, our 
great Alfred, to his death's day, never halted in his glorious work of raising 
this country to a high pitch of grandeur by his laws, his learning, and his 
piety. To him ought wo to be deeply indebted for much that we enjoy in 
our present civilisation, and that freedom which we so warmly love. 

In looking back with warrantable pride upon such men, and deeming 
them, as we may with reason, the glory and light of those ages in which 
they severally lived, we ought not to overlook the fact that, after a manner, 
Monte Cassino was one at least of those fountains which helped to enrich 

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our naiivo land with moral worth, and enablo one of her great sons to con- 
vert the German race to Christianitj, and another to becorao the restorer of 
learning all orer Gaul. Monte Cassino must not be forgotten in its present 
strait. Besides this, the hospitality which that establishment exercises-— 
has always exercised with bountiful willingness — towards every scholar, to 
every wayfarer, no matter his religion and his country, gives it an especial 
claim to oar sympathy. More than this, from tho earliest period in our 
history up to this same year, English guests — no matter what or who — 
have always been, as they yet are, heartily welcomed there. What is 
more, scarcely ever did an Anglo-Saxon prince or wealthy thane go on 
pilgrimage to Rome but he also went to pay his devotions in the church of 
Monte Cassind ; and often, often, did he leave behind him there an offering 
of money, in grateful token of the benefits bestowed by men from that 
house on his country. No doubt if the early records of the monastery were 
examined it would be found that many a broad acre of its present property 
had been bought by Englishmen's gold. 

In the English heart, said Dr. Rock, the feeling of gratitude for kind- 
nesses oftentimes received will never die away, though ages may have past 
since the boon was bestowed. By every right-minded Englishman, learn- 
iDg» gentleness, and hospitality will always be duly appreciated, and those 
who practise the sweetest humanities of life towards rich and poor will 
ever be upheld and protected. For these reasons, besides others that might 
be noticed. Dr. Rock desired heartily to support the appeal so opportunely 
made by our much esteemed member Mr. James Yates. 

Mr. Octavius Morgan, M.P., the Rev. J. Homer, and the Rev. C. W. 
Bingham offered some remarks on the same subject. On Mr. Morgan's 
suggestion it was deteraiined that the question should be referred to the 
Central Committee for their consideration in regard to the course that it 
might be advisable to adopt on behalf of the Institute. 

Brig.-General Lbfrot, R.A., offered some remarks on a helmet lately 
obtained for the Museum of Artillery, Woolwich, nnd attributed to the 
early part of the fourteenth century. It will bo inoro fully noticed 

^niiqxiitUi mtS CQfarkii at ^rt ey^ihiM. 

By Mr. W, F. Vernon. — A convex glass paste, here figured, same size 
as the original. It was found at Rome in 1845, by Mr. Vernon, on the 

property of the King of Naples, on the Palatine Hill, where excavations 
were in progress at that time. The paste is of dark purple or maroon 
VOL. xsiti. B D 

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color. The dovice, io intaglio, is the Christian monogram composed uf the 
letters Chi and Rho. with the inscription in Greek characters, ^OIBEIQN, 
and two palm-hranches. Various interpretations of this legend have been 
proposed. The letters, forming possibly two words, may signify possibly 
i<ay^ the interjection heus, alas ! and Phoebus, or Phoebe, both occurring 
amongst Roman names. Ficoronius, in his Gemmn Litteratn, illustrated 
by Galeotti, Rom. 1757, pi. vi. ^g. 8, p. 43, has figured a gem inscribed 
likewise 4>0IBE — UlN, in two lines, although probably forming one word. 
Galeotti observes that he was unable to determine whether the inscription 
is the name Phoebion, in the singular, or Phoebeiorum, genitire plural, 
denoting two or more persons bearing the name of a family. 

By Mr. E. Greaves. — Three ' specimens of the enameled work of 
Limoges, consisting of a circular plaque^ the portrait of some personage of 
note at the period ; it bears the motto Plus ny aeearde : a dish painted by 
Suzanne Courtois, and a remarkable ohlong plaque, representing the 
Entombment of Our Lord. 

. By Brig.-General Lefuot, R.A.7^A remarkable iron shield and a. head- 
piece/ lately presented to the Museum of Artillery, at Woolwich, by Mr.- 
J. Drummond Hay, by whom they had been rescued from a large store of 
armour that existed some thirty years since in a vault of the Castle at 
Tangiers, and of which information had been given by Mr. W. Veruoni, 
The armour had subsequently been removed by the officials of the Bey, and 
unfortunately destroyed or lost. The Very Rev. Canoii Rock observed that 
in a painting at Granada the Moslem knights appear bearing shields pre- 
cisely similar to that exhibited. He stated that^ about 1836, he had 
obtained at Tangiei*s a shield, a breast-plate, and a skull-cap from the 
hoard of armour in the Castle ; the shield was heart-shaped, with a broad 
band down the middle, and two wide bosses with rings, one on either side, 
from^ which were suspended tasseled cords. The shield appeared to have 
been covered with red tissue. On his return to Spain Dr. Rock visited 
Granada ; he noticed with some surprise at the high altai* of the cathedral, 
numerous figures of the Moslems wearing such head-pieces with white 
turbans around them, and with shields of precisely the same fashion as that 
exhibited. The ratable of the altar — a remarkable sculpture in wood, 
colored — ^represents in its lower division the capture of Granada from the 
Moors. There was at Alton Towers a heart-shaped shield similar to that 
notr at Wo6lwich ; it was presented to the late Earl of Shrewsbury by 
Canon Rock, but we have been unable to ascertain where it is now- 

By Capt. E. Hoare. — A silver seal of the sixteenth century, long pre- 
served by his family, and engraved with their arms — a two-headed eagle 
displayed within a bordure engrailed: the initials E. H. and the date 1517 
are introduced in the field. 

Impressions of Medieval Seals. — By Dr. Kendrick, M.D. — Series of 
casts from the Imperial hullce aurece. These remarkable seals have been 
described by writers on Sphragistic art, especially by Thulemarius, in his 
Treatise **de Bulla aurea," Francof., 1724, where may be found figured 
the bulla of the Emperor Charles IV. The collection of casts exhibited had 
lately been obtained from Francfort ; it comprised obverses and reverses of 
the golden bulls of Frederic II. (1218-50), Rudolph I., Louis IV., Charles 
IV., Sigtsmund, Frederic IV., Maximilian I., Ferdinand I.; Maximilian II.,- 
Matthias, Francis I., and Leopold II. (1790-92). 

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arcfjaeologtcal JnteUigeuce* 

Ik accordance with the deaWe for some memorial of the meeting of the 
Institute in London, it is proposed to publish a selection of memoirs read 
on that occasion that appear of special value, in illustration of the Antiqui- 
ties or the Annals of the Metropolis. A volume, comprising the chief 
•* Contributions towards the History of Old London," is announced bj Mr. 
Murray as in forward preparation ; it will range with the Journal and pub- 
lications of the Society. The Dean of Westminster contributes an Intro- 
ductory Discourse, as President of the Historical Section ; and Mr. Beresford 
Hope, M.P., President in tho Architectural Section, will give his inaugural 
nddress, bearing specially on the chief architectural features of the metropolis, 
ancient and modern. Professor Westmacott, R.A., gives a critical disser- 
tation on Medieval Sculpture, as exemplified in Westminster Abbey ; and 
it is hoped that Mr. Scott, R.A., will take, as his subject, the recently- 
developed features of the Chapter-House. Amongst other memoirs selected 
for Mr. Murray's promised volume will be tho elaborately illustrated Archi- 
tectural History of the Tower of London by Mr. G. T. Clark, and a Dis- 
course on its Historical Association by Mr. Hepworth Dixon, F.S.A. Mr. 
Fobs gives the Legal History of Westminster Hall ; Mr. Burtt has taken a 
subject which he cannot fail to invest with interest — the Historical Treasures 
preserved in the Public Record Office. A Memoir on London,- during the 
stirring events of the times of Stephen, is supplied by the Rev. J. R. Green ; 
and a valuable contribution to the annals of art in tho metropolis is pro- 
mised by Mr. Scharf, relating to the Royal Picture Galleries, and the 
vicissitudes that they have undergone. 

The first portion of the great paleeographic undertaking by Professor 
Stephens of Copenhagen, and lately published there, has been received in 
this country. The work will comprise the old Northern Runic Monuments 
of England and Scandinavia, represented with the most scrupulous accu- 
racy. The first part, consisting of about 150 plates in folio (with 362 pp. 
of letterpress) may now be obtained from Mr. Russell Smith, Soho Square ; 
price £2. 10*. 

We would recommend to our readers the translation of the work by the 
late Director of the Flensborg Museum, Conrad Engelhardt, a collection to 
which we formerly invited attention. It is entitled '* Denmark in the Early 
Iron Age, illustrated by discoveries in the Peat-mosses of Slesvig." The 
volume, in royal 4to, price 31 5. 6d,, recently published by Messrs. Wil- 
liams and Norgate, is largely enriched with engravings and maps. 

Mr. Henry Shaw, F.S.A., whose tasteful reproductions of illuminated 
ornaments, the dresses and decorations of the Middle Ages, are so justly 
admired, announces a Handbook of the Art of Illumination as practised in 
MediiBval times, with a description also of metals, pigments and processes 
employed. The volume will contain sixteen plates selected from the choicest 
examples of English, Flemish, French, German and Italian Art, from tho 
ninth to the sixteenth century. Specimens of the plates may be seen at 
the residence of the author, 103, Southampton Row. 

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€\ft arcliae0l0j3(lcal aournaL 



Bj BDWIN OUBST, LL.D., Mufcar of GonTil and Gaiiu OoUag*^ Gambridge. 

Before we can discuss with advantage the campaign of 
Aulas Plautius in Britain, it will be necessary to settle, or at 
least endeavour to settle, certain vexed questions which have 
much troubled our English antiquaries. The first of these 
relates to the place where Caesar crossed the Thames. CsBsar 
tells us (B. G. V. 11) that " the river called Tamesis divided 
the country of Cassivelaunus from the maritime states about 
eighty miles from the sea ; " and, in another passage 
(B. G. V. 18), that "he led his army tmto the river Tamesis 
to the country of Cassivelaunus. The river was passable on 
foot only at one place, and that with difficulty. When he came 
there, he observed that there were large bodies of the enemy 
drawiuip on the opposite bank. The bank, also, was defended 
with sharpened stakes fixed in front, and stakes of the like kind 
were fixed below under water, and concealed by the river. 
Having Iftarnt thus much from the prisoners and deserters, 
Caesar sent forward the cavalry and immediately ordered the 
legions to follow them ; but the soldiers went at such a pace 
and with such an impetus, though they had only the head 
above water, that the enemy could not resist the impetus of 
the legions and the cavalry, but deserted the bank and took 
to ffight." 

According to Orosius, "nearly the whole ford under 
water " was covered with the stakes ; and Bede, when he 
copies the statement, adds (H. E. i. 2), " The remains of the 

1 This disoourse was delivered in the Archaeological Institute in London, July 
Section of History at the Meeting of the 19, 18G6. 

VOL. XXIII. (No. 91). C C 

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stakes are to be seen there to this very day {usque hodk) ; 
and it appears, upon inspection {inspectantibus), that each of 
them was as thick as a man's thigh, and that they were 
covered {circumfuscB) with lead, and fixed immovably in the 
depths of the river." Bede never saw the Thames ; but it is 
not difficult to point out the man from whom he derived the 
information he has handed down to us. In the opening of 
his Ecclesiastical History he acknowledges his literary obliga- 
tions to a London priest named Nothelm. Nothelm was a 
Londoner born, and died Archbishop of Canterbury, and 
there can be little doubt he was Bede's informant. It 
appears, therefore, that in Bede's time, that is, seven or eight 
centuries after Caesar's invasion, there was some place on the 
Thames where the bottom of the river was covered with 
stakes, and which educated men, who must have been well 
acquainted with the river and its neighbourhood, considered 
to be the place where Caesar crossed it. 

Camden was the first of our modem antiquaries to direct 
attention to this subject. He lighted on a place near Walton 
called "Coway Stakes,'' and as it was " about eighty miles from 
the sea," and as he found there stakes driven into the bed of 
the river, he fixed upon it unhesitatingly as the place where 
Caesar crossed the Thames. It is probable that many of the 
stakes had been removed even before Camden's time, owing 
to the requirements of the navigation ; but a considerable 
number of them were, no doubt, remaining when Gale visited 
the place in 1 734. He tells us (Arch. i. 183), "As to the wood 
of the stakes, it proves its own antiquity, being, by its long 
duration under water, so consolidated as to resemble ebony, 
and will admit of a polish, and not in the least rotted. It is 
evident from the exterior grain of the wood that the stakes 
were the entire bodies of young oak trees, there not being 
the least appearance of any tool to be seen upon the whole 
circumference, and if we allow in our calculation for the 
gradual increase of growth towards its end where fixed in 
the river, the stake, I think, will exactly answer the thick- 
ness of a man's thigh, as described by Bede ; but whether 
they were soldered with lead at the end fixed in the bottom 
of the river is a particular I could not learn : but the last 
part of Bede's description is certainly just, that they are un- 
movable, and remain so to this day." 

At present, when a pile is driven into the bed of a river, it 

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is shod with iron, and also has its upper end strengthened with 
bands of iron, to prevent its splitting. The stakes could 
hardly have been shod with so soft a metal as lead ; but as 
iron was costly {ejus emgtia est copia^ B. Gr. v. 12), and lead 
was produced even at that early period in great abundance, 
the latter metal may have been used to wrap round the 
stakes, to give them greater stiffness. The uppermost plates 
of lead must have been removed when the stakes were 
sharpened, and the rest may have been stripped off in later 
times by the fishermen. 

Hitherto there had been a pretty general agreement 
among our antiquaries as to the locality of Cesar's ford. 
But, soon after Gale's visit, Daines Barrington went to Coway, 
and thought he had discovered a " decisive proof that the 
opinions prevalent on this subject were erroneous. A fisher- 
man, who " had been employed by some gentlemen to take 
up the stakes at that place/' told him that the stakes were 
ranged across the river, and, consequently, not in a position 
to oppose any impediment to Csasar's passage. He refused 
therefore to consider them to be the stakes referred to by 
CsBsar, and suggested that they might be the remains of 
some fishing weir. At the beginning of the present century. 
Bray, the editor of Manning's " History of Surrey,'' paid a 
visit to Coway, and was told that the stakes were ranged 
across the river in two rows^ some nine feet apart. The 
fisherman, his informant, had weighed several of the stakes, 
each as thick as his thigh and shod with iron, and sold them 
for half-a-guinea a piece to a foolish antiquary. Only one 
stake was then remaining. Bray seems to have been half 
inclined to adopt the fisherman's notion, that the stakes 
were the remains of a bridge.^ 

All this conflict of opinion appears to have arisen from a 
false assumption. Our antiquaries assume that the stakes were 
fixed in the bed of the river merely to prevent Csesar's passage. 
I beUeve them to have been fixed there for a very different 
purpose, years before Csasar came into the island. I think 
the stakes formed part of what may be called a fortified ford, 
and were distributed so as to stop all transit over the river, 

* Manning and Bray, HUtoiy of Sur- Journ. vol. zvi. p. 208, where also 

rey, toL iL p. 759. A ** Ck>way' Stake" another, in possession of the late Earl of 

is preserved in the British Museum. It Shrewsbury, is described, 
was obtained in 17779 as noticed Arch. 

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save along a narrow passage, which would bring the passen- 
ger directly under the command of the watch, stationed on 
the northern bank to guard the ford and to receive the toll. 
The shallow at Coway was probably of considerable extent, 
and through its whole length must have extended the line of 
stakes which Caesar obseryed on the northern bank. But 
there must also have been two other lines of stakes across 
the riyer to mark out and define the passage. The remain- 
ing portion of the shallow was, no doubt, covered with the 
short stakes that were "concealed by the river/* These 
contrivances agree with the means of defence which we know 
Avere adopted in other instances. There are ancient strong- 
holds in Ireland, the front of which still bristles over with 
jagged pieces of rock fixed in the ground, evidently for the 
purpose of impeding the advance of an assailant. 

That such was really the disposition of the stakes may, I 
think, be gathered, not only from the reports of the fisher- 
men, but also from Caesar's narrative. When he saw the 
Britons ranged along the northern bank with the stakes in 
front of them, he ordered the cavalry to pass the river, and 
the legions to follow them. How could either cavalry or 
infantry cross the river if the stakes were ranged as our 
antiquaries assume them to have been 1 The passage could 
have been eflFected only by a miracle. 

The Emperor of the French has seen the difficulty, and 
endeavours to meet it. He supposes that Caesar sent the 
cavalry across the river at some place, either above or below 
the ford, to take the Britons in flank, and that the soldiers 
then removed the stakes, when the legions hurried across the 
river in the way described by Caesar. As the river was 
fordable " only at one place," the cavalry, on this hypothesis, 
must have Bwum the river. But to swim cavalry over such a 
river as the Thames is not a military operation of every day's 
occurrence. Can we suppose, if it really took place, that 
Caesar would have made no allusion to it ? Besides, what 
were the Britons doing while the Roman soldiers were re- 
moving the stakes in front of them 1 It is clear they did not 
break till the legions reached them. Caesar says not a word 
about taking the Britons in flank, nor about removing the 
stakes. The whole is mere hypothesis — hypothesis not only 
unsupported by Caesar's narrative, but, as it appears to me, 
inconsistent with it When he had sent the cavalry across 

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the river, he ordered the legions " subsequV I submit that 
this means to follow immediately after, or, in other words, in 
company with the cavalry. The employment of the two arms 
together seems to have been one of Caesar's favourite tactics, 
and, in describing it, he sometimes uses the very same phrase 
as on the present occasion, e. g,y when describing his pursuit 
of the BelgdB (B. G. ii. 11). There can be little doubt that 
Caesar's attack was made in front, and that the enemy's 
position was carried by what, in modern military language, is 
called "a rush." It was a daring attempt, and not without 
its peril ; but Caesar well knew the men he commanded, and 
he was successful. 

The Emperor sent over engineer officers to examine the 
present state of the river near Coway. They reported that 
there was no ford at Coway, but that there were several fords 
to the eastward— a piece of information which had been long 
familiarly known to English antiquaries. The Emperor reasons 
thus : the tide ends at Teddington — the name of which he 
tells us means Tide-end town — and as Caesar would hardly 
select a spot for crossing the river where he might be inter- 
rupted by the tide, he must have passed it west of Tedding- 
ton. Of the various fords between Teddington and Coway, 
the Emperor selects the one at Sunbury as being, in his 
judgment, the most convenient. 

The fallacy which runs through this reasoning is a patent 
one. The Emperor reasons from the present to the past 
without taking any note of the changes that have occurred 
during 2,000 years. In the time of Caesar the river ran 
from the high levels of Gloucestershire and Oxfordshire to 
the sea — uninterruptedly. Now, from Teddington westward 
it is a canal, crossed every two or three miles by weirs and 
locks ; in short, a mere string of pounded waters rising step 
above step till they reach the high levels of which we have 
been speaking. The tide comes up to Teddington Lock, and 
there, of course, it ends ; but as the lock did not exist in the 
time of Caesar, any inference drawn from the fact that the 
tide now ends there, is beside the question. How can we 
argue from the present artificial state of the river to its state 
in the time of Caesar ? Its scour must be different, its 
deposits must be different — to say nothing of the dredging 
machine, which has been at work year by year from a period 
antecedent even to the construction of the locks. The river 

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now falls over a weir in a cascade some six feet high, hurries 
along for a mile or so with a strong current, and then 
gradually slackens its pace till half-a-mile or three-quarters 
of a mile before the next weir it becomes a pond, with hardly 
a ripple on its surface. It then tumbles over the weir, and 
the process is repeated. The consequence is, that the silt 
and gravel beneath each weir are torn up, carried down by the 
current, and deposited in the still water, so that before 
each weir there is a tendency to form a shallow, over which 
in one or more places a man may, in certain states of the 
river, wade across it. These are the fords which the French 
engineer officers have brought under the notice of the 
Emperor. The shallow at Sunbury is a mere consequence 
of Sunbury weir. Remove the weir, and Caesar's ford at 
Sunbury would be swept away in a twelvemonth by the 
natural scour of the river. 

I have argued that the fords noticed by the French officers 
have been produced entirely by the present artificial condi- 
tions of the river. But there is one shallow which is due to 
a very different agency, to causes, indeed, which must have 
been in operation even as early as the time of CdBsar. A 
spring-tide, when backed by an east wind, comes up to Ted- 
dington Lock in great force, and sometimes rises above the 
weir and sweeps up the river to the next lock. The conse- 
quence is an accumulation of silt and gravel in front of Ted- 
dington Lock, which is a serious impediment to the naviga- 
tion, and on which barges may sometimes be seen aground 
for days together before they can enter the lock. I think it 
probable that when the river was in its natural state, these 
spring-tides ran up the river eight or nine miles further — in 
other words, to Coway ; and that the deposit which they 
now leave at Teddington then contributed to form the shallow 
over which CaBsar passed. This is, of course, mere conjec- 
ture ; but I submit it as a reasonable one. 

There is one means of arriving at a conclusion on this 
much-vexed question which has hitherto been neglected — I 
mean the topography of the Thames valley. When we find 
a village or hamlet on the banks of a stream bearing a name 
which ends in the word /cw'rf, we may infer with certainty 
that, at the time the name was given, there was a ford in the 
neighbourhood of such village or hamlet. Such names are 
frequent on the upper Thames, e.g., Oxford, Shillingford, 

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Wallingford, Moulsford, &c., and even in the forest district 
round Marlow we have Hurlyford ; but from Hurlyford to 
the sea, a distance of nearly 100 miles, taking into account 
the 'windings of the river, there is but one place on the banks 
of the Thames bearing a name which indicates a ford over it. 
This solitary place is Halliford, at the Coway stakes. CaBsar 
says there was but one ford on the Thames — meaning, of 
course, the lower Thames, with which alone he was acquainted, 
and we now have but one place on its banks the name of 
which points to the existence of a ford. Our topography is 
in perfect agreement with his statement ; and, to my mind, 
this coincidence is almost decisive of the question. 

In this inquiry it is well to keep in mind the distinction 
between a ford which is passable under the ordinary circum- 
stances of the river, and a shallow which can only be crossed 
under circumstances that are special and extraordinary. 
There are shallows on the Thames, some of them lying east 
of Teddington, which certain fishermen will tell you can be 
waded over, while others will as stoutly deny that such is 
the case. I think it probable that in seasons of drought, 
or at low ebb with the wind in a particular quarter, men 
may have passed over these shallows. In the year 1016 
Edmund Ironside twice led his forces over the Thames at 
Brentford; and there are antiquaries who, coupling this fact 
with the indications of a ford furnished by the name of 
Brentford, have inferred that there was once a ford over the 
Thames at that place. But the name of Brentford had no 
reference to a ford over the Thames ; it certainly designated 
the ford over the Brent by which the Roman Road from 
London to Staines crossed the latter river. Edmund's pas- 
sage of the Thames must have been attended with great 
peril, for we are told in the chronicle that " there was great 
loss of English folk by drowning, owing to their own careless- 
ness.^ We can readily understand that the silt brought up 
by the spring-tides would leave deposits behind it in the 
bights of the river and also in the tails of the several " eyots" 
— some of which, by-the-by, lie off Brentford — and when 
the scour of the river was weakened by the erection of a 
bridge at London, these deposits would naturally tend to 
form shallows. Little is known of the bridge which spanned 
the riverain the eleventh century, but we may assume that 
like its successor it rested upon huge substructions, and con- 

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scquently that its action'^on the tides and the scour of the 
river was very similar to that of Old London Bridge. The 
reader will hardly need to be reminded how the old bridge 
dammed back the water at ebb of tide, and how greatly 
the scour of the river was increased when this impediment 
was removed. But there are probably few that have 
troubled themselves to inquire how far the effects resulting 
from the altered conditions of the river extended. If my 
information can be relied on, and I think it trustworthy, 
these effects were more or less felt as high up the river as 
Teddington. In Cassar's time, before London bridges were 
thought of, or London itself existed, I believe the down- 
ward current swept every obstruction before it from the 
Coway stakes to the Nore. 

I must now briefly call attention to the districts which 
Roman geographers recognised in this part of Britain, or 
rather, I should say, which Ptolemy recognised, for he is our 
great authority on the subject. Cantium may be said, 
speaking roughly, to be represented by our modern Kent, 
and the country of the Trinobantes, which had for its capital 
Colchester (Camulodunum), by our modem Essex. West of 
the Trinobantes were a people whom our antiquaries call the 
Catyeuchlani. I have no doubt this is a blundered name. 
It is only used by Ptolemy, and by him only on one occasion. 
Dion calls the people the Eataouellanoi, and in a Cumberland 
inscription they are called the Catuvellauni. Catuvellauni 
is merely the Latin form of the Greek name Eataouellanoi ; 
and I shall henceforth give this very important tribe the 
name of Catuvellauni. Their principal town was Verulara. 
South of the river were the Atrebates, with Silchester for 
their capital, and further west were two other tribes — the 
Dobuni, whose principal town was Cirencester, and the Belgaa 
proper, two of whose towns were Old Sarum and Winchester. 
I call the last tribe the Belgae proper, to prevent any false 
inference. The Atrebates were just as much a Belgic race 
as the BelgaB proper ; and the same may be said of the 
Catuvellauni and of the different tribes who ruled in Kent. 
The people of Winchester and Old Sarum may have been 
called the Belgae specially, because they were the earliest 
settlement of that race in Britain. 

To trace the boundaries of these different tribes is a ques- 
tion of great diflicuHy, but of still greater interest.' On the 

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northern borders of Middlesex is an earthwork, called by the 
peasantry of the neighbourhood the Grimesditch. It runs 
for about two miles to the North-Western Railway, and frag- 
ments of it may be found west of the line. Its ditch is to 
the south, and it must, therefore, have been a boundary of 
the Catuvellauni. It appears to have reached the woodland 
which once seems to have shut in the Colne yalley on the 
east, and in the other direction I have little doubt that it 
was connected with the earthworks whicl^ surrounded the • 
British town of Sulloniacse (Brockley Hill). But the whole 
face of the country in that neighbourhood has been long 
since torn up for brick-earth, and the dyke has conse- 
quently disappeared. Whether it was continued east of 
SuUoniacae I cannot say. Possibly forest may have filled the 
whole space between the Lea and SuUoniacde ; at least, this 
is the only explanation I can give of the curious turn which 
the Roman road makes at Tyburn. I would then draw the 
boundary line of the Catuvellauni from Brockley Hill along 
the Grimesditch to the woodland, down the woodland to the 
Brent, and so down the Brent to the Thames. 

As the western boundary of the Trinobantes was un- 
doubtedly the marshy valley of the Lea, the question natu- 
rally arises, what became of the district between the Lea 
and the Brent. Here we have the larger part of the metro- 
politan county unaccounted for. I believe this district, whose 
market value at the present time is greater than that of any 
other district of similar extent in the world, was, in the early 
times of which we are now speaking, merely a march of the 
Catuvellauni, a common through which ran a wide trackway, 
but in which was neither town, village, nor inhabited house. 
No doubt the Catuvellauni fed their cattle in the march, and 
there may have been shealings there to shelter their herds- 
men, but house for the usual purposes of habitation I believe 
there was none. We have Cesar's authority for saying 
(B. G. iv. 3) that the imperfectly civilised races of that 
period prided themselves in having a belt of desolate country 
around their settlements, and I have little doubt that between 
Brockley Hill and the Thames all was wilderness, from the 
Lea to the Brent. 

The subject of these boundary dykes is so important, that 
I make no apology for calling the reader's attention to two 
others, which belonged to the Atrebates. The Roman road 


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connecting their capital, Silchester, with Old Sarum, no 
doubt was preceded by a more ancient British trackway. 
This trackway ran between two masses of forest, remains of 
which still exist ; and in the opening between the forests, a 
little to the north-east of Andover, there are the remains of a 
dyke, which I have no doubt once shut in the whole 
space between the woodlands. The ditch is to the west ; so 
the boundary dyke must have been raised by the Atrebates, 
and here the wayfarer from Old Sarum must have halted 
and paid the toll. The other boundary dyke has a historical 
significance, which bears directly upon the question we have 
already discussed at so much length. From the Coway 
stakes the ground rises gradually for about three miles, and 
then dips almost precipitously into the valley of the Wey. 
On the top of the hill (St. George's Hill) is an ancient 
British stronghold,^ which commands the whole valley, and 
as the valley certainly belonged to the Atrebates, I infer that 
it was this people that constructed the fortress. Aubrey 
tells us that "a trench^' went from this fortress to 
Walton, and gave that village its name. A dyke still runs 
from the ramparts towards Walton. I have traced it for 
more than one-third of the distance, and I have no doubt 
that it once reached the village, and, as Aubrey conjectured, 
gave it its name. The ditch is towards t/ie river. For what 
purpose could this dyke have been raised ? The only object 
for which I can conceive it was made, was to bar progress 
along the trackway which led from the Coway stakes east- 
ward to the maritime states. If such were its object, we 
have another strong proof that the great means of access to 
the country of Cassivelaunus was at the spot where Camden 
placed it. 

In the country of the Catuvellauni have been found 
numerous coins bearing the name of a prince called Tascio- 
vanus, together with the name of Verulam. It has been 
inferred that Tasciovanus was king of the Catuvellauni, and 
that he minted money at Verulam. Some of his coins have 

"Sur la Colline de Saint-Georges monuments, had been swept away in that 

(Saint Qeorge Hill), pr^ de Walton sur mania for ^ improvements ** which has 
la Tamlse, il n'a jamais exists de camp." ■ distioguished the last twenty years. But 

— Histoire do Jules Cdsar, ii. 191, n. on a visit to Oatlands I was glad to find 

When I read this note, I began to fear ''Ciesar's Camp" every whit as perfect 

that '^Csesar's Camp," on St. George's as on the day when I first made its 

Hill, like so many other of our national acquaintance years ago. 

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on tbem the inscription ** Sego/' It is supposed that this is 
an abbreviation of Segontium, Avhich we know from Henry of 
Huntingdon was a name sometimes given to Silchester ; and 
it has been conjectured that Tasciovanus conquered the 
country of the Atrebates, and minted money in their capital, 
Silchester. Coins have also been found in that district, in- 
scribed " Bpaticctjs, son of Tasciovanus ; " and it would thence 
appear that Tasciovanus handed down his conquest to his son 
Epaticcus. In Essex vast numbers of coins are found in- 
scribed, with the name of " Cunobbunus, son of Tasciovanus/' 
These coins were minted at Colchester (Camulodunum). In 
the same district we find other coins inscribed with the^name 
of " Dubnovellaunus." It has been inferred that Dubnovel- 
launus was a successor to, and perhaps a descendant of, 
Mandubratius, the prince whom Caasar made King of the 
Trinobantes, and that he was expelled by Tasciovanus, or by 
his son, Cunobelinus. On the south of the Thames also are 
found coins bearing the names of Commius, iBpillus, son of 
Commius, Verica, son of Commius, and Tin or Tine (the 
name has hitherto been found only in a fragmentary state), 
son of Commius. Jt has been supposed that Commius was 
the Atrebat whom Caasar sent over to Britain, where he was 
said to possess great influence. We know that he afterwards 
became a deadly enemy of the Romans, and that he fled to 
Britain to escape their vengeance. It is a reasonable conjec- 
ture that this Gaulish chief succeeded in establishing a prin- 
cipality among his countrymen, the British Atrebates, and 
that he handed down his British dominions to his sous, 
Epillus, Verica, and that other son with a fragmentary name, 

Tin.., or Tine 

Dr. Birch, in deciphering the legend, " Cunobelinus, son 
of Tasciovanus," led the way to the Numismatic dis- 
coveries on which these historical inferences mainly rest. 
They are, to some extent, supported by the celebrated 
"Monumentum Ancyranum." This monument mentions, 
among other kings who fled to Augustus as suppliants, two 
British princes, one named domko. bellavnvs, and another 
with a mutilated name, of which only the initial " T'' can 
be made out satisfactorily; It has been supposed that Domno 
Bellaunus represents the Dubnovellaunus of the Essex coins, 
and T . . ., the Tin ... or Tine . . ., who appears on the 
coins as the son of Commius. There would be no difficulty 

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in identifying Dubnovellaunus with Domnovellaunus ; but 
the division of the name domno. bbllavnvs presents a 
diflSciilty. Perhaps the copies of the inscription may be 
faulty. It is very important that this portion of it should 
be copied correctly, for it bears directly upon our British 

There seems to be little doubt that the Diyitiacus, King 
of the Suessiones, mentioned by Caesar (B. G. ii. 4), first led 
into Britain the Belgic tribes which we find settled in the 
basin of the Thames. He flourished about 100 B.C. The 
Cassivelaunus who opposed Caesar must have been descended, 
if not from the Gaulish monarch himself, at least from one 
of his officers, and Cassivelaunus may have been an ances- 
tor, perhaps the father, of Tasciovanus. The following 
scheme will bring at once under the reader's eye the fami- 
lies which exercised lordship in the Thames valley during 
the century preceding the invasion of Aulus Plautius : — 







£pillufl Verica 










et fratres 

This scheme differs from the one I exhibited at Cam- 
bridge, twelve years back, only in the addition of the name 
of Epaticcus. The name of this British prince was first 
made out by Mr. John Evans, the same gentleman who dis- 
covered, simultaneously I believe with Dr. Birch, the name 

The invasion of Britain by Divitiacus probably took place 
about 100 years B.c. Forty-five years afterwards we find 
the Catuvellauni rapidly working their way to a supremacy 
in South Britain. The chief result of Caesar's invasion was 
the check it put upon their progress. We are told it was 
the defection of the tribes which mainly led Cassivelaunus 
to submit, and we know he was compelled to acknowledge, 
as king of the Trinobantes, Mandubratius, whom he had 
driven into exile, and whose father, Imanuentius, he had 

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slain. If it effected nothing else, Caesar's invasion at least 
relieved the weaker British tribes from the domination of 
the Catuvellauni. 

It was during the depression of the dominant tribe that 
Commius seems to have established his kingdom south of 
the Thames. When the Atrebates made their boundary 
dyke from St. George's Hill to the river, it is clear they 
must have been in a condition to hold their own against 
their encroaching neighbours. But before half a century 
had passed, the tide of conquest was flowing in its old 
channel, and we find the Catuvellauni driving the suc- 
cessor of Mandubratius from Essex, and the descendants 
of Commius from the southern bank of the Thames. 
Everything seemed to intimate that they were about 
to found a great monarchy in Britain, when the Roman 
eagles again made their appearance, and the petty for- 
tunes of an obscure British tribe yielded before a mightier 

The campaign of Aulus Plautius, though in its results, 
perhaps, the most important that has taken place in Britain, 
has seldom engaged the attention of our historians. For 
our knowledge of its incidents we must chiefly rely on Dion 
Cassius. " One Bericus,'* we are told, induced Claudius to 
undertake the enterprise ; and it has been conjectured that 
this Bericus was the " Verica^ son of Commius," whose 
name appears on coins that are occasionally picked up in 
Surrey. If such be the case, Bericus must have been an 
aged man when he fled to Claudius. Plautius was the gene- 
ral selected to conduct the expedition, and a great force was 
brought together in Gaul to invade the island. But when 
the troops were assembled for embarkation, they declared 
that Britain lay beyond the limits of the known world, and 
refused to proceed. Narcissus, the Emperor's favourite 
freedman, was sent from Rome to pacify them, and on his 
arrival was grossly insulted by the soldiery. With the ca- 
price, however, which sometimes seizes on large bodies of 
men, they at the same time declared their readiness to fol- 
low their general, embarked on board the vessels, and sailed 
for Britain. 

This expedition sailed in the year 43, and Caractacus 
was captured in the year 60. As to these dates there can 
be no doubt. But Tacitus tells us (Ann. xii. 36) that Ca- 

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ractacus was captured " in the ninth year after the. wal* 
began in Britain." It is probable that the troops had assem- 
bled, and all friendly relations between Britain and the 
Continent had ceased some time in the year 42, and that 
Tacitus considered the war to have commenced in that 
year, though this hypothesis will not account for the words 
" in Britain." The mutiny of the soldiers may have delayed 
the expedition till after winter, and it probably sailed early 
in the following spring. . From incidental notices that occur 
in Tacitus, it would seem that four legions were engaged in 
the early operations of the war, namely, the 2nd, the 9th, 
the 14th, and the 20th. They came with their auxiliaries 
(Agric. 10) and their cavalry, so that the. force which 
Plautius led into Britain could not be much less than 
50,000 men. He had under him, in subordinate commands, 
Vespasian, his brother Flavins Sabinus, a man of almost 
equal merit, and a veteran officer named Cneius Osidius 
Geta. The fleet, no doiibt, sailed from Boulogne, from 
which we know that Claudius sailed a few months later. 
Boulogne was the terminus of the celebrated highway 
which, half a century before, Agrippa had carried across 
Gaul, and this circumstance alone would be sufficient to 
establish it as the ^' Portus Britannicus," i. e. as the prin- 
cipal means of communication with the island. Having ' in 
mind, probably, Ca3sar's disappointment at Dover, Plautius 
divided his force into three bodies, to prevent the mischiefs 
which might result from a check, if all passed over to- 
gether. There can be little doubt that the three points to 
which the fleet directed its course were the three little ports 
on the Kentish coast, which we know the Romans chiefly 
used in their journeys to theContinent, namely, Hy the,. Dover, 
and Richborough. The first and last of these are now silted 
up, but Dover still maintains its place as one of our chief 
ports of embarkation for the Continent. The Romans met 
with no opposition on their landing. Britain had been often 
threatened since the days of Caesar, but never attacked. 
Augustus, it is well known, entertained thoughts of invading 
it, and Caligula assembled an army for the purpose, but 
the Britons received damage from neither. When, there- 
fore, they heard that the army of Plautius had refused to 
obey its officers, they seem to have considered the danger 
as past, and to have discontinued their preparations for 

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defence. When the storm at last burst upon them, the 
petty chiefs of Kent appear to have sought refuge in their 
woods and marshes, and Plautius had to penetrate deeply 
into the country before he could find the opponents he was 
in search of. The following is Dion's account of his move- 
ments :— 

^^ Plautius had much trouble in searching for them ; but 
when at last he found them — ^they were not independent, 
but subject to different kings — ^he defeated first Earatakos 
and afterwards Togodoumnos, the sons of Kunobelinos, who 
himself was dead. When they took to flight, he won over 
by agreement a certain portion of the Bodounoi, whom they 
that are called the Kataouellanoi had under their dominion ; 
and from thence, having lefl a garrison behind them, they 
advanced further. When they had come to a certain river, 
which the barbarians did not think the Romans could pass 
without a bridge, and on that account were encamped on 
the opposite bank somewhat carelessly, he sends forward the 
Keltoi, whose custom it is to swim, with their arms, even over 
the most rapid rivers ; and they having thus fallen on their 
opponents unexpectedly, though they bit none of the men, 
and only wo)inded the horses that drew the chariots, yet as 
these were thus thrown into confusion, the riders could no 
longer be sure of their safety. He sent over also Flavins 
Yespasianus, the same who afterwards obtained the supreme 
power, and his brotlier Sabinus, who served under him as 
lieutenant, and so they also, having somewhere passed the 
river, slew many of the barbarians, who were not expecting 
them. The rest, however, did not fly ; but on the following 
day, having again come to an engagement^ they contended 
on almost equal terms, till Cneius Osidius Geta, after run- 
ning the risk of being captured, so thoroughly defeated 
them that he obtained triumphal honours, though he had 
never been Consul. The Britons having withdrawn them- 
selves thence to the river Thames where it empties itself 
into the ocean, and at flow of tide forms a lake, and having 
easily passed it, as being well acquainted with such parts as 
were firm and easy of passage, the Romans followed them, 
but on this occasion failed in their object. The Keltoi, 
however, having again swum over, and certain others having 
passed over by a bridge a little higher up, engaged them 
on several sides at once, and cut off many of them, but 

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following the rest heedlessly, they fell into difficult marshes^ 
and lost many of their men. On this account, therefore, 
and because the Britons did not give in, even though Togo- 
doumnos had perished, but the rather conspired together 
to revenge him, Plautius became alarmed and advanced no 
further. But his present acquisitions he made secure with 
a guard, and sent for Claudius, for so it was ordered him if 
any particular difficulty arose, and great provision had been 
made for the expedition, of other things as well as of ele- 
phants. When the news arrived, Claudius . . . crossing over 
into Britain, joined the army that was awaiting him on the 
Thames, and having taken the command, passed over it, 
and coming to blows with the barbarians, who were con- 
centrated to oppose his advance, he conquered them in a 
battle, and took Kamoulodunum, the royal residence of 
KunobeUnos. Afterwards he brought many over, some by 
agreement, others by force, &c., and taking from them their 
arms, he placed them under Plautius, and ordered him to 
bring the remainder under subjection. He himself hurried 
to Rome, having first sent news of his victory by the hands 
of his sons-in-law, Magnus and Silanus.^' 

Camden supposes that the term Bodounoi, or Boduni, to 
give the Latin equivalent, was another name ior the people 
called Dobuni, and he endeavours to show etymologically that 
the two phrases, Boduni and Dobuni, have the same significa- 
tion. Other antiquaries consider the phrase Boduni, which 
only occurs in this passage of Dion, to be a clerical blunder 
for Dobuni ; and I confess I think their view of the subject 
to be the more reasonable one. In either case the same 
people are meant, and the general direction of the Roman 
march is clearly indicated. Where the two battles took 
place which were fought before the Romans reached the 
Dobuni we do not know. The Britons seem to have aban- 
doned Kent without a stniggle ; but we may conjecture that 
they would not yield up the district of the Atrebates without 
a battle, and that they would risk a second to save the count- 
less herds of cattle which must have been pasturing along 
the upper Thames, in the country of the Dobuni, The 
Romans, on leaving Silchester, may have marched over the 
Marlborough Downs towards Cirencester — under the names 
of these Roman stations I wish to indicate the British towns 
they supplanted — and on the chalk hills leading down into 

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the valley, Togodoumnus may have met them. After his 
defeat, the Dobuni were not unwilling to exchange the yoke 
of the Catuvellauni for that of the Romans, and entered into 
an alliance with Plautius. The Roman general was 160 
miles distant from his ships, and the advantages he derived 
from making the rich country round Cirencester a new base 
of operations are suflficiently obvious. From Cirencester he 
seems to have marched in search of his enemy down the 
valley of the Thames, and probably along the Icknield Way. 
This British trackway would lead him to Wallingford ; and 
here, I believe, was fought the great battle of the campaign. 
After losing the districts inhabited by the Atrebates and 
the Dobuni, the British princes would naturally do their 
utmost to save from invasion the land which gave rise to 
their family, and which must have constituted the main 
element of their power. The country of the Catuvellauni 
lay, as it were, astride on the woodlands which stretch north 
of the Thames within the Chiltern. Its three principal 
thoroughfares were those known in later times as the Watling 
Street, the Akeman Street, and the Icknield Way. The 
Watling Street ran from the fords over the Severn near 
Wroxeter to the fords over the Lea at Stratford, and con- 
nected western Britain with the country of the Trinobantes, 
our modern Essex. Akeman Street came from Bath, and, 
passing into the London basin by the gap at Tring, joined 
the Watling Street at Verulam. The Icknield Way came 
from Suffolk, and ran along the chalk hills of the Chiltern 
across the other two trackways, coasting the vales of Bucking- 
ham and Aylesbury, which were, no doubt, the richest por- 
tions of the district. It seems to have crossed the river at 
Wallingford, and to have run into the vale of White Horse, 
for a road in that neighbourhood is expressly called the 
Icenhilde Wceg in a charter of the tenth centur3^ For more 
than a thousand years the ford at Wallingford was recognised 
as the chief pass on the river. It was at this place that the 
Conqueror crossed the Thames, and following the Icknield 
Way toTring turned his steps thence to St. Albans (Verulam), 
and so descended upon his prey — London. At this pass, 
barring access to the rich country in their rear, the Britons 
took their stand. The fords in front of them were probably 
fortified, for it is said that when Shillingford Bridge was 
built beams and piles were taken from the bed of the river. 


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With guards to watch these fords, the Britons might not 
unreasonably consider themselves secure. 

The daring act of the auxiliaries in swimming the river 
must first have shown Caractacus — for he, no doubt, was the 
British commander — how much he had miscalculated. In 
the confusion that followed, Vespasian seems to have forced 
his way over the ford at Wallingford. Here a passage had 
no doubt been left to accommodate the traffic that passed 
along the Icknield Way, though the fords at Shillingford and 
Moulsford may have been rendered altogether impassable. 
The Romans made good their passage of the Thames ; but 
the Britons did not fly, and how desperate was the next day's 
engagement appears from the account which Dion has handed 
down to us. The Britons withdrew their shattered forces 
along the same route that was followed by William a thousand 
years afterwards. They were too disheartened to make an 
attempt to save Verulam, but continued their retreat till 
they had crossed the Lea and placed the Essex marshes 
between them and their pursuers. 

I have relied for these results chiefly on critical inference. 
But they are so obvious that they have been partially adopted, 
though not critically worked out, by other antiquaries ; for 
instance, by Gough (Gough's " Camden,'' i. 30), and by Sir 
Richard C. Hoare. (Vide Intr. to Gir. Cambr.) I think, 
however, there is something like authority for the sketch I 
have given, though it may require some little introduction to 
lay the authority on which I rely clearly before the reader. 
^ Welsh legends, as handed down to us in the Triads, alto- 
gether ignore the conquests of Plautius. He disappears 
amid the glory which encircles the name of Caesar, and to the 
latter alone is attributed the Roman conquest of Britain. 
This tendency to melt into one the two invasions of Britain 
arose, I believe, from the loose, confused, and what may be 
even termed the blundered statements which are met with in 
the classical writers. Orosius never mentions the name ol 
Plautius ; and though he refers to the expedition of Claudius, 
it is done in such a way that the reader might suppose he 
went to Britain merely to repress some casual disturbances in 
the island. When Polysenus tells us that CsBsar employed 
elephants to force his way over the Thames, every critical 
rea,der feels there must be some mistake ; and when we find 
that Claudius did actually employ elephants in his advance 

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upon Colchester, we cannot help suspecting that Polyaenus 
has assigned to the first invasion an event which really took 
place in the second. Again, when Orosius states that Caesar 
sailed to Britain in early spring (primo vei^e), we see at once 
there is a blunder. We know that Caesar sailed on his first 
expedition in the autumn, and on his second in the height of 
summer ; but as we have reason to believe that Plautius did 
really sail primo vere, we may reasonably conclude that the 
careless compiler somewhere found the statement that " the 
British expedition'' sailed primo vere, and concluded that 
Caesar's expedition was referred to. 

Alfred translated Orosius, and it is curious to see how he 
deals with the statements of his author. He abridges, 
enlarges and alters them at pleasure, not under the guidance 
of any critical discrimination, but merely in the exercise of* 
that freedom which the usage of the time allowed to a trans- 
lator. It is well he took this view of his duty, for it enables 
us to form some estimate of the knowledge he had acquired 
on the various subjects he deals with. The following is his 
account of the Conquest of Britain : — 

" After that he (Caesar) had conquered them (the Galli), 
he went to the island Bryttanie and fought with the Brits, 
and was put to flight in the land that is called Kentland. Soon 
afterwards he fought with the Brits again in Kentland, and 
they were put to flight. Their third fight was nigh the river 
that is called Temese, nigh the ford which is called Welhnga 
Ford. After that fight there submitted to him the king and 
burgh-men that were in Cyrncester, and afterwards all that 
were in the island." 

Caesar we know never approached either Wallingford or 
Cirencester, and Orosius makes not the slightest reference 
either to the one or to the other. I can only account for their 
appearance in Alfred's work on the supposition that he found 
them mentioned in some Welsh chronicle, or in some Welsh 
compilation like that of Nennius. The Welsh writer he was 
copying may have confounded the events of the second inva- 
sion with those of the first, and so led Caesar along a route 
which was really traversed a century later by Aulus Plautius. 
The fact that Alfred makes the battle of Walhngford precede 
instead of follow the capture of Cirencester need not disturb 
us. The entry in the Welsh chronicle was probably much in 
the following form : " Anno — Caer Ceren taken, Fight at 

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Wallingford," some Welsh name, of course, taking the place 
of Wallingford. Alfred, or the Welsh compiler he was copy- 
ing, would naturally suppose that the surrender of the fortress 
was a consequence of the battle, and hence the blunder. 

We are now brought face to face with the question which 
is the great difficulty that meets us in the present inquiry. 
The conditions of the problem we have to solve may be stated 
as follows. The Britons in their retreat crossed the Thames 
by a well-known and accustomed ford, and the Romans " a 
little higher up,'* by means of a bridge. When the Romans 
got entangled in the marshes, they retreated, and awaited the 
arrival of Claudius. Claudius joined the army " that was 
awaiting him on the Thames," passed over it and marched to 
Colchester. The puzzling question is, where were situated 
' the ford and the bridge here referred to ? My own solution 
of the difficulty is the following. When the Romans came 
down the Watling Street to the neighbourhood of London, 
they saw before them a wide expanse of marsh and mudbank, 
which twice every day assumed the character of an estuary, 
sufficiently large to excuse, if not to justify, the statement in 
Dion, that the river there emptied itself into the ocean. No 
dykes then retained the water within certain limits. One 
arm of the great wash stretched northwards, up the valley of 
the Lea, and the other westward down the valley of the 
Thames. The individual character of the rivers was lost; 
the Romans saw only one sheet of water before them, and 
they gave it the name of the river which mainly contributed 
to form it. When they stated that they crossed the Thames, 
they merely meant that they crossed the northern arm of the 
great lake which spread out its waters before them, and on 
either hand. 

That such is the true interpretation of Dion's language is 
clear, I think, from the circumstances of the case. I am not 
one of those who consider the Britons of this period to have 
been " barbarians" ; but that they were able to construct a 
bridge near London, over the proper Thames, — a tidal river, 
some 300 yards wide, with a difference of level at high and 
low water of nearly 20 feet, — I cannot believe. The con- 
struction of a bridge over the marshy valley of the Lea may 
have been within reach of their ability. The existence, also, 
of a ford over the proper Thames, at a place which can by 
any licence of language be represented as lying near the 

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mouth of the river, is beset with insuperable diflSculties. At 
Higham, east of Gravesend, are the remains of a causey that 
no doubt led to the ferry which we know once existed between 
Higham and East Tilbury, in Essex. Hasted suggests that 
it may have led to the ford with respect to which we are now 
speculating. Other antiquaries have repeated his statement 
without the hesitation that accompanied and qualified it. It 
is a sufficient answer to say, that the river in this neighbour- 
hood, is six fathoms deep at low water. The notion of there 
having once been a ford near London has been more widely 
entertained, and even by men of ability ; but it appears to 
me to be almost as untenable as the one we have been dis- 
cussing. There is no river in the world, the history of which, 
for the last thousand years, is so well known as that of the 
Thames near London. We are told that, in the reign of 
Henry the First there was so great a scarcity of water in the 
river that men waded across it westward of the Tower ; and 
a similar dearth of water is recorded in the reign of Elizabeth. 
But these are exceptional cases, and are noticed by the 
chroniclers, just as they hand down to us accounts of the 
Plague, or of the Great Fire. If it be said that the condition 
of the river may have been very different before the embank- 
ment was constructed on the Surrey side from what it has 
been since, I must appeal to the authority of Caesar. He 
knew the river in its natural state, and had within reach 
adequate means of acquiring knowledge on this subject. To 
say nothing of other refugees and deserters, he had in his 
camp Mandubratius, who had lived all his life in Essex, and 
must have been acquainted with every circumstance connected 
with the river. Better authority than a statement of Csesar 
we can hardly look for, and he tells us distinctly that the 
Thames was passable on foot only in one 'place, I indulge a 
hope that I have advanced reasons sufficient to justify Cam- 
den's decision in this matter, and which may induce the 
reader to fix the place at the Coway Stakes ; at any rate it 
is certain that it cannot be fixed in the neighbourhood of 
London. If neither Dion's bridge nor his ford can be located 
on the Thames proper, it seems to me that we are necessarily 
driven to place them in the neighbourhood of Stratford. 

When Plautius withdrew his soldiers from the marshes 
they had vainly attempted to cross, he, no doubt, encamped 
them somewhere in the neighbourhood. I believe the place 

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was London. The name of London refers directly to the 
marshes, though I cannot here enter into a philological argu- 
ment to prove the fact. At London the Roman general was 
able both to watch his enemy and to secure the conquests he 
had made, while his ships could supply him with all the 
necessaries he required. When, in the autumn of the yeai- 
43, he drew the lines of circumvallation round his camp, I 
believe he founded the present metropolis of Britain. 

The notion entertained by some antiquaries that a British 
town preceded the Roman camp, has no foundation to rest 
upon, and is inconsistent with all we know of the early geo- 
graphy of this part of Britain. Such town could not have 
belonged to the Trinobantes, for it lay beyond their natural 
limits, nor to the settled district of the Catuvellauni, for then 
Caesar's statement that the Thames divided their country 
from the maritime states, ''about 80 miles from the sea,'' 
would be grossly inaccurate. But if we suppose that an 
uninhabited marsh-land reached from the Lea to the Brent, 
we can assign a plausible reason for the construction of the 
work called the Grimesditch, and Caesar's language will have 
all the accuracy that is usually characteristic of it. 

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By J. J. A. WOKSAAE, Hon. F.S. A.. Director of the Huseum of Northern Antiquities at 

Copenhagen. Trauslated, with the concuiTeoee of the Author, by 

ChTc. AUGUST OOSCH, Attach^ to the Danish Le^ration. 

VI B. The Second Division of the Late Iron Age (from 
ABOUT 700 TO 1000 A.D.). — The conclusion of the Iron age 
and of heathenism, which coincides with the earliest reliable 
written information on the history of the North, is the heroic 
age of the North, particularly of Norway and Denmark. 
Through different stages of progress in civilisation, by con- 
tact with other nations, by trade, shipping, and development 
of the country's own resources, which had early brought 
them great wealth and splendour without weakening their 
strength, the inhabitants of the North had been trained for 
great undertakings. Internal discord in foreign countries 
opened a way for conquests and the planting of great colo- 
nies, whereby they infused new blood in the degenerated 
races, at the same time, in spite of the strong influence of the 
Christian civilisation by which they were there surrounded, 
preserving for a long while their national characteristics and 
abilities (for instance, their remarkable skill in ship-building), 
their habits and customs, and even their own fashion with 
regard to dress and arms, and their Runic alphabet, which 
was peculiar to the North, where it had supplanted the 
earliest Runes at the beginning of the period of which wc 

Investigations of graves both in the northern countries 
themselves and in the colonies planted by their inhabitants in 
other countries, prove that different modes of burial still ob- 
tained, at any rate at the beginning of this period. In some 
places the bodies were burnt according to ancient custom, and 
the remains deposited either in low tumuli of earth or stones, 
or in small stone cists, but rarely in regular barrows ; in 
other places they were buried whole, and in that case they 
were deposited in large barrows, with arms, ornaments, some- 

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times even with whole ships or horees, with riding and driving 
. harness, in order that the buried warrior might, as one of 
the Sagas says, " do as he Uked, and either ride or drive to 
Valhal." The Islandic historian, Snorro Sturleson, states that 
cremation ceased in Denmark earher than in Norway and 
Sweden ; and the experience of archaBologists confirm his 
assertion. Nor is it improbable that this circumstance may 
be connected with the influence of Christianity and Christian 
mode of burial, which made themselves felt in Denmark 
earlier than farther north. There are also some noticeable 
differences between the northern kingdoms with regard to 
the objects deposited in the graves. Remains of ships, for 
instance, have several times been met with in Norway and 
Sweden, but not hitherto in ancient Danish districts, except- 
ing perhaps Skaane ; whilst bones of horses and remains of 
harness are much oftener found in graves in Denmark. The 
graves from the last time of heathendom are, besides, far 
more frequent and of more varied appearance in Norway 
and Sweden, and contain proportionally a greater quantity of 
iron arms, as well as of the ornaments, draughtsmen, dies, and 
other objects characteristic of this period, — facts which are 

Brooch fouud ia the Dannevirke. 
Scale, half orig. size. 

Pendant ornament of a helt, overlaid with silver, 

found in the Dannevirke. Scale, 

two-thirds orig. size. 

only in part to be explained by the longer continuance of 
lieathenism on the Scandinavian peninsula, particularly in 

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(Lato Iron Age^ Second Diylsion.) 

From Eckemftrdo. 

Ftom AngoL 

YlUng swordi, of iron. 
Scale, one-afth orlgliul sixe. 

From Angel. The pommel and 
cruss piece of cast bronze. 

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(Late Iron Age: Second DiTisiou.) 

Brooch, of gilt bronre, from PrGslov, near Flensboiig. 
Scale, two- thirds oricinal size. 

Silver brooch, fh>m a peat bog near Oxenvad. 
Original size. 

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Sweden, In the antiquities themselves, however, the greatest 
uniformity is observable. The swords exhibit the same pecu- 
liar hilts, often with a triangular pommel, a distinct cross- 
piece below the grip, and often ornamented with precious 
metals ; the horse-ornaments are likewise of the same shape, 
and the buckles exhibit the same peculiar trefoil or cup-shape, 
with fantastic interlaced ornaments representing an ulterior 
semi-barbarous development of the fashion and style of the 
preceding period. 

Antiquities of all these peculiar kinds have been met with 
in South Jutland. Specimens of "Viking swords*' have 
been found near Eckernforde, in Angel, and in Fohr (fig. 1-3); 
and of the characteristic cup-formed brooches several have 
come to light, both in tombs and elsewhere. One of those 
represented in the annexed figures was found in the ancient 
rampart of the Dannevirke, close to the south side of the town 
of Sleswick, together with fittings for a belt (fig. 4-5, a^ b) ; 
another (fig. 6, flr,^) which, as the first-named, was of bronze-gilt, 
was found near Flensborg in a barrow ; the remarkable and 

Found at AngoL Found at Btolk, overlaid with silver. 

Stirrups found in South Jutland. Soale, ono-third orig. alxe. 

unique silver brooch (fig. 7, a, *)was found in a peat-bog in the 
northern part of the province. Remains of harness and 
horse-ornaments, often silver-plated, such as bits, iron bridles, 

VOL. xxm. 

F F 

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and stirrups, have been found in several barrows ; and in one 
barrow gUt-metal fittings and ornaments were discovered 
belonging to a splendid driving-harness, still showing marks 
of wear by the reins, and strikingly like those found in other 
parts of Denmark and the North (fig. 8). It is probable, 
though not ascertained, that these remains of harness were 
deposited near unburnt skeletons, as was the case in simi- 
lar barrows in North Jutland. History informs us that the 
Danes, at the time of the Vikings and their great conquests, 
were distinguished not only by their naval skill, but also by 
their horsemanship, and that their cavalry often gained them 
the victory ; the Jutlanders being more particulary famous 
for their horses — as is still the case. It is, therefore, not at 
all surprising that antiquities bearing witness of their predi- 
lection for horses should turn up in considerable number both 
in North and South Jutland. But it is equally significant that 
neither so-called Viking swords, nor the above-mentioned cup- 
formed brooches, nor remains of harness, have ever been dis- 
covered, in tombs or elsewhere, south of the Eider, in Hol- 
stein and North Germany, which already at that time was 
politically separated from the Danish realm by the Eider. 

On the island of Fohr, near the west coast of South Jut- 
land, which forms part of the ancient Frisian settlements, a 
couple of instances have occurred of large urns being dis- 
covered in the interior of barrows, containing burnt bones 
and ashes, with pieces of iron swords covering their mouth. 
In these urns and near them other iron objects were fouud, 
such as shield-bosses, spear-heads, chapes of lance-shafts, 
brooches, etc., and in one of them a couple of steels for 
striking fire had been deposited, as is often the case in 
heathen tombs in England, Germany, and other countries, 
probably in accordance with a superstition existing long 
after the introduction of Christianity, to the effect that such 
steels afford excellent protection against hurtful magic 
influence. It would, however, be premature, from the 
occurrence of these urns covered with swords, to infer that 
the mode of burial there was another than in other parts of 
South Jutland, as it has not been decided yet whether they 
do not belong to an earlier period, when such urns were 
used to a not inconsiderable extent all over the peninsula 
(see p. X.). At any rate, distinct proofs of Scandinavian 
influence on these western islands are afforded by the dis- 

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(L«t« Iron Ag«: Second DiTigion.) 

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covery of Viking swords on Fohr, and of certain remarkable 
stone monuments on the island of Amrom, which strongly 
recall similar monuments found on the island of Bornholm, 

CUy urn with burnt bones, and a broken iron sword, from FOhr. 

in the Baltic, and in different parts of Norway and Sweden, 
for instance in Skaane and in Bleking, provinces which now 
belong to Sweden, but which, originally, were parts of Den- 
mark. In a valley called Skalnasdal, on the island of Am- 
rom, a barrow,^ with a ring of stones at its foot, appeared 
some time ago, when violent gales had blown away the 
quicksand which formerly had covered it. This barrow was 
found to contain urns with burnt bones and ashes, an iron 
knife, glass beads and bronze buckles, and near it monu- 
ments constructed of small stones arranged in circles, 
squares, and triangles. As several such monuments are still 
said to be hidden under the quicksand, it is not improbable 
that this valley may contain also some of the so-called 
" Danebrogships," monuments of a similar description, but 
larger, forming oblongs, representing, as it were, the shape 

^ It is a curious fact, that in Amrom, where stones arc rare, several baiTows 
are formed of sLiclls. 

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of a ship's deck. Such ship-monuments existed formerly — 
twenty in number— near Gjenner Bay, on the east coast of 
South Jutland, but have now quite disappeared in that 
place ; and it is not till we come farther north that we still 
find vestiges of some, viz., on Hjarno, a small island in 
Horsens^ord in North Jutland. They are more frequent in 
Sweden and Norway, The annexed illustrations represent 
the monuments in the Skalnasdal, and some strikingly similar 
discovered in Bleking, on a place called Hjortehammer. In 
Holstein, or other parts of North Germany, such monuments 
are entirely unknown. 

Finally, we must revert to the inscriptions in the later 
Runic alphabet, which came into use about 700 A.c, and is 
peculiar to Scandinavia and Scandinavian settlements in other 
countries, but they have never been found south of the Eider. 
Several are known from South Jutland ; one on a piece of 
wood found at Froslev, and five on monumental stones, of 
which three were found near the Danevirke, and according 
to the inscriptions, were placed there in memory of warriors, 
fallen no doubt in defence of the Danevirke and the frontier 
of the Danish realm. One was erected by King Sven 
(a.t>. 985-1014), the father of Kanut the Great, and another 
(of which the accompanying illustrations represent the front 
and back) probably by one of Sven's chieftains. The in- 
scription reads thus, — "Thurlf, Svens *himthige' (mod. Danish 
* huskarld') erected this stone after Erik his fellow, who died 
when the warriors sat round Hedeby, but he was a com- 
mander, a very brave warrior/' 

The peculiar Danish local names ending in " by,'* " lund," 
"skov,'* "kjsBr," " holm,'' "naes," "oe," and other endings, reach 
as far as the river Eider, though they are scarce in its imme- 
diate neighbourhood ; and the southern boundary line of the 
Danish historical monuments in South Jutland, therefore, 
coincides very nearly with the ancient Danish frontier-ram- 
parts — " Ostervolden," or " Gammelvolden " (from Vindeby 
Noer by Eckernfdrde to the Siie), and the " Kurgrav " and 
the " Danevirke " (from Selk and Hadeby-noer to Redeaa 
and the river Trene) — that, according to indisputable 
historical evidence, from the beginning of the ninth century 
— and perhaps already at a more ancient period — served as 
lines of defence for the Danish Jutes, who, even according 
to German, Anglo-Saxon, and other foreign chronicles, at 

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(Late Iron Age : Second Division.) 

Front view. 

D«ck view. 

Runio Monuraent at Vedelspang. near the DaneTirke. 
Erected by Tliurlf, huekMrl of king Stou, father of Knut the Great 

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(Late Iron Ago ; second division.) 



Stone monuments, Skalnasdal, Island of Amrom. 

Stone monumcuts, Hjortohammiir iu Blekiu;?. 

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that time inhabited the country as far as the Slie.* A few 
Danish local names occur, as already stated, south of this 
line, as well as barrows with Runic monumental stones — 
relics from ancient fights in defence of the Danevirke, — but 
all authorities agree that upon the whole, the territory be- 
tween the Eider and the Danevirke was, even as late as the 
year 1200, a vast solitude — an uninhabited tract — to the 
east overgrown with dense forests— Danlschwold — in the 
middle an open heath, towards the west a low-lying, watery, 
marshy plain, — all of which was left uninhabited on purpose, 
in order that an enemy on crossing the Eider and approach- 
ing the Danevirke should not find food and shelter there. 

Although the Danes succeeded in maintaining their inde- 
pendence and preserving their ancient frontier, even from 
the ancient period of which we speak, till the melancholy 
year of 1864, Germanism, following the wake of Christianity, 
nevertheless made its way in a peaceable manner through 
the Danevirke. It was from Grermany that Denmark was 
first Christianised, and the first Danish church was built on 
the so-called " Holm," in the important frontier city Hedeby 
or Sleswick, just inside the Danevirke, where the Danish 
kings often resided, and where many native and foreign 
merchants were collected for the sake of the commerce which 
was carried on with the whole of Scandinavia and many 
foreign nations, particularly Saxons, Vendes, Russians, and 
Arabs.* German bishops, priests, and monks continued to 
pour into Jutland and thence to the islands, to Sweden and 
to Viken in Norway, and for a long time they had it all 
their own way as missionaries and preachers, until at length 
a considerable religious influence made itself felt proceeding 
from the British islands, and particularly from the northern 
part of England, where the Danish element was very strong, 
whereby a bar was erected againt the German influence. 
Nevertheless, this continued very powerful in Jutland, 
particularly in the southern part. When South Jutland, a 

^ Thus Engelhard (at the beginniDg tween Nordalbingia and Denmark, in 

of the ninth century) states that in cross- virtue of the peace between Charlemagne 

iug the river ^gidora you come into the and King Heming. 

country of the Northmen. Ottar states ^ The connection of the Scandinavian 

iu this report of hia journeys to Alfred countries with the East was very 

the Qreat that the town of Hedeby active ; and in many places also in South 

belongs to the Danes; and Adam of Jutland great quantities of Arab coin, 

Bremen says expressly that the river silver in bars, plaited gold and silver 

Eider, since 811, formed the frontier be- rings, &c., have been found. 

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couple of centuries later, was erected into a separate duchy 
by the Danish kings, in order to facilitate the defence of 
the Danevirke, this measure unfortunately entailed unforeseen 
consequences, destructive in the highest degree to the Danish 
nationality of the duchy, and favoured its partial Germanisa- 
tion, which commenced by the colonisation of the hitherto 
uncultivated tract between the Danevirke and the Eider 
by German settlers in the fourteenth century. 

If, in conclusion, we once more fix our attention princi- 
pally on the last period of the pre-historic time of Denmark, 
this at least is beyond all controversy, that the occurrence 
of Danish antiquities — as the Viking swords, the peculiar 
ornaments (brooches), the remains of horse equipments, the 
peculiar stone monuments, the Runic inscriptions, as well 
as Danish local names, — ceases abruptly north of the Eider ; 
and the moment we cross that river, everything indicates 
that we set foot on the soil of entirely different nationalities. 
And even if we extend our view through three or four 
centuries more, we find that, apart from the ancient Frisian 
settlements on the west coast, and the colonisation of the 
waste frontier tracts that took place principally in the four- 
teenth century, there is no vestige whatever of any ancient 
German population in South Jutland. Antiquities, linguistic 
monuments, and chronicles, all completely agree that from 
the most ancient times, until the first centuries after the 
introduction of Christianity into Denmarlc, the present South 
Jutland or Sleswick, as far as the Eider, has (perhaps not 
even with exception of the ancient Frisian population) in 
all and every respect shared the same development in civili- 
sation as the other parts of ancient Denmark ; and that, 
without any doubt whatsoever, any and every German 
element which may now be found in Sleswick (apart from 
the Frisians), has only been introduced during the last four 
or five centuries. 

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Pna. £nt. Boo., V.-P. Linn. Boo.. V.-P. Eihn. Soc., to. 

The Council of the Archaeological Institute, recognising 
the great progress which, during the last few years, has been 
made in the study of Prehistoric times, have determined, I 
think very wisely, to found a separate section for the consi- 
deration of primaeval antiquities. And as they have done 
me the honor of nominating me to the presidency, it be- 
comes my duty, in opening the proceedings, to say a few 
words on the present condition of this very interesting 
branch of science. . 

Until lately there were many who denied, and even now, 
perhaps, there are some who would not admit, the claims of 
Prehistoric Archseology to rank as a branch of science. We 
can never, it is thought by such persons, become wise beyond 
what is written ; the ancient poems and histories contain all 
that we can ever know about old times and ancient races of 
men ; by the study of antiquities we may often corroborate, 
and occasionally perhaps even correct the statements of old 
writers, but beyond this we can never hope to go. The 
ancient monuments and remains themselves may excite our 
interest, but they can teach us nothing. This view is as old 
as the time of Horace : in one of his best known odes he 
tells us that, — 

" Vixerc fortes ante Agamemnoua 
Multi ; sed omnes illacrjmabiles 
Urgentur, ignotique long4 
Nocte, carent quia vate sacro." 

If this apply to nations as well as to individuals, — if our 
knowledge of the past be confined to that which has been 
handed down to us in books, — then archgeology is indeed 
restrained within fixed and narrow limits ; it is reduced to 

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a mere matter of criticism, and is almost unworthy to be 
called a science. 

My object on the present occasion is to vindicate the 
claims of archaeology, to point out briefly the light which 
has, more particularly in the last few years, been thrown on 
ancient times ; and, above all, it will be my endeavour to 
satisfy you that the antiquaries of the present day are no 
visionary enthusiasts, but that the methods of archaeological 
investigation are as trustworthy as those of any natural 
science. I purposely say the methods rather than the 
results, because while fully persuaded that the progress 
recently made has been mainly due to the use of those 
methods which have been pursued with so much success in 
geology, zoology, and other kindred branches of science, and 
while ready to maintain that these methods must eventually 
guide us to the truth, I readily admit that there are many 
points on which further evidence is required. Nor need 
the antiquary be ashamed to own that it is so. Biologists 
differ about the Darwinian theory ; until very lately the 
emission theory of light was maintained by some of the best 
authorities ; Tyndall and Magnus are at issue as to whether 
aqueous vapour does or does not absorb heat ; astronomers 
have recently been obliged to admit an error of more than 
4,000,000 miles in their estimate of the distance between 
the earth and the sun ; nor is there any single proposition 
in theology to which an universal assent would be given. 
Although, therefore, there are no doubt great diveraities of 
opinion among antiquaries, archaeology is in this respect 
only in the same condition as all other branches of know- 

Conceding then, frankly, that from much of what I am 
about to say some good archaeologists would entirely dissent, 
I will now endeavour to bring before you some of the prin- 
cipal results of modern research, and especially to give you, 
as far as can be done in a single address, some idea of the 
kind of evidence on which these conclusions are based. 

I must also add that I confine my observations, excepthig 
when it is otherwise specified, to that point of Europe which 
lies to the north of the Alps ; and that by the Primaeval 
period I understand that which extended from the first 
appearance of man, down to the commencement of the 
Christian era. 


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This period may be divided into four epochs : — Firstly, 
the Palaeolithic, or First Stone age ; secondly, the Neolithic, 
or Second, Stone age ; thirdly, the Bronze age ; and lastly, 
the Iron age. Attempts have been made with more or less 
success to establish subdivisions of these periods, but into 
these I do not now propose to enter ; even if we can do no 
more as yet than establish this succession, that will itself 
be sufficient to show that we are not entirely dependent on 

We will commence then with the Palaeolithic age. This 
is the most ancient period in which we have as yet any 
proofs of the existence of man. There is, however, a very 
general opinion that he did exist in much earlier times. 
Indeed, M. Desnoyers has already called attention to some 
bones from the Pliocene beds of St. Prest, which appear to 
show the marks of knives ; and Mn Whincopp has in his 
possession one from the Crag, which certainly looks as if 
it had been purposely cut. These cases, however, are by 
no means conclusive, and as yet the implements found in the 
river-drift gravels are the oldest undoubted traces of man's 
existence ; older far than any of those in Egypt or Assyria, 
though belonging to a period which, from a geological point 
of view, is very recent. 

The Palceolithic Age. 

1. The antiquities referable to this period are found in 
beds of gravel and loam, or, as it is technically called, " loess," 
extending along our valleys, and reaching sometimes to a 
height of 200 ft. above the present water level. 

2. These beds were deposited by the existing rivera, 
which then ran in the same directions as at present, and 
drained the same areas. 

3. The geography of Western Europe cannot therefore 
have been very different at the time those gravels were 
deposited from what it is now. 

4. The fauna of Europe at that time comprised the 
mammoth, the woolly-haired rhinoceros, the hippopotamus, 
the urus, the musk ox, etc., as well as the existing animals. 

5. The climate was much colder than it is now. 

6. Though we have no exact measure of time, we can at 

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least satisfy ourselves that this period was one of very great 

7. Yet man already inhabited Western Europe. 

8. He used rude implements of stone. 

9. Which were never polished, and of which some types 
differ remarkably from any of those that were subsequently 
in use. 

10. He was ignorant of pottery, and — 11, of metals. 

1. These beds of gravel and loam, or, as it is technically 
called, " loess," extend along the slopes of the valleys, and 
reach sometimes to a height of 200 ft. above the present 
water level. 

2. That these beds of gravel and loess were not deposited 
by the sea is proved by the fact that the remains which 
occur in them are all those of land or fresh water, and none 
of marine species. That they were deposited by the existing 
rivers is evident, because they never contain fragments of 
any other rocks than those which occur in the area drained 
by the river itself. As then, the rivers drained the same 
areas as now, the geography of Western Europe cannot 
have been at that period very different from what it is at 

3. The fauna, however, was very unlike what it is now, 
the existence of the animals above mentioned being proved 
by the presence and condition of their bones. 

4. The greater severity of the climate is indicated by 
the nature of the fauna. The musk ox, the woolly-haired 
rhinoceros, the mammoth, the lemming, etc., are Arctic 
species, and the reindeer then extended to the South of 
France. Another argument is derived from the presence of 
great sandstone blocks in the gravels of some rivers, as for 
instance of the Somme ; these, it appears, must have been 
transported by ice. 

5. The great antiquity of the period now under discussion 
is evident from several considerations. The extinction of 
the large mammalia must have been a work of time, and 
neither in the earliest writings, nor in the vaguest traditions, 
do we find any indication of their presence in Western 
Europe. Still more conclusive evidence is afforded by the 
conditions of our valleys. The beds of gravel and loess 
cannot have been deposited by any sudden cataclysm, both 

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on account of their regularity, and also of the fact already 
mentioned that the materials of one river system are never 
mixed with those of another. To take an instance, — the gravel 
beds in the Somme valley are entirely formed of debris from 
the chalk and tertiary strata occupying that area ; but within 
a very few miles of the head waters of the Somme comes 
the valley of the Oise. This valley contains remains of other 
older strata, none of which have found their way into the 
Somme valley, though they could not have failed to do so 
had the gravels in question been the result of any great cata- 
clysm, or had the Somme then drained a larger area than 
at present. The beds in question are found in some cases 
200 ft. above the present water level, and the bottom of the 
valley is occupied by a bed of peat which in some places is 
as much as 30 ft. in thickness. We have no means of 
making an accurate calculation, but even if we allow, as we 
must, a good deal for the floods which would be produced 
by the melting of the snow, still it is evident that for the 
river to excavate the lower part of its valley to a depth of 
more than 200 ft.,^ and then for the formation of so thick a 
bed of peat, much time must have been required. If, more- 
over, we consider the alteration which has taken place in 
the climate and in the fauna ; and finally, remember also that 
the last eighteen hundred years has produced scarcely any 
perceptible change, — we cannot but come to the conclusion 
that many, very many, centuries have elapsed since the 
river ran at a level so much higher than the present, and 
the country was occupied by a fauna so unlike that now 
in existence there. 

6. Man's presence is proved by the discovery of stone 
implements. Strictly speaking, these only prove the pre- 
sence of a reasoning being ; but this being granted, few, if 
any, would doubt that the being in question was man. 
Human bones indeed have been found in cave deposits, 
which, in the opinion of the best judges, belonged to this 
period ; and M. Boucher de Perthes considers that various 
bones found at Moulin Quignon are also genuine. On this 
point long discussions have taken place, into which I will 
not now enter. The question before us is, whether men 

1 Many peraous fiad a difficulty in forgetting that the Talley was not then 
understanding how the river could have excavated to anything like its present 
deposited gi'avel at so great a height, depth. 

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existed at all, not whether they had bones. On the latter 
point no dispute is likely to arise, and as regards the 
former the works of man are as good evidence as his bones 
could be. Moreover, there seems to me nothing wonderful 
in the great scarcity of human bones. A country, where the 
inhabitants subsist on the produce of the chase, can never be 
otherwise than scantily peopled. If we admit that for each 
man there must be a thousand head of game existing at any 
one time — and this seems a moderate allowance ; remember- 
ing also that most mammalia are less long-lived than men, 
we should naturally expect to find human remains very rare 
as compared with those of other animals. Among a people 
who burnt their dead of course this disproportion would be 
immensely increased. That the flint implements found in 
these gravels are implements it is unnecessary to argue. 
Their regularity, and the care with which they have been 
worked to an edge, prove that they have been inteniionaUy 
chipped into their present forms, and are not the result of 
accident. That they are not forgeries we may be certain ; 
firstly, because they have been found in situ by many excel- 
lent observers, — ^by all in fact who have looked long enough 
for them ; and secondly, because, as the discoloration of 
their surface is quite superficial, and follows the existing 
outline, it is evidently of later origin. The forgeries, for 
there are forgeries, are of a dull lead color, like other 
freshly broken surfaces of flint. The same evidence justifies 
us in concluding that the implements are coeval with the 
beds of gravel in which they are found. 

8. Without counting flakes, we shall certainly be within 
the mark if we estimate that three thousand flint imple- 
ments of the Palaeolithic age have been discovered in 
Northern France and Southern England. These are all of 
types which difier considerably from those which came sub- 
sequently into use, and they are none of them polished. We 
may therefore, I think, conclude that the art of polishing 
stone implements was as yet unknown. 

9 and 10. In the same manner, I think, we may conclude 
that the use of metal and of pottery was then unknown, 
as is the case even now with many races of savages. 

Although flint implements were observed in the drift 
gravels more than half a century ago by Mr. Frere, still his 
observations were forgotten until the same discovery was 

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again made by M. Boucher de Perthes. For our knowledge 
of the gravel beds in which they occur, however, we are prin- 
cipally indebted to Mr. Prestwich. Sir Charles Lyell has the 
great merit of having carefully examined the facts, and given 
to the antiquity of man the authority of his great name ; nor 
must the labors of Mr. Evans be passed unnoticed. To him 
we owe the first comparison between the flint implements of 
this and those of the Neolithic period. 

In what precedes, I have relied principally on the re- 
searches in the river-drift gravel-beds. Much additional 
information has, however, been obtained by the examination 
of caves. With this part of the subject the names of two of 
our fellow-countrymen, Dr. Falconer and Mr. Christy — who 
have recently, alas ! been lost to us and to science — must 
ever remain indissolubly associated. Mr. Busk, who had 
been for some time engaged with Dr. Falconer in the study 
of the Gibraltar caves, will publish the result of the investiga- 
tions which he had left in an unfinished state, and every one 
will admit that the materials could not be in better hands. 

The researches carried on by Mr. Christy, in conjunction 
with M. Lartet, in the caves of the Dordogne, are of great 
interest. The general facts may be stated to be, that while 
thousands of implements made out of stone, bone, and horn, 
have been collected, no trace of pottery, nor any proof of 
the use of metals, nor even a polished stone implement, has 
yet been met with. The people who lived in the South of 
France at that period seem, in a great many respects, to 
have resembled the Esquimaux. Their principal food was 
the reindeer, though traces of the musk ox, mammoth, cave- 
lion, and other animals of the quaternary fauna have been 
met with. They were very ingenious, excellent workers in 
flint, but though their bone pins, &c., are beautifully polished, 
this is never the case with their flint weapons. The habit 
of allowing ofial and bones to accumulate in their dwellings 
is indicative, probably, of a cold climate. 

Perhaps, however, the most remarkable fact of all is, that 
although in other respects so slightly advanced in civilisation, 
these ancient French cavemen, hke the Esquimaux, made 
some progress in art. M. Lartet even found in the rock- 
shelter at La Madelaine a fragment of mammoth tusk, on 
which was engraved a representation of the animal itself. 

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The Neolithic Age. 

We now pass to the later Stone, or Neolithic, age, with 
reference to which the following propositions may, I think, 
be regarded as satisfactorily established : — 

1. There was a period when polished stone axes were ex- 
tensively used in Europe. 

2. The objects belonging to this period do not occur in 
the river-drift gravel-beds. 

3. Nor in association with the great extinct mammalia. 

4. They were in use long before the discovery or introduc- 
tion of metals. 

5. The Danish shell-mounds, or kjokkenmoddings^ belong 
to this period ; 

6. As do many of the Swiss lake-dwellings ; 

7. And of the tumuli or burial mounds. 

8. Rude stone implements appear to have been in use 
longer than those more carefully worked. 

9. Hand-made pottery was in use during this period. 

10. In central Europe, the ox, sheep, goat, pig, and dog 
were already domesticated. 

11. Agriculture had also commenced. 

12. At least two distinct races already occupied Western 

1. That there was a period when polished axes and other 
implements of stone were extensively used in Western Europe, 
is sufficiently proved by the great numbers in which these 
objects occur — ^for instance, the Dublin Museum contains 
more than 2000, that of Copenhagen more than 10,000, 
and that of Stockholm not fewer than 15,000. 

2. The objects characteristic of this period do not occur in 
the river-drift gravels. Some of the simpler ones indeed — as, 
for instance, flint flakes — were used both in the Neolithic and 
PalsBolithic periods. The polished axes, chisels, gouges, &c., 
however, are very distinct from the ruder implements of the 
Palaeolithic age, and are never found in the river-drift gravels. 
Conversely, the Palaeolithic types have never yet been met 
with in association with those characteristic of the later epoch. 

3. Nor do the types of the Neolithic age ever occur in 
company with the Quaternary fauna, under circumstances 
which would justify us in regarding them as coeval. 

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4. The implements in question were in use before the in- 
troduction or discovery of metal. It is a great mistake to 
suppose that implements of stone were abandoned directly 
metal was discovered. For certain purposes, as for arrow- 
heads, stone would be quite as suitable as the more precious 
metal. Flint flakes, moreover, were so useful, and so easily 
obtained, that they were occasionally used even down to a 
very late period. Even for axes and chisels, the incontestable 
superiority of metal was for a while counterbalanced by its 
greater costliness. Captain Cook, indeed, tells us that in 
Tahiti the implements of stone and bone were in a very few 
years replaced by those of metal ; a stone hatchet is at pre- 
sent, he says, "as rare a thing as an iron one was eight years 
ago, and a chisel of bone or stone is not to be seen.'' The 
rapidity with which the change from stone to metal is 
effected, depends on the supply of the latter. In the above 
case. Cook had with him abundance of metal, in exchange 
for which the islanders supplied his vessels with great quan- 
tities of fresh meat, vegetables, and other more questionable 
articles of merchandise. The introduction of metal into 
Europe was certainly far more gradual ; stone and metal 
were long used side by side, and archaeologists are often too 
hasty in referring stone implements to the Stone age. It 
would be easy to quote numerous instances in which imple- 
ments have been, without any sufficient reason, referred to 
the Stone age, merely because they were formed of stone. 
The two Stone ages are characterised not merely by the use 
of stone, but by the use of stone to the exclusion of metal. I 
cannot therefore too strongly impress on archaBologists that 
many stone implements belong to the metallic pe^nod. Why, 
then, it will be asked, may they not all have done so ? and 
this question I. will now endeavour to answer. 

5. The Danish shell-mounds are the refuse heaps of the 
ancient inhabitants, round whose dwellings the bones and 
shells of the animals on which they fed gradually accumu- 
lated. Like a modern dustheap, these shell-mounds contain 
all kinds of household objects— some purposely thrown away 
as useless, but some also accidentally mislaid. These mounds 
have been examined with great care by the Danish archaeo- 
logists, and especially by Professor Steenstrup. Many thou- 
sand implements of stone and bone have been obtained from 
them ; and as on the one hand from the absence of extinct 

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animals, and of implements belonging to the Palaeolithic age, 
we conclude that these shell-mounds do not belong to that 
period, so on the other hand, from the absence of all trace 
of metal, we are justified in referring them to a period when 
metal was unknown. 

6. The same arguments apply to some of the Swiss lake- 
dwellings, the discovery of which we owe to Dr. Keller, and 
which have been so admirably studied by Desor, Morlot, 
Troyon, and other Swiss archaeologists. A glance at the 
table (A) will show that, while in some of them objects of 
metal are very abundant, in others, which have been not less 
carefully or thoughtfully explored, stone implements are met 
with to the exclusion of metallic ones. It may occur, per-r 
haps, to some, that the absence of metal in some of the lake- 
villages and its presence in others, is to be accounted for by 
its scarcity — that, in fact, metal will be found when the loca- 
lities shall have been sufficiently searched. But a glance at 
the table will show that the settlements in which metal occurs 
are deficient in stone implements. Take the same number 
of objects from Wangen and Nidau, and in the one case 
90 per cent, will be of metal, while in the other the whole 
number are of stone or bone. This cannot be accidental — 
the numbers are too great to admit of such a hypothesis ; 
nor can the fact be accounted for by contemporaneous 
differences of civilisation, because the locaUties are too close 
together ; neither is it an affair of wealth, because we find 
such articles as fishhooks, &c., made of metal. 

7. We may also, I think, safely refer some of the tumuli 
or burial mounds to this period. When we find a large 
tumulus, the erection of which must have been extremely 
laborious, it is evident that it must have been erected in honour 
of some distinguished individual ; and when his flint daggers, 
axes, &c., which must have been of great value, were deposited 
in the tomb, it is reasonable to conclude, that if he had posses- 
sed any arms of metal, they also would have been buried 
with him. This we know was done in subsequent periods. 
In burials of the Stone age the corpse was either deposited 
in a sitting posture, or burnt. 

8. It is an error to suppose that the rudest flint imple- 
ments are necessarily the oldest. The Palaeolithic implements 
show admirable workmanship. Moreover, every flint imple- 
ment is rude at first. A bronze celt is cast perfect; but a flint 


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is rudely blocked out in the first instance, and then if any 
concealed flaw comes to light, or if any ill-directed blow 
causes an inconvenient fracture, the unfinished implement 
is perhaps thrown away. Moreover, the simplest flint-flako 
forms a capital knife, and accordingly we find that some 
sipple stone implements were in use long after metal had 
replaced the beautifully-worked axes, knives, and daggers, 
which must always have been of great value. The period 
immediately before the introduction of metal may reasonably 
be supposed to be that of the best stone implements, but the 
use of the simpler ones long lingered. Moreover, there are 
some reasons to believe that pierced stone axes are character- 
istic of the early metallic period. 

9. Hand-made pottery is abundant in the shell-mounds and 
the lake-villages, as well as in the tumuli which appear to 
belong to the Stone age. No evidence that the potter's 
wheel was in use has yet been discovered. 

10. The dog is the only domestic animal found in the 
shell-mounds ; but remains of the ox, sheep, goat, and pig 
appear in the lake-villages. There is some doubt about 
the horse ; and the barn-door fowl, as well as the cat, was 

11. The presence of corn-crushers, as well as of carbonised 
wheat, barley, and flax, in the Swiss lake-dwellings, proves 
that agriculture was already pursued vnth success in Central 
Europe. Oats, rye, and hemp were unknown. 

12. At least two forms of skull, one long and one round, 
are found in the tumuli which appear to belong to this 
period. Until now, however, we have not a single human 
skull from the Danish shell-mounds, nor from any Swiss 
lake-dwelling, which can be referred with confidence to this 

The Bronze Age. 

1. It is admitted by all that there was a period when 
bronze was extensively used for arms and implements. The 
great number of such objects which are preserved in our 
museums places this beyond a doubt. 

2. [t would, however, be a mistake to suppose that stone 
implements were entirely abandoned. Arrow heads and 
flakes of flint are found abundantly in some of the Swiss 
lake-villages which contain bronze. In these cases, indeed, 

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it may be argued, that the same site had been occupied both 
before and after the introduction of bronze. The evidence 
derived from the examination of tumuli is, however, not 
open to the same objection, and in them objects of bronze 
and of stone are very frequently found together. Thus it 
appears from the investigations recorded by Mr. Bateman, 
that in three-fourths of the tumuli containing bronze (29 out 
of 37), stone objects also occurred. 

8. Some of the bronze axes appear to be mere copies of 
the stone ones. No such simple axes of iron, however, are 

4. Many of the Swiss lake-villages belong to this period. 
The table (B) furnished to me by Dr. Keller, places this 
beyond a doubt, and gives a good idea of the objects in use 
during the bronze age^ and the state of civilisation during 
this period. 

5. The presence of metal, though the principal, is by no 
means the only point which distinguishes the Bronze age 
villages from those of the Stone period. If we compare 
Moosseedorf, as a type of the last, with Nidau, as the best 
representative of the former, we shall find that, while bones 
of wild animals preponderate in the one, those of tame ones 
are most numerous in the latter. The vegetable remains 
point also to the same conclusion. Even if we knew nothing 
about the want of metal in the older lake-villages, we should 
still, says Professor Heer, be compelled from botanical con- 
siderations to admit their greater antiquity. 

Moreover, so far as they have been examined, the piles 
themselves tell the same tale. Those of the Bronze age 
settlements were evidently cut with metal, those of the 
earlier villages with stone, or at any rate with some blunt 

6. The pottery was much better than that of the earlier 
period. A great deal of it was still hand-made, but some is 
said to show marks of the potter's wheel. 

7. Gold, amber, and glass were used for ornamental pur- 

8. Silver, zinc, and lead, on the contrary, were apparently 

9. The same appears to have been the case with iron. 

10. Coins have never been found with bronze arms. To 
this rule I only know of three apparent exceptions. Not a 

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Single coin has been met with in any of the Swiss lake-vil- 
lages of this period. 

11. The dress of this period no doubt consisted in great 
part of skins. Tissues of flax have been found, however, in 
some of the lake-villages, and a suit of woollen material, 
consisting of a cloak, a shirt, two shawls, a pair of leggings^ 
and two caps were found in a Danish tumulus evidentl}^ 
belonging to the Bronze age, as it contained a sword, a 
brooch, a knife, an awl, a pair of tweezers, and a large stud, 
all of bronze, besides a small button of tin, a javelin-head of 
flint, a bone comb, and a bark box. 

We have independent evidence of the same fact in the 
presence of spindlewhorls. 

12. The ornamentation on the arms, implements, and 
pottery, is pecuUar. It consists of geometrical patterns ; 
straight lines, circles, triangles, zigzags, &c. Animals and 
vegetables are very rarely attempted, and never with much 

13. Another peculiarity of the bronze arms Ues in the 
small size of the handles. The same observation applies* 
to the bracelets, &a They could not be used by the pre- 
sent inhabitants of Northern Europe. 

14. No traces of writing have been met with in any finds 
of the Bronze age. There is not an inscription on any of 
the arms or pottery found in the Swiss lake- villages, and I 
only know one instance of a bronze cutting instrument with 
letters on it. 

15. The very existence of bronze proves that of a con- 
siderable and extensive commerce, inasmuch as we only 
know two countries, namely Cornwall, and the Island of 
Banca, whence tin could have been obtained in large quan- 
tities. There are, indeed, but few places where it occurs 
at all. The same fact is proved by the great, not to say 
complete, similarity of the arms from very different parts of 

16. Finally, as copper must have been in use before 
bronze, and as ai*ms and implements of that metal are 
almost unknown in Western Europe, it is reasonable to con- 
clude that the knowledge of bronze was introduced into, not 
discovered in, Europe. 

Two distinguished archaeologists have recently advocated 
very diflPerent views as to the race by whom these bronze 

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weapons were made, or at least used. Mr. Wright attri- 
butes them to the Romans ; Professor Nilsson to the Phoe- 
nicians. The first of these theories I believe to be utterly 
untenable. In addition to the facts already brought for- 
ward, there are two which by themselves are I think al- 
most sufficient to disprove the hypothesis. Firstly, the 
word ferrum was used as a synonym for a sword, which 
would scarcely have been the case if another metal had been 
used for the purpose. Secondly, the Romans never entered 
Denmark : it is doubtful whether they ever landed in Ireland. 
Yet while three hundred and fifty bronze swords have been 
found in Denmark, and a very large number in Ireland also,* I 
have only been able to hear of a single bronze sword in Italy. 
The national museums at Florence, Rome, and Naples do not 
appear to contain a single specimen of the typical, leaf- 
shaped, bronze swords, which are, comparatively speaking, 
so common in the North. That the bronze swords should 
have been supposed to be introduced into Denmark by a 
people who never came there, and from a country in which 
they are almost unknown, is, I think, a most untenable hypo- 
thesis. It is no doubt true that a few cases are on record in 
which bronze weapons are said to have been, and very likely 
were, found in association with Roman remains. Mr. Wright 
has pointed out three, one of which at least I cannot admit. 
Under any circumstances, however, we must expect to meet 
with some such cases. The only wonder to my mind is that 
there are so few of them. 

As regards Professor Nilsson's theory, according to which 
the Bronze age objects are of Phoenician origin, I will 
only say, that the Phoenicians in historical times were well 
acquainted with iron, and that their favourite ornaments 
were of a different character from those of the Bronze age. 
If, then, Professor Nilsson is correct, they must belong to 
an earlier period in Phoenician history than that with which 
we are partially familiar. 

It would now be natural that I should pass on to the Iron 
age, but the transition period between the two is illustrated 
by a discovery so remarkable that I cannot pass it over 
altogether in silence. M. Ramsauer, for many years head 

* The Museum at Dublin contains 282 swords and daggers : unluckily the number 
of swords is not stated separately. 

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of the salt mines at Hallstadt, near Salzburg in Austria, 
has opened not less than 980 graves apparently belonging 
to an ancient colony of miners. The results are described 
and the objects figured in an album, of which Mr. Evans and 
I have recently procured a copy from M. Ramsauer him- 
self. We hope soon to make this remarkable find known 
in a more satisfactory manner. For the moment, I will 
only extract the main facts which are necessary to my pre- 
sent arguments. 

That the period to which these graves belonged was that 
of the transition between the Bronze and Iron ages, is evi- 
dent, both because we find cutting instruments of iron as 
well as of bronze, and also because both are of somewhat 
unusual, and we may almost say of intermediate, types. The 
same is the case with the ornamentation. Animals are fre- 
quently represented, but are very poorly executed, while the 
geometrical patterns are well done. Coins are entirely 
absent. That the passage was from bronze to iron, and not 
from iron to bronze, is clear ; because here, as elsewhere, 
while iron instruments with bronze handles are common, there 
is not a single case of a bronze blade with an iron handle. 
This shows that when both metals were used for weapons, 
the iron was preferred. Another interesting point in con- 
nection with this, I find, is the almost entire absence of 
silver, lead, and zinc. It has indeed been stated that these 
metals are altogether absent, but Mr. Evans finds that silver 
is mentioned by M. B^msauer once, or perhaps twice, and 
zinc also once. This is the more remarkable inasmuch as 
the presence, not only of the tin itself, but also of battu 
amber and ivory, indicate the existence of an extensive 

The conclusions, then, as regards the Bronze age, to which 
I have endeavoured to bring you are these : — 

1. There was a period when bronze was extensively used 
for arms and implements. 

2. Stone, however, was also in use, especially for certain 
purposes, as, for instance, for arrow-heads, and in the form 
of flakes for cutting. 

3. Some of the bronze axes appear to be mere copies of 
the earlier stone ones. 

4. Many of the Swiss lake-villages and of the tumuli 
belong to this period. 

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5. This is shown, not merely by the presence of metal, 
but also by other arguments. 

6. The pottery of the Bronze age is better than that of 
the earlier period. 

7. Gold, amber, and glass were used for ornamental pur- 

8. Silver, lead, and zinc appear to have been unknown. 

9. This was also the case with iron. 

10. Coins were not in use. 

11. Skins Were probably worn, but tissues of flax and wool 
have also been discovered. 

12. The ornamentation of the period is characteristic, and 
consists of geometrical markings. 

13. The handles of the arms, the bracelets, &c., indicate a 
small race. 

14. Writing appears to have been unknown ; 

15. Yet there was a very considerable commerce. 

16. It is more than probable that the knowledge of bronze 
was introduced into, not discovered in, Europe. 

The Iron Age. 

The Iron age is the period when this metal was first 
used for weapons and cutting instruments. During this 
epoch we emerge into the broad, and in man}*^ respects 
delusive, glare of history. 

No one of course will deny that arms of iron were in use 
by our ancestors at the time of the Roman invasion. Mr. 
Crawfurd indeed considers that they were more ancient 
than those of bronze, while Mr. Wright maintains that the 
bronze weapons belong to the Roman period. 

I have already attempted to show, from the frequent 
occurrence of iron blades with bronze handles, and the 
entire absence of the reverse, that iron must have succeeded 
and replaced bronze. Other arguments might be adduced ; 
but it will be suflScient to state broadly that which I think 
no experienced archaeologist will deny, namely, that the 
other objects which accompany bronze weapons are much 
more archaic than those which are found with weapons ot 

That the bronze swords and daggers were not used by the 
Romans in Caesar's times, I have already attempted to prove. 
That they were not used at that period by the northern races 

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is distinctly stated in history. I will, however, endeavour 
to make this also evident on purely archaBological grounds. 
We have several important finds of this period, among which 
I will specially call your attention to the lake-village of La 
Tone, in the Lake of Neufch&tel. At this place no flint 
implements (excepting flakes) are met with. Only fifteen 
objects of bronze have been found, and only one of them 
was an axe. Moreover, this was pierced for a handle, and 
belonged therefore to a form rarely if ever occurring in finds 
of the Bronze age. On the other hand, the objects of iron 
are numerous, and comprise fifty swords, twenty-three lances, 
and five axes. Coins have also been met with at this station, 
while they are entirely absent in those of the Bronze age. 

The other find of the Iron age to which I will now refer, is 
that of Nydam, recently described at length by M. Engelr 
hardt, in his excellent work .on •' Denmark in the Early Iron 
Age." At this place have been found an immense number 
of the most diverse objects — clothes, brooches, tweezers, 
beads, helmets, shields, coats of mail, buckles, harness, boats, 
rakes, brooms, mallets, bows, vessels of wood and pottery, 
80 knives, 30 axes, 40 awls, 1 60 arrow-heads, 180 swords, 
and nearly 600 lances. All these weapons were of iron, 
though bronze was freely used for ornaments. That these 
two finds belonged to the Roman period, is clearly proved 
by the existence of numerous coins, belonging to the first 
two centuries after Christ, although not one has occurred in 
any of the Bronze age lake-villages, or in the great find at 

It is quite clear, therefore, that neither bronze nor stone 
weapons were in use in Northern Europe at the commence- 
ment of our era. 

A closer examination would much strengthen this conclu- 
sion. For instance, at Thorsbjerg alone there are seven in- 
scriptions, either in Runes or Roman characters, w^hile, as I 
have already stated, letters are quite unknown, with one excep- 
tion, on any object of the Bronze age, or in the great transi- 
tion find at Hallstadt. Again, the significance of the absence 
of silver in the Hallstadt find is greatly increased when we 
see that in the true Iron age, as in tlie Nydam auti other 
similar finds, silver was used to ornament shield-bosses, 
shield-rims, sandals, brooches, breast-plates, sword-hilts, 
sword-sheaths, girdles, harness, &c. ; and was used for clasps. 

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pendaDts, boxes, and tweezers, while in one case a helmet 
was made of this comparatively rare material. 

The pottery also shows much improvement, the forms of 
the weapons are quite different, and the character of the 
ornamentation is very unlike, and much more advanced than, 
that of the Bronze age. Moreover, the bronze used in the 
Iron age differs from that of the Bronze age, in that it fre- 
quently contains lead and zinc in considerable quantities. 
These metals have never been found in the bronzes of the 
true Bronze age, nor even in those of Hallstadt. 

These finds clearly show that the inhabitants of Northern 
and Western Europe were by no means such mere savages 
as we have been apt to suppose. As far as our own ances- 
tors are concerned, this is rendered even more evident by 
the discoveries of those ancient British coins which have been 
so well described and figured by Mr. John Evans.' 

In conclusion, I would venture to suggest that the Govern- 
ment should be urged to appoint a Royal Conservator of 
National Antiquities. We cannot put Stonehenge or the 
Wansdyke into a museum — all the more reason why we 
should watch over them where they are ; and evep if the 
destruction of our ancient monuments should, under any cir- 
cumstances, become necessary, careful drawings ought first 
to be made, and their removal ought to take place under 
proper superintendence. We are apt to blame the Eastern 
peasants who use the ancient buildings as stone quarries, but 
we forget that even in our own country, Avebury, the most 
magnificent of Druidical remains, was almost destroyed for 
the sake of a few pounds ; while recently the Jockey Club 
has mutilated the remaining portion of the Devil's Dyke on 
Newmarket Heath, in order to make a bank for the exclu- 
sion of scouts at trial races. In this case, also, the saving, if 
any, must have been very small; and I am sure that no society 
of English gentlemen would have committed such an act of 
wanton barbarism, if they had given the subject a moment's 

But I have already occupied your attention longer per- 
haps than I ought — much longer, at any rate, than I at first 
intended. I have endeavoured, as well as I was able, to 
bring before you some of the principal conclusions to which 

^ " The Coins of the Ancient Britons." 
VOL. XXiil. 1 1 

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vfe have been led by the study of PrimaBval antiquities, pur- 
posely avoiding all reference to history, because I have been 
particularly anxious to satisfy you that in archaeology we 
can arrive at definite and satisfactory conclusions, on inde- 
pendent grounds, without any assistance from history, and 
consequently as regards times before writingVas invented, 
and therefore before written history had commenced. 

I have endeavoured to select only those arguments which 
rest on well-authenticated facts. For my own part, however, 
I care less about the facts than the method. For an infant 
science, as for a child, it is of small importance to make rapid 
strides at first : and I carfe comparatively httle how far you 
accept our facts or adopt our results, if only you are convinced 
that our method is one which will eventually lead us to 
sure conclusions, and therefore that the science of Pre-historic 
Archaeology rests undoubtedly on a sound and solid founda- 

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By the Rer. BDWARD TROLLOPS, M.A., P. 8. A., Prebendaiy of Linooln. 

About a mile to the south of Lincoln, adjacent to the 
course of the old city wall, as it existed in 1610, and to the 
Sincil Dyke, the fosse of the fortifications in this quarter, a 
quadrangular enclosure of about seven acres is still to be 
seen at the north-western angle of the great South Common ; 
this fenced ground is known as the Malandery Field or 
Closes. The spot is not shown in the Map of "Lindum 
Colonia,** taken by Stukeley, in 1722,^ reproduced in the 
Transactions of the Meeting of the Institute at Lincoln in 
1848. That Map extends only to the Sincil Dyke, before- 
mentioned, and to the position of the Great Bar Gate, at the 
southern termination of the High Street. 

Here stood the Hospital of the Holy Innocents, called the 
Maladerie,' Malandery, or Leprosery, " Domus Leprosorum^ 
erected outside the city as a refuge for loathsome and pitiable 
suflFerers, who were regarded with abhorrence and excluded 
from the resorts of their fellow-men. Evidences of the former 
existence of extensive buildings may be seen in the broken 
surface of the Malandery Field, and even the site of the 
church of the Hospital has been pointed out in local maps ; 
of the original buildings, the remains of which were destroyed 
by fire about the middle of the last century, not one stone is 
left upon another. The history of the Institution, with a 
plan, and an ample account of the dreadful disease that 
extensively prevailed in this and in most European countries 
from the tenth to the close of the sixteenth century, has 

• ^ A short notice of this sepulchral v. MaladreriCi and Ladrerie. It'is stated 
slab was given in the twenty-second that in the times of Louis VIII., about 
Report of the Archit. Soo. Dioo. of Lin- 1225, there were not less than 2000 leper- 
coin, p. zi. houses in France. Thomas of Walsing- 
' Stukeley, Itin. Cur., cent, i., p. 88. ham gives the number of 1900 Spitals for 
' See Ducange, v. Maladeria, noso- lepers in Christendom, 
eomium leprosorum, &c., and Roquefort, 

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been given by Dr. Cookson in a volume of Memoirs com- 
municated to the Lincolnshire Topographical Society.* 

It is stated that the establishment of a House for Lepers 
had been one of the good works of Bishop Remigius (1067 — 
1092), who removed the see to Lincoln ; it was probably 
the same that was endowed by Henry I., according to docu- 
ments printed in the Monasticon.^ 

In excavations for the new railway from Lincoln to 
Honington, in 1865, a co£Qn-lid, or sepulchral slab of unusual 
design was brought to light in the Malandery Field. Be- 
neath were remains of a grave formed of rude rubble work, 
on a spot that had apparently been occupied by the choir of 
the church attached to the Hospital, known to have stood 
where the singular memorial here figured was found. The 
filab, supposed to be of Eetton stone, measures 6 ft. 11 in. 
in length, 2 ft. 2 in. in width at the head, and 17 in. at the 
feet ; the thickness is 6 in. Its chief ornament is a cross 
carved in relief; the stem ia enriched by bold foliated 
orockets ; the head of the cross has diagonal limbs ; these, 
as well as those of the head are decorated, in like fashion as 
the stem, with foliated finials or knops of foliage. The 
remarkable features of this cross, however, are three aper- 
tures, accurately shown in the wood-cut ; through the upper 
one, of circular form, in the centre of the head of the cross, 
is seen the head of apparently an aged female, with a veil 
or kerchief falling in narrow folds on either side ; lower 
down, in the position where the conjoined hands in the cus- 
tomary gesture of prayer would be found, they appear as if 
seen through a narrow opening of pointed oval form ; near 
the lower end of the slab are seen the feet, through a cir- 
cular aperture ; the pointed toes seem to indicate close- 
fitting shoes or stockings. Around the margin of the slab, 
on three of its sides, is the inscription, forming a rhyming 
quatrain^ as follows : — 


* A Selection of Papers relaiWe to the Customs touching Leprosy. By. W. D. 

County of Lincoln. Lincoln : W. and Cookson, M.D. 

B. Brooke. 1848. See, at p. 29, a me- * Dugdale, Mon. Aug., vol. yL p. 627 ; 

moir on the Hospital called La Malardri Tanner's Notitia. 
. at Lincoln : with some account of Ancient 

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Or, in the French of modern times : — 

Vous, qui par ici passez. 

Pour Tame Iveyt priez, 

Qui fut la femme Hue de Rouceby, 

Que Dieu de Tame en ait mercy. 

The date of the slab seems to be about 1350. The name 
was doubtless taken from Rauceby, a parish near Sleaford, 
Lincolnshire.* Several persons of the name occur in local 
history. In an inquisition regarding possessions of the 
Knights Hospitalers in Lincolnshire, in 1185, we find, at 
Risby, Andrew Avetorp, who held lands of the gift of 
Walter de Raucebi ; William de Rauceby, of Holdingham, 
obtained manumission of Bishop Oliver Sutton, in 1287 ; 
and John de Rauceby was prebendary of Carlton-cum- 
Thurlby, from 1379 — 88, when he met with a violent death 
on Lincoln Heath. No notice has, however, been found of 
Hugh de Rauceby, nor can it be ascertained in what capa- 
city Ivetta, his relict, may have lived and died at the Mala- 
derie, within the church of which her body seems to have 
been interred. 

It may here deserve notice that lepers were so far ex- 
cluded from the pale of society, that they were forbidden to 
enter churches, and were left without any provision for the 
burial of their dead. Some of the larger houses sought to 
alleviate this dreadful condition by building chapels ; here, 
however, they found an obstacle in the parochial clergy, by 
whom infringements of their rights were apprehended. In 
1197 the matter was taken into consideration by the third 
Lateran Council, and the conduct of the clergy was censured 
by Alexander III., who authorised any community of leper- 
folk, who could maintain a priest, to build a chapel and have 
a cemetery of their own. They were also exempted from 
payment of tithes. 

The costly character of the slab would lead us to infer 
that Ivetta de Rauceby was a person of some consideration 
— a benefactress, possibly, to the institution, in which, doubt- 

* A cro88-«lab, dated 1885, the name — A rob. Journ. vol. xL p. 189. See several 

De Rauceby — unfortuDately in part de- examplea of bead-stoDes with croesea 

faced, was found about 1854 in the south found used as " wallers " in the churrh 

aisle of Rauoeby church, and is supposed of that place. — Ibid., toI. x. pp. 63, 162; 

to commemorate the builder of that part see also a notice of a mural painting 

of the fabric. This slab has beeu figured, there, vol. xi. p. '68. 

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Sepulchral Slab found in the Ifalandery Field, Lincoln. 
Date about 1S50. 


K K 

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less, she may have sought a refuge as afflicted with that 
dreadful diseajse from which no class of society was exempt. 
The tale of Syr Amis and Syr Amiloun supplies a picture of 
the ^' mesel ^' expelled from his home by his wife, and con- 
fined in a wayside hut near his own gate. The Scottish 
poet, Henrysoun, also, about 1460, in his ^^ Testament of 
Creseide/' gives a picture of Leper-life in the " Spitel at the 
Towne's ende/' similar to the Malandery at the southern gate 
of Lincoln. We learn from these ancient poems that even 
the lady of high degree, afflicted with that dire disorder, 
became an outcast, and was driven to seek a doleful refuge 
in the House of Lazars. 

In regard to the occurrence of the memorial under con- 
sideration, whether we regard the relict of Hugh de Rouceby 
as having been herself afflicted with disease, or as a person 
who may have been interred in the church of the Malandery 
on account of her charity and benevolence towards its 
suffering inmates, it may be remarked that there were 
'' consorores '' within its walls. In an Inquisition in the 
reign of Edward IIL, it was found by the jurors that certain 
women dwelled in the Hospital of the Holy Innocents, " se 
habentes tanquam sorores — qusB non intraverunt per viam 
rectam, sed per viam pecuniae," namely, by a bribe given to 
the CustosP 

It has been observed that the slab recently disinterred at 
the Malandery in railway operations is of unusual character. 
Several memorials, however, of the fourteenth and fifteenth 
centuries might be enumerated, in which there is a capricious 
and somewhat grotesque combination of the sepulchral cross 
with portions of the effigy, the latter benig either in low 
relief upon the face of the slab, or shown through apertures 
in various parts of it, as in the curious example under con- 
sideration. It seems to have been a local fashion, mostly 
adopted in Lincolnshire and adjacent counties.® Although 
the expression of the face is almost invariably in sepulchral 
effigies that of life, it deserves consideration whether the 

7 Dagd. Mon. Ang., vol. tL p. 627, Line." 
Caley's edit. It U Bomewhat singular > Mr. Boutell remarks that monuments 

that oooasioDally a recluse should have of this description are chiefly to be found 

been formally closed up in a leper-house. in Lincolnshire, Yorkshire, Derbyshire, 

By 2 Pat. Edw. IIL, 15, it seems to have Nottinghamshire, Rutland, and some 

been granted that " Eliz. de Elme posset parts of Walea. Christ Monuments, 

esse reclusa infra Hoep. SS. Innoc. extra sect, ll, p. 119. 

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intention of the sculptor may not have been to suggest that 
portions of the corpse enclosed in the coffin were actually 
visible through the openings in its iid.^ Gough gives 
amongst other examples the strangely combined memorial 
of Joan, wife of William Disney, at Norton Disney, Lincoln- 
shire ; the lady's bust and arms, with hands conjoined, are 
there shown, surrounded by escutcheons of arms and acces- 
sory decorations ; the lower part of the slab is charged with 
a cross, and through a trefoiled aperture at its base the feet 
of the deceased lady appear resting on an animal, probably 
a dog. Other examples are figured by Mr. Cutte in his 
Manual of Sepulchral Slabs and Crosses ; ^ a few sepulchral 
brasses also occur that partake of a similar peculiarity in 
their design, as, for instance, one in the Chapel of Merton 
College, date about 1310 ; in a memorial of a priest at 
Chinnor, Oxfordshire, the tonsured head is introduced in a 
beautifully floriated cross.' 

It only remains, in conclusion, to offer a few remarks on 
the somewhat unusual name, iveyt, occurring on the memo- 
rial to which attention has been invited. It may possibly 
be another form of the name Judith, which is not uncommon 
in Anglo-Saxon and subsequent times, and which must be 
held in honored remembrance as that of the daughter of 
Charles the Bald, the consort of Ethelwulf, by whom our 
Alfred was instructed in the first use of letters.^ The kins- 
woman of the Conqueror, given in marriage to the powerful 
Earl of Northumberland, Waltheof, was Judith, daughter of 
Earl Lambert de Lens, and sister of Stephen, Earl of Albe- 
marle. In the Life of Waltheof, however, edited by Michel, 
in the " Chroniques Anglo-Normandes,'* from a MS. at Douai, 
her name has been printed both as " Juetia^^ and ^'Jtidithay^ 
So likewise the late Sir Francis Palgrave, in extracts from the 
"Cronica Canonicorum B. Marie Huntingdon,'' preserved 

' In a singalar croBS-slab in Romsey the eentrs of the he«d of the croae or 

Abbey Church, Hants, a hand appears as immediately over it. 
if emerging from the coffin on its dexter * Manual of Monumental Brasses ; by 

side, and holding a staff with a small the Rev. H. Haines ; Part I. p. cxzxt. 
drapery or vexiUum appended to it, pos- > In the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle her 

sibly a oroeier reversed ; the tomb may name is written Jeothete, or Juthy tta. 

be the memorial of one of the abbesses The nepti* of Edward the Confessor 

of Romsey. married to Tostin is named Juthitta. 

' See Plates xxxi., Ixvil, IxtUL to Ixxi. * Chron. Ang. Norm., tom. ii. pp. 117, 

The head is mostly shown through a 121, 123, Ac. Kouen, Ed. Frdre, 1836. 
quatrefuiled aperture formed either in 

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amongst the documents relating to the affairs of Scotland, 
in the Treasury of the Exchequer, has printed the name of 
the same lady. David, one of the sons of Malcolm King of 
Scots, married, as there stated, " Matildam comitissam 
Hunting* neptem Willelmi regis Anglie, filiam Ivette que 
fuit filia Lamberti de Louns comitis.'^ ^ 

It must be admitted that it is difficult to account for the 
substitution of Ivetta for Judith. So singular a change 
does not appear quite satisfactory. It has been suggested, 
with considerable probability, that Ivetta may have been the 
feminine form of Ivo. In the Calendar of the Patent Rolls, 
p. 39, we find "Ivetta de Veteri ponte,'' one of the two 
daughters and coheiresses of Robert de Vipont^ who died 
about 1265. Ivo occurs as a name in the same &mily. 
By Dugdale, however, in his account of the Vipont family, 
this lady, who married Roger de Leybum, is csdled Idonea. 
The question must be left to those who take interest in the 
investigation of personal names in the Middle Ages.^ 

In the church of Easton, Northamptonshire, there is an 
inscription on the south side of the chancel, that comme- 
morates Sir Richard de Lindone, lord of the manor, who 
died 39 Hen. IIL, 1255, " e dame Ivete sa feme." It is 
given by Bridges, Hist. North., vol. ii. p. 447. 

* Dooumentfl, &c, preserved in the be noticed, still oooor aa Bumames. See 

TreMury of the ExoLequer, vol. i. pp. Burke^s Qen. Armory. Ivatts ia a name 

101, 104. in tiie Isle of Ely at the present time. 
* Ivett and Ivatt, it may deserve to 

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In bringing under the notice of the Institute this very 
curious weapon for firing ofif grenades from the shoulder, — 
one of several examples preserved in the Royal Artillery 
Museum, at Woolwich, kindly lent for our examination by 
Greneral Lefroy, — ^it may be desirable to take a glance at the 
rise and progress of explosive shells in our own and foreign 
services ; not, however, including those of the present day. 

The well-known figure of a hinged shell in the work of 
Valturius, published in 1472, had long been accepted as the 
prototype of the bomb ; but very competent judges of our 
own day have thrown doubt on this evidence, believing that 
the shell in question was charged with incendiary composi- 
tion, and not intended to inflict injury by its fragments on 
bursting. Not venturing to offer an opinion on this knotty 
question, I shall content myself with quoting the words of 
Valturius as they appear in the Libri manuscript, lately 
acquired by the British Museum. The invention is there 
described as *' machina qui pilsB aenesB tormentarii pulveris 
plenaB, cum fungi aridi fomite urentis, emittuntur." Though 
we hear nothing more of bombs till the sixteenth century, it 
may very well have happened that such an invention was 
made at the early period here noticed, and left in abeyance 
for a time, as we often see inventions in the military art,— 
and, indeed, in all arts. 

In the sixteenth century the explosive shell, under the 
form of the Grenade, makes its appearance. In 1537, we 
learn from Pfere Daniel, who cites the memoirs of Du Bellay, 
that, in making preparation for resisting an attack upon 

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Aries by the Emperor Charles V., that place was furnished 
with "lances, pots, et grenades, dont on fit faire grande 
quantite ^' (vol. i. p. 685). We must therefore, adds Daniel, 
fix the invention of grenades, at the latest, under the reign 
of Francis the First. Six years afterwards (in 1543) we 
have a very curious and clear account of the fabrication of 
explosive shells in S tow's " Annales." Under the 35th of 
Henry VIII. he writes : — " King Henry, minding wars with 
Fraunce, made great preparation and provision, as well of 
munitions and artillery as also of brasse ordinance, amongst 
which, at that time, by one Peter Baud, a French-man borne, 
a gunfounder or maker of great ordinance, and one other 
alien, called Peter van Collen, a gunsmith, both the king's 
feed men ; who, conferring together, devised and caused to 
be made certain morter pieces^ being at the mouth from 
eleven inches unto nineteen inches wide ; for the use whereof 
the said Peter and Peter caused to be made certaine hollow 
shot of cast yron, to be stuffed with fire-worke or wild fire, 
whereof the bigger sorte for the same had screwes of yron to 
receive a match to carry fire kindled, that the fier-work 
might be set on fire, for to break in small pieces the same 
hollow shot, whereof the smallest piece hitting any man, 
would kill or spoyle him'* (p. 584, ed. of 1631). This 
seems clearly the mortar and bomb, as we now understand 
those teims. We have here, distinctly named, the mortar- 
piece, of which the " bigger sorte ** carried a shell upwards 
of a foot and a half in diameter ; and the purpose of this 
cast-iron shell was to break into small pieces when falling 
among the enemy. Whether the worthy " Peter and Peter** 
had got hold of a copy of Valturius and modified his device 
to the result above described, must be left to our conjecture. 
I may remark that cannon founded by the above-named 
Peter Baude are still preserved in the Tower and Woolwich 

In 1562, we learn from the Memoirs of Castelnau, cited in 
the " Milice Fran^aise/* that grenades were used at the siege 
of Rouen, and that the Comte de Rendan was there killed by 
the bursting of one (vol. i. p. 585). At the siege of Vakten- 
donck, in the Low Countries, in 1588, bombs appear to have 
been employed with great success. " Nothing," says Strada, 
^' terrified the townsmen more than certain great hollow iron 
balls filled with powder and with other materials, which were 

VOL. zxni. L L 

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inextinguishable. They had a fuse and were cast from a 
mortar. Falling upon the roofs of the houses, they broke 
through them, and as soon as the charge ignited, they burst, 
spreading on all sides a flame that could with difficulty be 
extinguished with water" {Daniel, vol. i. p. 580). In the 
"Commentaries'' of Sir Francis Vere we read that, at the 
siege of Ostend, in 1601, the defenders had "firkins of 
ashes, to be tumbled upon the enemie to blind them ; little 
quadrant tenter-nails, three sticking in the ground and one 
upright ; many great heaps of stones and brickbats, which 
the soldiers brought from the old church they had shot down; 
ropes of pitch ; hoops bound about with squibs and fire- 
works to throw among them ; great store of lumd-granadoes ; 
and clubs, which we called Hercules'-clubs, with heavy heads 
of wood, and nails driven into the squares of them '' (Com- 
mentaries, p. 170). 

In 1634 the French first adopted the mortar and shell, 
and it was from an Englishman that they obtained this 
powerful auxiliary. "The late king, Louis XIIL," says Blon- 
del, in his " Art de jetter les Bombes,'' " caused the 'Sieur 
Malthus,' an English engineer, to come from Holland for 
this purpose ; " and we have seen him, he adds, in several 
sieges directing the mortar batteries with great success. In 
the " Pratique de la Guerre " of Malthus himself, the author 
describes his mortar, which was 12 in. in- diameter, 3 in. 
thick at the mouth, and three at the chamber : the bomb was 
1 1^ in. in diameter, its thickness an inch and a fraction : the 
fuse was of wood. Ward, in his "Animadversions of 
Warre,'' published in 1639, tells us:— "The last kinds of 
ordnance are the morter-peece, the square murtherers, 
tortles, and petards.'' The first three of these were mortars. 
The mortar is also called by him Saints' Bell — " fashioned 
like to a morter or Saints' Bell" (p. 113). Granadoes, he 
adds at a later page,* are of two kinds, for morters and for 
hand. " Those that are to be shotte out of a morter-peece 
are to be cast in brasse for the principall service, or made of 
glasse or earth. There is another sort made of canvas, and 
that is used properly to set fire upon houses and townes " 
(chapt. 243). 

Nathanael Nye, "Master Gunner of the City of Wor- 
cester," in his "Art of Gunnery," published in 1647, remarks 
that the soldiers of his day were by no means fond of hand- 

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ling the grenade : they were loath " to meddle with the 
hand-granadoes, the using of them being somewhat dan- 
gerous" (p. 75). He further apprises us that "mortars of 
brass and iron being wanting, they may be made, for a need, 
of wood and pastbord. The bore into which you put your 
powder must be plated with copper or lattin, if it be possi- 
ble.'' And he adds : — " There is a yerj' honest man in the 
market town of Bromsgrove, named John Tilt, who can 
make either morter-peeces or ordnance, with tin, wire, 
pastbord and glue, of excellent durance and service, if not 
wronged in the charge or loading of them *' (p. 66). 

In 1667 tlie Grenadier became a regular constituent of 
the French army : every company of the Regiment du Roi 
had four of them. In 1670 they were united into a single 
company : in 1672 the first thirty regiments of the line had 
each its company of grenadiers. The adoption of grenadiers 
by Louis XIV. is thus explained by Marshal Fuysegur in 
his "Art de la Guerre," — "The king, having formed many 
sieges, at first volunteers were invited for throwing the 
grenades. At length his majesty resolved to establish Com- 
panies for that service. These had pouches to carry the 
grenades and hatchets to use in attacks in the trenches and 
other places, for cutting down palisades, and breaking 
through doors" (vol. i. p. 222). 

Turner, in his "Pallas Armata," 1671, says:— "The 
fourth kind of ordnance is the mortar, under which com- 
prehend pot-pieces, square-murtherers, tortles, and petards. 
The pot-piece shoots granados, fireballs and stones" (p. 192). 

In 1676, Louis XI V. formed the company of Grenadiers d 
cheval, consisting of 130 men, with their special officers. 
They carried, besides their pouch of grenades, sword, fusil 
and pistols. 

Under the year 1678, Evelyn in his Memoirs tells us that, 
in the month of June, he visited the Camp at Hounslow 
Heath, and adds : — " Now were brought into service a new 
sort of soldiers called granadiers, who were dextrous in 
flinging hand granados, every one having a pouch full. 
They had furred caps with coped crownes like Janizaries, 
which made them looke very fierce ; and some had long 
hoods hanging down behind, as we picture fools. Their 
clothing being likewise pybald, yellow and red" (vol. i. 
p. 497, ed. 1819). 

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From the Manuals for the Exercise of British Troops, pub- 
lished by royal command, we learn the armament of the 
grenadier from 1682 to the end of the century. In 1682 he 
has pouch of "grenades,'' match, fusil with bayonet, and 
hatchet. In 1690 he is provided with pouch of " granades,*' 
match, fusil with plug bayonet and sling, cartridges^ and 
primer. It may be remarked that while, at this date, the 
grenadier and dragoon have cartridges, the musquetier still 
carries his charges in the old "collar of bandeliers." In 
1694, St. Remy gives us a good and well-detailed print of 
the French grenadier's pouch, hatchet, and belt ("Memoires 
d'Artillerie," pi. 88), and of his fusil with bayonet (pi. 80). 

The horse-grenadier is found in England as well as in 
France. Grose, in his " History of the English Army," gives 
us an account of two of them " riding before Queen Anne's 
coach with fixed bayonets ; which bayonets had handles 
with rings fixed to them, for the admission of the barrel of 
the piece " (vol. ii. p. 342). 

In 1735 we have the curious work of Bernard Lens, 
"limner to his Majesty," published by his son, and to be 
had only, as he tells us, " at his lodgings at Mr. Mitchell's, 
a peruke maker's, in Jermyn Street, Saint James's." The 
prints, he says in his Dedication to the Duke of Cumberland, 
" naturally fly to your Royal Highness's patronage, and are 
with the profoundest respect and humility," &c., &c. The 
armament here consists of pouch, match, fusil with shng and 
socket bayonet, and basket-hilted sabre. The figures are 
nineteen in number, and 7 inches high ; one of which, labelled 
" Blow your Match," is here reproduced.^ 

An arrangement, by which large and small shells might 
be fired at the same time from one mortar, is shown in 
Daniel's " Milice Fran9oise " (vol. i. p. 587, and pi. 41). The 
smaller shells are called Perdreaiuv ; resembling, he tells us, 
a covey of young partridges, among which the bomb repre- 
sents the mother partridge — "comme une compagnie de 
perdreaux, dont la bombe represente la mere perdrix." This 
device does not appear to have had any very great success, 
presenting probably too much analogy to the equally inge- 
nious invention of the large aperture for the oat and the 

' The title of this curious and rare is '^The Grenadiers' Exercise of the 
book, of which a good copy exists in the Oreuado in His Majesty's First Regiment^ 
Royal Artillery Libraiy at Woolwich, of Foot Guards." 

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Grenadier ol" H.M. First RegirDent ol Foot Otiards. 1735. 
From an engraving by Bernard Lcun, limner to Gev>rge II. 

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smaller one for the kittens. Wall-grenades are, as their 
name indicates, for use in defence of walls against a be- 
sieging force. In Grose's " Ancient Armour/' there is a 
curious plate of an instrument, which he calls ^' a Tinker^s 
mortar *' : " this," he says, " being fixed on a stick, was used for 
throwing grenades/' It is figured on plate 49 of his work. 
Somewhat similar are the cups affixed to fusils for firing 
grenades, of which examples will be found in the Tower and 
Woolwich collections. Those in the Tower are of the time 
of James II. 

The HAND-MORTAR now before us appears to be of the 
early part of the seventeenth century ; the invention itself 
being probably of about the same date. It has a wheel-lock, 
the brass barrel has the arms of Wurtemburg chased upon' 
it near the muzzle. The calibre of the mortar is 2f in. ; of 
its chamber 1 in. ; depth of the chamber 2^ in. ; of the 
mortar 4^ in. : total length of the weapon 2^ ft. The stock, 
it will be seen, is contrived in the view of lightening the 
piece as much as possible. It is inlaid with ivory, having 
the figure of a cannonier directing his battery against a 
walled town. Several other examples of the hand-mortar 
will be found in the Tower and Woolwich museiuns, all 
having fiint locks. There is one in the Goodrich Court 
collection, figured in the second volume of Skelton's " Illus- 
trations." It has both match and wheel-lock. In the fine 
specimen-number of M. Micol's Panoplie Buropeenne, depict- 
ing various arms in the Museum of Bordeaux, we have a 
representation of a hand-mortar of the eighteenth century. 
It closely resembles the most recent of the Woolwich exam- 
ples. It seems clear, from the rarity of specimens, that this 
implement, the Hand-mortar, was never of extensive adop- 
tion ; and the same may be said of the Fusil-mortar. Indeed, 
a whole museum might be filled with projects for destruc- 
tion which have never destroyed anything but the fortunes 
of their inventors. 

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In the autumn of 1861, by the curtesy of the Corporation of Axbridge 
and its officers^ I had an opportunity of inspecting the records of this 
corporation. Among them I found the following detached roll or memo- 
randum which relates to the town and its Ticinity and to the well-known 
incident of the hunting of King Edmund on the Mendip hills, which is 
recorded by the biographers of St. Dunstan. The document was not new 
to me. In fact it was one of my objects of search ; for a translated copy 
of it had been long before published in " Rutter's Delineations of the North- 
Western Division of the County of Somerset" (London, 1829), and had 
thence found its way into other local guides. The supposed origin of English 
boroughs, and especially that of Axbridge, is incidentally noticed in it. 

The character of the handwriting is, I apprehend, that of the beginning 
of the fifteenth century : — 

, Temporibus Adelstani, Edmundi, Edredi, Edgari et Sancti Edwardi, 
aliorumque Regum Anglie anti quorum gubernatio quidem regni hec fuit. 
Videlicet, quod per consilium Sanctorum Dunstani et Alphegi aliorumque 
regni spectabilium virorum ordinatum fuit ut fierent burgagia, id est maneria 
sire mansiones regie, nam < Borough,' Anglice, latino sonat ' mansio ' seu 
habitatio, undo et in presenti foveas vulpinas appellamus < boroughes,' que 
constructa fuerunt diversis in locis in qualibet regni parte prout regie 
magestati tempus et loci situs commodius delectarent. Et eciam quod 
fierent Cuslodes in quolibet Burgo, qui tunc temporis Yocabantur ' War- 
demon,' idest ' Portereves' Constabularii ceterique ofiiciarii qui regie nomine 
ordinarent victualia : Videlicet frumentum vinum et ordeum ores et bovea 
ceteraque pecora campi et volucres cell piscesque marines pro tempore quo 
Rex in Burgo prefixo moram cum suis trahere decretaret. Namque per 
regium consilium assignatum erat cuilibet Burgo tempus certum spaciumque 
temporis quamdiu cum suis in hujusmodi {sic) demoraretur. Si vero contin- 
geret illuc Regem non adesse tunc omnia preordinata in foro predicti Burgi 
yenundari deberent et pecunia inde recepta in fiscum regium per officiarios 
predictos inferri liceret. Preterea per dictum consilium forent villagia per 
circuitum diet' Burg' adjacentia in quibus essent villani et nativi qui terram 
incolerent animaliaque nutrirent et cetera que ad opus supradictum neces- 
saria forent ad victum officiariorum burgorum supradictorum. Vixit itaque 
Rex in illis diebus de propriis dominiis sive maneiiis sicut ceteri dooiini 
mode faciunt et hoc omuino ne rcgnum inedie gravamen incurreret. 

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Interdum yero estivabaDt Reges circa forestam de Minndep renandi 
gratia ia qua tunc temporis fuerunt cenri non pauoi ceterarumque ferarum 
genera diversa. Nam, ut legitur in rita Sancti Dunstani, Rex Edmundus 
qui Glastonie requiescit* accessit venaturus ad forestam supradictam, Burgo 
regio tunc apud Axebrigge existent^. Idem Tero Rex triduo perantea 
beatum Dunstanum a curia sua cum magna indignationo ac sine honore 
abjecerat quo facto Rex in silyam venaturus ivit. Sil?a autem ipsa montem 
magne altitudinis occupat qui mens in sumniitate sui interniptus ingens 
precipicium et horridum abbissum spectantibus offert quod ab incolis 
Gtdderclyff appellatur. Cum ergo fugitantem cenrum Rex hao et iliac 
insequeretur, ceryus ad preruptum montis hiatum perreniens introrsum ruit 
ac in partes discissus iiiteriit. Insectantes canes par ruina involuit. 
Equus autem quem (sic) Rex sedebat ruptis habenis effrenis effectus obstinato 
cursu regem post bestias portat et ultimam sortem Regi pre se patens 
baratrum intentat* lUe trepidat et angustiatur. Occurrit interim animo 
ejus injuria Dunstano nnper illata. Ingemuit et se qnam citissime illam 
multiplici emendatione correcturum, solomodo imminentem sibi mortem ejus 
meritis' ad horam Deus aTertat, Deo celeri mentis sponsione promittit. 
Cujus cordis preparationem auris Dei erestigio audiens illius misertus est. 
Equus namque illico substitit et Regem a periculo mortis liberatum Talde 
magnificans (?) Domino grates ex in time cordis persolvere fecit. 

Inde ad hospicium, scilicet ad Burgum de Axebrigge, Rex reversus 
adunatis principibus suis rei que acciderat ordinem pandit et Dunstanum 
cum honore ac reyerencia adduci precepit et eum postea fidelissimum ami- 
cum in omnibus habuit. 

Et sic in Axebrigge fuerunt zxxij<^ burgences quibus concessum fuit a 
Bupradictis regi bus jus yenandi atque piscandi in omnibus locis warennis 
exceptis. Videlicet a loco qui dicitur Ootellisascb* usque ad petram que 
yocatur le Blakestono in mari oecidentali. Et de predictis xxxij. burgen* 
cibus fuerunt xiiijcim seniores principales qui tunc yocabantur Sokmanni 
idest ' Wardemen ' sive ' Aldremanni, ex quibs omni anno ipsimet eligerent 
unum ' portereye,' qui modo per statutum regium^ ' Major ' vocatur et unum 
ballivum et duos constabularios ceterosquo officiarios qui in gubernatione 
illius Burgi forent necessaries ut yeniente regio Senescallo in festo vide- 
licet Sancti Michaclis facerent coram eodem fidelitatem Regi et regno de 
bujusmodi gubernatione et de pace servanda. Et sic villa de Axebrigge 
cum manerio de Cedder fuit proprium dominium Regis. 

Et nota quod hec duo Maneria, videlicet Somerton et Cedder, cum 
appendiciis suis reddebant firmam unius noctis tempore Sancti Edwardi 
Regis et Willielmi Conquestoris prout patet in libro qui dicitur < Domys- 
day,* folio secundo, ubi agitur de Comitatu Somersetensis sub titulo ' Terre 
Regis' in libro supradicto ubi continetur sic: — " Rex tenet Chedder. Rex 
Kdwardus tenuit nunquam gildavit nee scitur quot hide sunt ibi. Terra est 

' Rutter traiiBlatoB the words " qui the immediate cause of Divine interpo- 

Glastonie requieecit,** by "who sought sition. 

retirement at Glastonbury," and subeti- ' Rutter identifies this Cottle's Ash 
tutes Edward for Edmund. The passage with Cottle's Oak, near Frome. 
refers to the place of interment of King * Translated by Rutter " by royal char- 
Edmund at Glastonbury. ter." We shall hereafter »ee reason to 

' Rutter fancies that the words '' ejus doubt whether any royal charter of inoor- 

meritis/' refer to the death that *' de- poration issued before the reign of Philip 

servedly threatened" the king ; whereas, and Mary, 
they refer to the merits of the saint as 


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vigiuti carrucate.' In dominio sunt tres carrucate et duo eervi et unus coli* 
bertus et xvij villani et xx Bordarii cum vij cnrrucatis et vij gablatores red- 
dentes xvij golidos. In Alsebrige triginta et duo burgenses red* xx^^ solidos. 
ibl duo Molini red' xij solidos et vj denarios et iij piscarie red* x solidos et xr 
acre prati, pastura j leuoe longitudine et tantumdem latitudiue red* per annum 
xxj libras et ij denarios et obilum de xx mora* silva ij le . . . longitudine et 
dimidium latitudine. de boc Manerio tenet Giso Episcop[ua] unum mem- 
brum Whetmore, quod ipse tenuit de Rege Edwardo. pro eo compulat 
Willielmus Vicecomes in firma Regis, xij libras unoquoque anno. De ipso 
Manerio est ablata dimidia virgata terre que fuit de dominica firma Regis 
Edwardi. Robertus de Otburguile tenet et xv denarios valet. Heo duo 
Maneria Somerton et Cedder cum appendiciis suis reddebant firmam unius 
noctis tempore Regis Sancti Edwardi.'* 

Et sic Willielmus Rex et omnes successores sui Reges babuenmt 
dictam villam de Axebrigge cum Manerio de Cedder in proprio dominio 
usque ad annum quintum Regis Jobannis, quo anno idem Johannes Rex 
concessit dictum Manerium de Cedder cum villa de Axebrigge et hundredis 
de Wjnterstoke et Cedder Hugoni Archidiacono Wellensi pro xx libria 
solvend' ad terminos Michaelis et Pasche, ut patet per quandam cartam 
inde confectaro. 

Tbis document has been translated witb tolerable correctness bj the 
author of the *' Delineations of the North- Western Division of Somerset," 
already referred to. I have noticed some inaccuracies, in notes subjoined 
to the text. 

It should seem to have been the principal object of the author of the 
above detacbed roll or document, to describe the state of the town of 
Axbridge, and, incidentally, to propound an historical theory of the rise 
and establishment of Saxon boroughs in England, which are here ascribed 
to the policy of providing the king with various places of occasional resi- 
dence in different parts of the realm, and with means of support out of his 
local revenues, or other contributions, while so resident. Such a theory 
could only be strictly applicable to a royal burg near to, or containing, 
-some demesne lands of the crown. A Saxon " burgus '* was not indeed 
necessarily a vill or town at all ; but Axbridge has been for centuries both 
a "burgus," in the ordinary sense of the term, and a vill or township. It 
has been also called a ''manor,*' in some early documents. It seems to 
.have immemorially possessed something like a local government in connec- 
tion with the immediate officers of the crown. 

That several successive Saxon kings possessed not only forestal rights 
and demesnes at Cheddar but also a palace, is clearly shown by several 

* The syllable car^ in the Domesday of the wood. Rutter seems to have 
has been extended in this documeot Id to supposed that the "mora" here meant 
** carrucata," a liberty which can rarely the ioclosed lands on the moor which 
be allowed to a translator of that Survey. still exist by the name of moor-haye$t 

* This is an error in the traoBcript near Uxbridge. As to the precise import 
from Domesday. The words in ora, of the words in ora, used in connection 
should be substituted for mora. The with money, Sir H. Ellis's work on Domes- 
Domesday runs thus "red. per anaum day may be consulted for the current 
£20 et 2dt de 20 in ora," and then pro- opinions. 

ceeds to specify the length and breadth 

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cliarters, of which the tenor is still extant. These will he found in Kemhle's 
Di|>lomata: one of Edmund, a.d. 941, speaks of ** villain qui celchri tot 
Ceodre " [dicitur ?] (vol. v. p. 270) ; one of Eadwig, a.d. 956, mentions 
the *' palatio regis in Ceodre" (vol. ii. p. 322); another of Eadgar, ad. 978, 
is dated thus — *' acta est pascaU soliempnitate scde regali »t Ceodre" 
(vol. iii. pp. 136, 137). The above are also found in Thorpe^s Diploma- 
tarium, etc. (pp. 234, 236, 487). Mr. Thorpe indeed thinks there was 
also a convent or abbej at Cheddar, hut on grounds which hardly seem to 
me strong enough to warrant the conjecture. 

That there was for manj centuries an intimate relation between the 
manor of Cheddar and the town of Axbridge, and that the title to both was 
long identical, is certain. Both are mentioned under the title of ** terra 
regis" in the Domesday Survey, and they are so described in it as to 
indicate that they both appertained to the single head of Cheddar in 
the Survey ; nor is there any inconsistency in supposing that the vill was 
parcel of the i-oyol demesne of Cheddar. This connection is still more 
apparent in the Exeter Domesday. The palatial residence may have been 
situate within the limits of the ancient burgus. The Survey shows that 
Wed more was formerly also a member of the same manor, but had been 
dismembered in favour of the See of Bath. 

Both the manor and town were alienated by the crown in the reign 
of John, and eventually the lordships were united in the above See, and 
continued to be so until they were reconveyed to the crown after the 
Reformation, and thence passed into private hands. 

To what extent the rights, public and private, within the town were 
affected by these successive alienations, or by the operation of the several 
charters afterwards granted to the town, I am not in a condition to say ; 
nor indeed do the inhabitants seem to have any clear ideas on that matter 
themselves, so far as I can learn. 

The successive alienations immediately after the grant of King John in ^ 
the fifth year of his reign are set forth in the several charters printed by 
Hearne in the History of Glaston by Adam de Domerham ; in the printed 
charter rolls (p. 129) ; and in the printed hundred rolls (vol. i. p. 126, etc.). 

Though Collinson and Rutter both refer to other supposed incorporations 
of an earlier date, the first charter known to me in relation to Axbridge 
entitled to that designation is that of 3 & 4 Phil, and Mary (part iii. of the 
roll of that year). The recital in this charter distinctly asserts that it had 
been a burgus time out of mind, with thirty-two burgesses, of whom fourteen 
of the elders were called *'sokmanni, sive wardmen,'* or '* aid reman ni *' : 
that of these one was annually chosen to be " propositus " or ** prefectus,*' 
commonly called " Porte-reeve," as well as a bailiff, two constables, and 
other ** officiarii," necessary for the government of the borough, subject to 
a rent or payment of 60«. 2^d, The charter then proceeds to incorporate 
the town, professedly for the first time, under the title of mayor and bur- 
gesses of the borough and vill of Axbridge. 

This charter was confirmed by a long one of 41 Eliz., now considered to 
be the governing charter (part v. of the patent roll of that year), and again 
by another of 21 James I. (part viii. of the roll). 

I think it improbable that there was any earlier incorporation. The 
recital of the first above mentioned is at variance with the supposition. 
The Axbridge document at the head of this paper refers, indeed, to the 
name of *' mayor " as being used *' per statutum regale " instead of port- 

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reeve, at the time of the writing of that document. But "statutum regale*' 
is not usually descriptire of a charter among instruments of that date. 
The town was, in fact, what many of our ancient boroughs originally were, 
a borough by prescription with forms of goTeriiment sanctioned by long 
usage, and perhaps obscurely indicated in the Domesday Survey by the 
** thirty-two burgenses " there specified. Collinson cites the Pipe roll of 
14 Hen. II. as proof of government by a portreeve at that time. Payment 
is there recorded of ''auzilia," or aids, by two persons there named, and 
by the *' ceteri homines cum communi villfls ;" but this entry is too 
general and loose to show the exact form of rdle within the borough. The 
introductory part of the above charter of Phil, and Mary is, however, deci- 
sive, and confirms the general statement contained in the Azbridge docu- 
ment above transcribed. 

The earlier grants found in the corporation muniments relate to the 
grants of Cheddar and Axbridge, temp, 5 John, and of franchises connected 
with them ; among which are those of II Hen. III., 13 Hen« III,, and 
23 Hen. III., and 7 £dw. I., in the printed charter- rolls. 

It is singular that the very learned Madoz should hare quoted Axbridge 
as an instance of an vnincorporated vill impleaded by the general name of 
*' homines burgi de Axebridge " in the Exchequer, temp* Charles L (Firm* 
Burgi, p. 84). 

It is probable that the diflSculty and risk attendant on boroughs which 
had to rely on a title by prescription, suggested the application to the 
crown for a formal charter of incorporation in the sixteenth century. 

During the reign of Henry VI. and his immediate successors occur 
many decisions, reported in the Year-books, respecting the form and effect 
of incorporations ; and about that time the law may be said to have been in 
the course and progress of adopting more definite ideas on the subject, not 
entirely matured until the times illustrated by the decisions reported by Lord 
^ C. J. Coke. I think iYmi formal municipal incorporations will be found to 
be rare until the fifteenth century. Charters of franchises granted to 
persons, and to bodies of persons supposed and assumed to be already 
competent to accept them, are common enough. 

It is observable that three other " ceders " or ''cedras/' besides that in 
the crown, are named in Domesday. These are mentioned by Collinson, and 
the devolution pointed out by him (vol. iii. p. 561 etseq.). From his state- 
ment I should infer that there are still sucli vestiges of mutual connection 
between these and the crown manor of ** Cheddar Episcopi " as to prove 
that they were probably sub-manors detached by subinfeudation, alienation, 
or descent, from g^eat royal manor. The grant by John shows that the 
manor also gave its name to a distinct hundred at that time, which has 
since become merged in that of Winterstoke. 

The records cited in Domerham*s History (vol. i. p. 194) show that there 
was an ancient forest on the Mendip hills ; that the forest had been unduly 
extended by Hen. IL over many adjacent parishes and places, which were 
afterwards disafforested by a perambulation in the reign of Edw. I. The 
boundaries before and after perambulation are all specified in the record by 
that writer. Axbridge and its <* moor-heighes *' were, it seems, left within 
the forest limits. 

Some of the biographers of Dunstan seem to have supposed that the 
forest in which the Mendip hunt occurred was so called from cedar trees 
in it, and they therefore lay the scene of it in the '* Mens cedrorum.*' 

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Such are the obserrations which I have to offer on the Axbridge docu- 
ment, 00 far as regards its secular character. On the incident of the 
hunting on Mendip bj Edmund, I am tempted to add a further comment. 

The storj has been lately referred to hy an ingenious correspondent of 
the ''Gentleman's Magazine,*' N.S., Nov., 1866, who has latelj had an 
opportunity of comparing the narratire which he found current on the spot» 
with the earliest known biographical memoir of St. Dunstan found in the 
Cotton Library, Cleopatra B. 13. in the British Museum. 

He speaks of it as a tradition still familiar " among a poor and ignorant 
peasantry, who know nothing about history, but have simply told their 
children what their fathers had before told them," and he refers to it as a 
story that must have been *' handed down from generation to generation 
for nearly 1000 years " among those peasantry. 

I presume that the writer refers to the case of pure " tradition," pro- 
perly so called, and not to " history " or turitten tradUion, which he 
pointedly distinguishes from oral tradition, as being perhaps the work of 
" biassed and prejudiced " penmen. 

I am inclined to suppose that the author was not aware how near he 
was, during his stay in that pleasant country, to an efficient documentary 
reminiscence of the old story still extant in the keeping of the mayor and 
burgesses of Axbridge, from which the peasantry might easily refresh their 
memories through the medium of their more intelligent neighbours, or of 
the common printed guide-books of that part of Somerset. 

Without impeaching aniversally all oral reports or tradition I must avow 
that I can assign no value to them unless accompanied by other extrinsic 
circumstances which make it reasonable to believe them. If B. states a fact 
which he heard from his father A., it is a condition of credibility that A* 
should have been a witness of it, or, at least, have been in a position to 
make his own personal knowledge of it highly probable. Without this 
condition the statement of B. is no more than idle gossip — a mere rumour 
•^" tam ficti pravique tenax, quam nuncia veri." Where the statement is 
to pass through a succession of persons, fathers and sons, the value becomes 
less at every stage, for it soon becomes impossible to verify the relative 
position of each successive declarant, or his means of knowledge. In 
short, anyone who has had ordinary experience of the various sources of 
error, misconception, and misstatement (apart from intentional falsehood) 
roust see that every step in the devolution of a mere oral narrative makes 
the attainment of truth more difficult. In fact, it becomes impossible to 
say whether it be, or be not, a real case of tradition at all ; that is, of oral 
devolution through successive generations from the first happening of the 
event or fact down to the last hearer or recipient of the tale. We do not, 
and cannot, know whether facts have not been varied, or tampered with, in 
the series ; for there are prejudiced and loose talkers as well as prejudiced 
toriters, and rather more of the former than of the latter class. 

In cases where there exist no written records, — as in a newly-discovered 
island where nobody can write,— oral tradition is all we can have to trust to ; 
and we may be sure that, in puch a state of things, the traditions will be 
sufficiently absurd to deserve no reliance at all. 

History stands on a very different footii}g. We have to exercise our 
judgment not on oral reports but on the written reports and statements of 
persons primd facie being what, on the face of their written relations, they 
purport to be, whether it be Tacitus, or Csesar, or Orosius, or the contem- 

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porary biographers of Dunstan himself in ci-devant monastic libraries, who 
attest — I will not say a miracle or providential interposition in the case of 
Edmund (as to which I express no opinion) — but, at all events, his ** hair- 
breadth escape in the imminent deadly breach " at Cheddar. 

In the discrimination of such venerable records, which have been preserved 
with unquestioned authority for 1000 or 2000 years and upwards, there may 
no doubt be room for criticism or scepticism, but the fact of authorship is 
substantially unimpeached, and we assume, with confidence, that the writings 
are the genuine productions of those who had fair historical means of 
ascertaining the events recorded by them. With this we are content ; and 
we do not seek to confirm their statements by ascertaining what rumours 
are current among the peasantry of Rome or North Somerset, or at the 
head-quarters of the Abbots of Glastonbury. 

The invaluable oollection of MS. historical materials for history by my 
friend, Mr. Hardy, shows that some thirty or more biographical memoirs^ 
of various dates, beginning with one nearly contemporaneous, have com- 
memorated the prominent events of the active life and labours of Dunstan. 
He left behind him a memory that has made a lasting impression on the 
history of the Anglo*Saxon race in this country, and the inevitable conse- 
quence was that he became decorated with posthumous tales and figments, 
as to some of which we may venture to be incredulous. We may be sure 
that the local clergy, regular and secular, of the Middle Ages (the sole 
purveyors of history in those days) would be well disposed to circulate a 
knowledge of so sensational a catastrophe as the perilous chase at Ched- 
dar and the merits of so venerable a name as that of St. Dunstan. Yet 
knowledge so obtained from them by an unlearned laity would no more 
constitute oral tradition, than the knowledge that a schoolboy acquires 
from a village normal teacher of the story of King Canute, and his unsuc- 
cessful attempt to control the Atlantic tide on the shore of Southampton 
Water some 800 years ago. 

Still more easily might such a modicum of local history be attained where 
there has existed, as in the present case, for about 450 years, among the 
public documents of a town close at hand, a plain narrative of bo remark- 
able a local incident. The story must by this time have become as familiar 
on the Mendips, as the encounter of the same eminent personage with the 
intrusive demon, who visited him in his laboratory at Glastonbury ; and this 
without resorting to the theory of an unbroken oral tradition extending 
from the actual occurrence of this afiatr of the red-hot forceps down to the 
present time. Local guides and handbooks in later times have brought 
home the knowledge of King Edmund's peril even to the troglodite dwellers 
in the caves of Cheddar and Wokey, who no doubt duly retail it, together 
with the pinks and potato -stones of that district, to all curious visitors of 
those beautiful mountains. 


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^roceetrlngs at ^eetlnss of tfie ^rcfiaeoloflical Institute. 

JuNB I, 1866. 

Tbe MARQins Camden, K.Q., President, in the Chair. 

A MEMOIR, by the late Mr. Joseph Beldam, F.S.A., of Rojston, was 
read, describing the course of the Icenhilde Street, and vestiges of early 
occupation in the district adjacent to the author's residence. These 
remains have been for many years the object of his careful explorations. 
He laid before the meeting a map in which the results of his researches 
were fully detailed. 

The Institute has to regret the sudden decease of a valued friend of the 
Society, which took place not many days after this, a long-promised com- 
munication, was received. Mr. Beldam had for some years shown a very 
cordial interest in the welfare of the Institute, of which he was an early 

Mr. J. H. Parker gave a discourse on the Primitive Fortifications of 
Rome, He pointed out that there are traces of early defences on each of 
the hills, consisting chiefly of the scarped cliffs on all sides of them ; each 
hill has been originally a separate fortress, and, in each case, below the' 
scarped cliff, is the slope called in Rome and in Aricia, but nowhere e1se« 
the pomcerium ; a local name for this part of the fortifications ; it perplexed 
the writers even of the time of the Empire. At the foot of the slope was 
the outer wall, the agger or Jinis ; beyond that the fossa, and at the 
bottom of the fossa was usually the via. These two are so constantly 
united that the term via-fossa is proposed to distinguish them. From 
many passages in classical authors it is evident that the original settlement 
was on the Palatine, and that this was surrounded by cliff, slope and foss, 
from the beginning ; the foss marked out by the plough with oxen was one 
of the earliest incidents in the history of Rome. To this original city on 
.the Palatine the Capitol was speedily added as the arx or citadel, more 
strongly fortified than the rest, as was usual ; in this case it was a natural 
rock, which none of the other hills were ; this was called the Tarpeian 
Rock ; all the other hills had the cliffs scarped, that is, cut by the hand of 
man, and the earth must always have been supported in a vertical position 
by artificial means, originally by boarding, and, as the boards decayed, by 
stone walls. There are remains of walls of the time of the Kings of Rome 
on each of the Seven Hills, and in other parts there are walls of the times 
of the Republic and of the Emperors, sometimes built upon or against the 
walls of the Kings. The roads at the low level at the bottom of the fosses, 
galled 430vered ways, became the streets of the city, and their level was not 

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changed until the time of the Empire, when the alteration began for con- 
venience, and has been progressing ever since. The market-places or ferim 
were at the same ierel as these original streets. All early cities consist of 
three parts, the arx or citadel, the town, and the pasture-ground. la 
Rome accordingly there were originally the Capitol as the arx^ the Palatine 
or town, and the Aventine or pasture-ground. The arx had a triple line 
of fortification, the town had a double line, and the pasture-ground a single 
line only. For this reason there was no fomosrium to the Aventine, 
because there was no outer wall ; the fomoBvium signifying the ^ii- 
fnurtim. ' The Aventine had no j>of?umum until the time of Uie Emperor 
Claudius, who on enlarging the city added an outer wall in that part. 
The Seven Hills were combined into one city by the later kings, especially 
by Servius Tullius, who built a great agger ^ more than a mile long, on the 
eastern side of the city, where the slope was too gradual to admit of ft 
scarped cliff. In other parts he only strengthened the cliffs, and connected 
the hills together by short aggers with gates. An agger b defined by 
Varro as a great bank of earth with a wall in the middle of it. The great 
agger of Servius Tullius has in recent times been cut through by the rail- 
road, and the sections agree exactly with the description of Varro, Servius 
also added an outer agger or Jinis, parallel to the cliffs, all round the city 
except at the Aventine. Between his great agger and the smaller one or 
finis, is the pomoerium, with a wide and deep foss. The outer agger was 
not more than ten to twenty feet high ; upon this outer agger the wall of 
Aurelian, a hundred feet high, was afterwards built. The enlargement 
and new fortifications of the city were begun by Sulla and continued by the 
early Emperors, but their enclosure was an agger only until the time of 
Aurelian, when the high wall was added on the whole extent. The change 
from the low wall or agger to the high wall was made in the third century ; 
the gateway fortresses of Honorius were added in the fourth. The change 
in the height of the walls was caused by a change in the mode of attack 
and defence, and the introduction of '*hourds," or wooden galleries, high 
from the ground for better defence. An hourd continues in use on a tower 
in the Transtevere, a very rare example. The holes for the hourd, called 
put-log-holes, may be seen all round Rome in the upper parts of the walls 
and towers. These galleries or hourds were sometimes carried on corbels 
of stone or marble, a series of which remain on the front of a house incor- 
porated in the wall of the city, near the Porta S. Lorenzo. In other places, 
as on part of the PrsBtonan Camp, the corbels have been cut off. 

To understand early fortifications, it is necessary to know the mode of 
attack and defence in use at the period when they were built. The best 
information is to be found in M. Viollet le Due's Dictionary of Military 
Architecture, one of the most valuable archseological works of our day ; he 
shows the great use that was made of timber in all early fortifications, 
both alone and in constructing towers on stone walls. 

The detached hills in the neighbourhood of the city were occupied as 
detached forts, connected with the city by a covered way or ma-fossa^ but 
not made part of the city. The Janiculum, the Vatican, the Pincian, the 
Sessorium, the Lateran, were all detached forts of this description ; there 
were also several others which may be traced by their /ow«. There were 
similar detached forts round the Etruscan cities, where the situation pro- 
vided hills for the purpose, such as the Insula at Veii. 

The banks of the Tiber were also fortified ; at first only the short piece 

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between the Ayentine and the Capitol, called the Pulchrum Littiu, part of 
which, of th« time of the Kings, remains ; this was continued when the 
fortifications were enlarged, northwards by Sulla, southwards bj Claudius. 
In and behind parts of the Pulchrum lAttus are the four mouths, of the 
great Cloaca ; that of the Cloaca Maxima was the southernmost, through 
which the Acqua Orahra still runs ; it is in the style of the Kings, con- 
structed of large stones not cut by the saw, and without cement. Another, 
more northward, is of the time of Camillus after the capture of Veii, and ' 
quite of Etruscan character. Nearly opposite to it there are some remark- 
able large corbels for carrying an iron chain across the river ; they are 
canred in the form' of lions' heads, and are of late Etruscan character. 
These are often under water, and bad not been obsenred until ac'cidentaily 
discovered by Mr. Parker. 

The memoir was illustrated by an archadological plan of Rome and by 
a number of photographs of the objects mentioned. The great point which 
Mr. Parker sought to bring out was that these early remains^ confirm in a 
remarkable manner the early history of Rome, according to the First Book 
of Livy, which some writers regard as a myth. The earliest fortifications 
of Rome are evidently copied from those of Alba Longa ; there is a remark- 
able reservoir for water on the Palatine, in a cave on the rock, which con- 
tinaed to* be used in the time of the Republic, as shown by existing walls^ 
of both periods. This same reservoir resembles one at Alba Longa ; 
similar reservoirs in caves have not been observed elsewhere. 

Mr. John Greek Waller, to whose artistic skill and minute investigation 
we are indebted for the admirable series of reproductions, on a reduced' 
scale, ef the most remarkable Sepulchral Brasses that exist in England, 
communicated the following account of an unique memorial in Kent, visited 
by the members of the Institute on occasion of the annual meeting at 
Rochester in 1863, as related in this Journal, vol. xx., p. 407. 

«' I send, by the courtesy of Mr. F. C. Brooke, a drawing of the inscrip- 
tion on Cowling Castle recently made by me. It is as nearly as possible 
a fac-simile of its present state, no published transcript nor drawing of it 
being precisely accurate. As far as I am aware, the interesting character 
of this relic as a piece of workmanship is not generally known. Indeed it 
would be impossible that it should be unless it had been closely examined. 
In the autumn of 1864, by the kindness of Mr. Murton, the present tenant 
of the Castle, ladders were procured by means of which myself and 
Mr. Roach Smith, who accompanied me, were enabled to give it a minute 
inspection, and also to take such rubbings from it as the corrosion and 
nature of the surface permitted. From these the drawing exhibited has 
been made, and it has afterwards been carefully collated upon the spot. 
The inscribed plate proves to be a very fine specimen of enameled work, 
perhaps an unique example of such work used in the open air. It would be 
impossible to exceed the beauty of the execution, and the amount of 
manipulation spent upon it for the purpose of receiving the enameling is 
quite marvellous, and can only be understood by actual inspection. To 
those who know this interesting work it would be unnecessary to say that 
it represents a parchment deed with its appendent seal. The material is 
copper, and the inscription consists of twelve plates, each line consisting of 
three, the rest of the work being completed in about two pieces. The 
white enamel is still in fair preservation, and the colors, both of the shield 
of arms and of the cordon by which it is attached, which are the heraldic 


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colors of the arms of Cobham, red and black, are generally preserved, 
though in a state of corrosion and decay. But the ground of the ornament 
around the shield shows no color that can be made out. It is entirely 
decayed. The chevron of the arms showed traces of gildings but very 
faintly^^yet the preservation of the surface of this part of the metal is no 
doubt due to the fact of it having been gilded. The only part lost is one 
of the tassels of the cordon, and that was gone at the time that Gough 
published his Sepulchral Monuments, as his engraving is without it. 
When we consider the vicissitudes of time and circumstances, it is rather 
a matter of wonder that so interesting a relic should have escaped with so 
little injury to the present time. Some of the plates of the inscription, 
however, were lost a few years ago, and afterwards discovered in cleaning 
out the moat ; these were laudably refized in their places. Unfortunately, 
owing to the ignorance of those who refized them, the mode employed is 
now working more mischief than the past five centuries, and insures the 
certain destrnction of the work at no very distant date. The loose plates 
were fized with iron nails, and the consequence is that, owing to a well- 
known law, a galvanic action is set up, by which both metals are being 
gradually destroyed, one rapidly, the other slowly. The effect of this is 
very visible, not only aroiind the orifices through which the nails are placed, 
but it is evident from the green stain of the stone immediately beneath the 
plate that corrosion is going on rapidly behind. The plate has at some 
time or other received injuries that appear to have b.een done out of mere 
wantonness. This is faintly indicated in the drawing, and seems to me to 
have been effected by the discharge of fowling-pieces against it. It is to be 
hoped that this will never again occur, but it is a reason, amongst many 
others, that renders it advisable to employ some means for preserving the 
work from. the effects of the weather and other casualties. One thing at 
least is required, and that is to withdraw the iron nails and substitute copper 
ones, but it is a question for consideration whether some means should not 
be taken for the better conservation of this work in sUu, Such a plan I 
have considered, and believe to be practicable. 
" The inscription runs thus : — 

IStnouiuet^ tfiat Intfr anlr scfinl be 
Cljat i am maU in f^elfr of tf)e omtte 
In knoi»sn0 of n^gcije tf^gng 
Ei;s8 is cFiartte anH lofitntnsng* 

'' Beneath are the arras of Cobham appended as a seal, viz., gules on a 
chevron or three lions rampant sable. The inscribed portion measures 32 
inches by 14 inches ; the diameter of the seal is 7^ inches. 

" John, third Lord of Cobham, who erected Cowling Castle, having 
obtained the license to crenellate in 1380, is said to have placed this 
inscription upon the gateway in order to disarm the jealousy of the court 
aroused by its strength. There, is great probability that this tradition is 
correct. He was during the greater part of his life an opponent of the 
court faction of Richard IL, and was one of the insurgent lords who held 
a meeting at Haringhay Park, near Hornsey, in 1387, for which he was 
afterwards banished snd had his estates seized by the King, and which 
were not restored until the accession of Henry IV. 

"It is to be hoped, therefore, that a relic of so much interest will not 
be allowed to fall into any further decay.*' 

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Bt the Rev. Greoort Rhodes. — A remarkable Greek gem, an intaglio 
on jacinth, the head of Sappho. It was formerly in the Meertens- 
Schaafhausen collection; and is noticed by Mr. King (Antique Gems, 
p. 160) as the most ancient intaglio head that had come under his notice. 
The head is crowned with myrtle, and described as much in the Egyptian 
manner, and resembling the types of the earlier coins of the Egean Islands. 
Portrait heads, Mr. Rhodes obseryed, and even the heads of divinities, 
never occur on the most ancient gems ; it was only a short time before the 
art attained its matunty that the engravers attempted heads, possibly about 
400 B.C. This head, however, is evidently of an earlier age and might 
have been executed a century or more previous to that period ; it might 
therefore have been engraved during the life-time of Sappho, or shortly 

By Sir J. Clarke-Jertoise, Bart., M.P. — A denarius of the Emperor 
Domitian, in fine preservation, found in Hampshire near Sir Jervoise's 
residence, Idsworth Park. 

By the Earl of Dunraten, F.S. A. — Three silver dishes, found near the 
Abbey of Fore, co. Westmeath, at a depth of seven feet. They are in 
possession of Dr. Stokes, of Dublin. Canon Rock stated his opinion that 
they had been destined for domestic uses, and may be regarded as of Irish 
workmanship, date about 1200. The Abbey of Fore, Fourre or Favory was 
founded by Walter de Lacy in 1209, for Benedictine monks from the Abbey 
of St. Taurin, in Normandy. 

By Mr. Dodd. — Two MSS., date fourteenth century ; the Holy Scriptures 
and the New Testament. 

By the Rev. Edwin Jarvis. — Two curious pieces of medieval iron- 
work, of unknown use. One of them, found near Hackthome, Lincolnshire, 
consists of two leaf-shaped pieces of metal, the edges of which are jagged 
or serrated like those of a leaf ; the ends that resemble the stalks are 
recurved, forming loops by which the two objects are linked together. The 
point of each leaf-like piece is bent backwards and serves as a catch for a 
flat spring of metal, somewhat resembling the acus of a fibula. The length 
of the two portions when extended is eight inches. The other, obtained in 
Italy, is of more solid work, and consists of three tortuous links, with 
serrated edges, looped together ; two small rings are appended at one end, 
and one at the other. The whole measures 6^ inches in length. The 
workmanship is skilful ; this singular object recalls the fashion of certain 
decorated chains by which a lamp or the like is occasionally seen suspended 
in the South of Europe. It was probably destined for some such use in a 
church or medieval house. 

By Mr. Octavius Morgan, M.P. — A Dutch silver prise-whip, given by 
a society for the best horse, at some Racing-meeting in 1798. It measures 
4 feet in length, and resembles in fashion a civic mace rather than a whip ; 
at the lower end there is a broad knob or boss, on which there is an 
inscription as follows, being translated : — ** This whip is presented to the 
owner of the best Race-horse at the House of Castellan Rinert Schatten- 
burg, in the Green Meadows near Groningen, the 20 Aug. 1798." — The 
stem, which gradually diminishes in thickness towards its upper extremity, 
is divided into four joints by smaller knops ; the foundation seems to be a 
rod of whalebone covered with black velvet, and this is encased between 

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the knopB in pierced-work of Btlver repoune, with figures of tho Cardinal 
Virtues and like derioes in elegant scroll patterns and foliage. At the 
upper and smaller extremity there is a ring to which douhtless a thong was 

By Col. Tempest. — A Portrait, formerly in possession of Sir Richard 
Phillips, and, as stated, mentioned in one of his works. It has been 
engraved as the portrait of Chaucer, but it is questionable whether it can 
be recognised as representing tho author of the Canterbury Tales. 

By Mr. J. J. RooEits. — A large copper coin, supposed to be a Swedish 
dalar, found in a crevice in the inner walls of a building at Carminow 
Barton, Cornwall, lately demolished. It measures about If inch in 
diameter ; on one side is an escutcheon charged with a lion rampant, and 
ensigned with an arched crown. Above are the initials g.R.s., and in the 
field the numerals 16 — 84. On the reverse are two arrows in sal tire with 
a crown in chief (? Dalecarlia); in the field — or.8:m: Mr. Rogers suggests 
that the coin may have been brought to the Western shores by some 
sailor ; Carminow, moreover, was a great resort of smugglers, and he found 
three well-contrived vaulted hiding-places under the floors of the various 
buildings there, each capable of holding 50 to 100 kegs. It may deserve 
notice that in excavations for a new vestry at Bovey Tracy, Devon, in 
1815, several copper dollars, supposed to be Swedish, were found, which 
appeared to have been deposited in the hands of a corpse of large stature 
interred on the North-East side of the church. Tho specimen described 
(Gen. Mag. May, 1860, p. 426) bore, on one side, the arrows and crown, 
as above described, with the numeral 5 and OB, an ore being, as there 
stated, << an imaginary coin in Sweden."^ This piece is inscribed konetanoya 
CVPRE DALAREN. 16XLY, and boars the name Christiana, with the arms of 
Sweden crowned. It was suggested that on Jan. 9, 1646, certain Royalists 
under Lord Wentworth stationed at Bovey Tracy were surprised by the 
Parliamentarisns and defeated ; at that time, as is well known, some 
soldiers from the North of Europe were attached to the kiog*s forces. 

^ An Ore is the hundredth part of a hibition ; published by Bell and Daldy, 
Riksdaler. See Mr. Yatea' useful cata- 1862. 
logue of corrent coinB, International Ex- 

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Votittn of fltcfiarological ¥ufilteat{on0. 

Rev. RoBBRT Willis, M.A.9 F.R.S. Read at the Annual Meeting of 
the Archaeological Institate at Dorchester, August 4, 1865. Cambridge : 
Deighton and BelL London: Bell and Daldj. 1866. 

The ArchiDological world haa often found occasion to thank Pro- 
fessor Willis for continuing the series of architectural histories of our cathe- 
drals and conventual churches. The lot has fallen last upon Glastonbury. 
Of course, by this time we all know what to expect from the learned Pro- 
fessor, and what not to expect. 

Thus any student who might be desirous of learning all about the door- 
ways of St. Joseph's chapel in the Abbey under consideration, would be 
disappointed if he expect^ to find any notice either of the iconography, or 
the way of arranging the figures with regard to the place or the effects of 
light and shade ; but, on the other hand, the student of architecture in 
a scientifically archsological point of view will find knotty points as to 
dates of erection, rebuilding, &c., most cleverly and satisfactorily unra- 
Telled. For Professor Willis is not the man to Tiew architecture as if it 
were subject to the same laws as geology, and to believe that the lowest 
part of a building must of necessity be the oldest* On the contrary, he 
subjects both the actual edifices, or rather their remains, as well as the 
statements of contemporary writers, to the strictest investigation, and the 
results not unfrequently overthrow the commonly received views of the 
subject Thus it was generally believed, up to the time of Professor 
Willis'^ investigations at Glastonbury, that the crypt of the chapel of St. 
Joseph was at least ooutemp(H«ry with the parts above ground, and, in the 
words of an eminent antiquary, *' naturally the most antient part built 
differs from the superstructure only so much as the subterranean part 
usually does from the upper part" 

Now the present book tells us that so far from this being the case, this 
crypt is clearly, from its architectural features, of fifteenth century work, 
and not only of fifteenth century work, but of two distinct periods. It was 
probably constructed to afford increased means of burial in consequence, as 
the author tells us, of the rerival of the tradition of St. Joseph in the 14th 

The history of the chapel itself may be told in a few words. In the year 
63, according to the legends, St Philip sent twelve of his disciples, with 
Joseph of Arimathea at their head, to convert the Britons. They settled 
in Glastonbury, and, in accordance with an admonition of the archangel, St. 
Gabriel, erected a chapel of wattled rods in honour of the Virgin. It is 
this chapel that our author proves to have occupied the site of that now so 
well known as that dedicated to St Joseph. In the old accounts it is 
known as the *'vetusta ecclesia." In the eighth century there were no less 
than four separate chapels or churches on the spot, one of which ,the old 
wicker church, stood at the west of all the others, and the " major 

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ecclesia*' of Kinglna at the east of all the others, the whole forming a group 
of churches nearly as we find in Ireland or in Greece. 

At the time of the Conquest these churches had been reduced to two, 
▼iz., the ecclesia vetusta and the ecclesia major. The Normans, as usual, 
erected a new edifice, which was burnt, together with the ecclesia vetusta, in 
1184. It was then rebuilt at the expense of the king, the abbej being at 
that time in his hands. • 

Chapter II. of the work under consideration is occupied with the proofs of 
the ** identity of St. Joseph's chapel with the site of the wicker church and 
the lady chapel of the abbey/' and gives us the authority for the legend 
of St. Joseph being burned at Glastonbury, which legend, it appears, was 
very coldly received by William of Malmsbury, who only mentions St. 
Joseph's name once, and even then in a very slight manner. How- 
ever, in the middle of the fourteenth century the belief in his burial in the 
cemetery appears to have been revived, and John of Glaston, at the begin- 
ning of the fifteenth century, spares no pains to establish it. Our author 
has, however, forgotten to remark the very important place which St. 
Joseph of Arimathea occupies in the romance of the St. Grael — ^a romance 
vrhich M. Villemarqu^ has traced to a Pagan source, and which, with others 
of the same fitmily, were revived and Christianised in after centuries. 

Chapter III. is dedicated to the documentary history of the great 
church from 1182 down to the suppression of the monastery; and Chapter 
IV. to " its structural history and description." In Chapter V. the descrip- 
tion and history of St. Joseph's chapel is resumed, and a most minute 
account is given— firstly, of the structural peculiarities, and, secondly, of 
the various changes which it underwent subsequent to its erection in 1184. 
As the old chroniclers tell us, it was built of squared stones of the most 
beautiful work, and no possible ornament omitted. As the Professor 
remarks, no tigzag work occurs in the contemporary round church of the 
Temple in London, and the mouldings of the latter also belong to a school 
of masons difierent from those of Glastonbury. The difference of contem- 
porary schools of architecture in England is a most curious subject, ^nd has 
hitherto been but little investigated. It is much to be hoped that some 
competent architectural antiquary would take it up and work it out 

At page 50 we have an elaborate description of the common difficulty, 
which every architect undergoes when planning a building with vaulting 
inside and buttresses outside. The architect of St. Joseph's chapel got 
over it by sacrificing the outside piers. In the interior elevation all the 
services are equal, and a window comes in the middle of each; but if we 
look on the plan, we shall find that the vaulting shafts do not agree with 
the centres of the buttresses, and that the windows come most irregularly in 
the spaces between these buttresses. In process of time it was considered 
desirable to connect the two churches, which were only 50 feet apart, 
by means of a gable porch, and accordingly we have a very beautiful 
Early English piece of work for that purpose. It had two doors. North and 
South, and a flight of steps up to the entrance of the church. As it rendered 
the East windows of the chapel useless, an arch was cut in the East wall 
and a dome placed between its jambs. The chapel thus received an 
increase of light from the gables. In plate 7 a section of this part of the 
building is given, showing how the Early English masons used up the old 
arcade shafts of the east end to adorn the jambs of these new arches. 

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. In Chapter VII. the history of the chapel is still farther carried out 
and illustrated hy the changes which took place in the gables at Durham. 
In the fifteenth century it was considered desirable to extend the Lady 
Chapel. The dome was, therefore, removed from the eastermost portion 
of the Norman chapel, and placed very near the western door of the church, 
that is, at the eastern end of the Early English gables. 

The crypt under the gables was probably built first of all, and that under 
the chapel when the Virgin's altar was finally transported to the eastern 
end of the gables. 

The last chapter is occupied with a short history of the monastic build- 
ings, and with it a short remmi of the last contribution of Professor Willis 
to the architectural history of our mediseval buildings. As a history, it 
must be pronounced most clear and exhaustive ; it also presents most care- 
ful reading to the practical architect, as showing him how our ances- 
tors grappled with, more or less, necessarily the same difficulties which 
present themselves to us every day. But anyone who has really seen 
the so-called chapel of St. Joseph at Glastonbury, can scarcely help desiring 
a companion little book illustrating the art, as well as the science, dis- 
played by the twelfth century architect. For there are quite as many 
lessons to be learnt from the art as from the history. 

It only remains to remark, that there are seven lithographed plates 
from the Professor's own drawings, ino,, which admirably assist the text. 

W. B. 

MIDDLE AGES, with a Description of the Metals, Pigments, and 
Processes employed by the Artists at Difierent Periods. By Hebbt 
Shaw, F.R.S. Bell and Daldy. 

The author and artist of this admirably illustrated book is known 
throughout the world for his skill in reproducing the arts of the illuminator 
and caligrapher as they were in vogue during the Middle Ages. This 
book is, so far as its proper subject extends, the most valuable result of his 
labours either of the literary or the artistic sort ; like many other works 
of men capable in their peculiar walks of study, it far exceeds the promises 
of its title-page as quoted above, and deals not only with the minor deco- 
rative art in question during its mediaeval stages, but opens with the ninth 
century, which is, to say the least of it, full early, and closes with the history 
of a state of the illuminator's art, which is absolutely that of the renaissance 
in design at its best — that is, ere mere imitation of common objects in a 
pictorial, laborious manner took the place that had been erst in possession 
of one of the most beautiful, thoroughly logical and consistent minor arts. 
Briefly to describe the contents of this book, let us add that its illustrations 
— to which the text is. wisely made subordinate — begin with subjects of the 
ninth century, and continue, sometimes with one specimen from each age, 
sometimes with two of the same, until the sixteenth century is reached, and 
the craft of the illuminator, as understood in mediteval times, is shown to be 
dying out in the luxurious modes of that greater art of painting which, even 
then, was itself decaying rapidly. That Mr. Shaw had no occasion to follow 
his subject beyond this period will be readily understood by those who 
remember the ** illuminations " which came into vogue in less than half a 
century after the latest specimen now before us was produced, and were 
really pictures illustrative of the texts to which they were attached, or 

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what we are accustomed to style ^* illuatrations " — not caligraptuo^ deco- 
ratWe enrichments that grew out of its lettering. 

When the period had arrived with which Mr. Shaw's lahours terminate, 
the arts, major and minor, might be said to be flourishing, but they cer- 
tainly were not in a progressive state. As during the Gothic ages all these 
fields of human genius had been cultivated for the sake of architecture, and 
to that end paintiug, sculpture and the rest were made her servants, so, in 
turn principally, as we believe, by means of the abuse of the art of the 
glass-stainer, architecture and sculpture were made subservient to painting, 
and cunningly placed mouldings and quaiiit bosses gave way to blanlL spaces 
that were destined to be filled wiUi pictures, and ere long, as decay 
advanced, with long processions, and preposterously painted g^ and god* 
desses, so that at last, by means of Yerrio and Laguerre, soaring vaults 
defied at once perspective and probability, and the pictorial and decorative 
arts perished together. 

The history of the rise, perfection, and decline, before the fall of every 
art, is to be read in Mr. Shaw's book, or what is better, traced in the 
exquisite copies he has produced from the masterpieces of illumination. 

At first we have a beautiful, strictly conventionalised letter from 
Cottoniau MS. Galba A, xviii., purely a work of the caligrapher, not of 
the painter, having for its primary characteristic and fundamental condition 
perfect clearness of form, i.6., legibility. This was a quality to be desired 
because the first business of every letter is to get itself read. The letter 
itself is not unmarked by Byzantine influences, and is a gem of art. The 
same Byzantine effect appears, but, so to say, acting in a different direction, 
in the Hibemo-Sazon letter S, which is here copied from the unsurpassed 
'* Durham Book," and displays that apparently inexhaustible love of the 
serpent as an object for representation, or, more truly to write, as an expo- 
nent for those ineffably delicate curved lines which unfailingly characterise 
the productions of the marvellous schools of which the Book of Kells is the 
magnum opw. Decorated caligraphy was still the rule with the illumi- 
nators of the tenth century, and is superbly displayed here by means of 
a full-page facsimile — in all but colour — from the famous Egerton MS. 
No. 608, now in the British Museum. This example is among the most 
fortunate transcripts in the book before us, one of the principal objects of 
which is to show how happily the process of wood-engraving can be em- 
ployed in wise hands to reproduce, if not the tints, at least the tones and 
forms of the several schools with which it deals. Mr. Shaw*s success and 
that of his assistants in this respect approaches the marvellous. In exer- 
cising his peculiar skill, and dilating, as he does, upon its advantages, he 
proves satisfactorily the power of wood-engraving to render what is techni- 
cally called « colour " by thoughtfully deling with black and white. It 
is true that this faculty of the wood-engraver's art was always held to be 
one of its greatest recommendations. In foot the art of the chiaroscurist 
is proper to the wood-engraver, as well as to the worker on copper. This 
art is exactly that which, in a limited and mechanical manner, Mr. Shaw 
has now fortunately and, as he seems to believe, for the first time em- 
ployed. Within these limits his success is extraordinary, but he does not, 
to our minds, justify that broader aim of others who propose to supersede 
the efforts of engravers on metal when dealing with the infinitely more 
difficult subjects that are supplied by representations, as in pictures of the 
human figure and landscapes, of forms which require what is technically 

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The Mosque or Tomb of Sultan KaUoun iu Cairo. 

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^fie ^rc^aeoloflical SournaL 

DECEMBER, 1866. 


Part II. 

Bt tb« R«T. JOHN LOUIB PBTIT, M.A., F.&A. 

The mosque or tomb of Sultan Kalaoun in Cairo differs 
in construction from all others in that city. Its ground 
plan is a square of about 75 feet, internally. In the centre 
rises an octagon on arches supported by four massive square 
piers, and four columns, \7hich are connected by arches with 

ft af 
OrouDd-pUn, Mo«que of Sultan Kalaoun, Cairo. 

the sides of the building in such manner as to form a good 
system of abutment, the outer walls being sufficiently thick 
and lofty to maintain the equilibrium. Their thickness is 
about six feet ; the roofing is of timber. As will be seen 
by the ground-plan, a nave or vestibule is attached to one 

1 Continued from p. 20, aiUe, 

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side, but it does not equal the main building in the height 
of its roof. A fine tower or minaret also joins it, which I 
have not given in my plan. The columns are, I think, of 
granite, or some very hard stone. The wide abacus on the 
top is of wood, and the springs of the arches are connected 
by beams of timber. When I say the springs of the arches, 
I mean the .points where they rest on the piers and columns^ 
for the real spring is much higher, the arches being stilted, 
and having a horse-shoe form. They are pointed, and have 
a wide soffit between bold hollows, all enriched with some 
kind of pattern, at once delicate and effective. The light 
comes through the windows of the octagon, but in the 
principal walls are blank windows of two round arches on a 
shaft with a circle above, and a pointed arch, much enriched, 
comprising the. whole. The jamb of the comprising arch has 
a bold hollow. I have given a cut of one of these arches^ 
showing where the ornament is applied, but with no attempt 
to make out its detail. I think we cannot fail to remark the 
great similarity between the Saracenic style, as exhibited 
in this building, and the Gothic of the same period (the 
latter part of the thirteenth century), in the south of Europe. 
A kind of bud-shaped capital, and a large bulbous convexity 
at the base of the shaft, seem to be distinctive Oriental 
features, and are found in Christian churches as well as 
mosques. They may possibly be derived from the ancient 
Egyptian architecture. 

It is difficult to obtain such a view of the outside of 
this mosque as to show the peculiarity of its composition, 
though the front towards the street exhibits its style of 
architecture, and has some good windows. The street 
view that I have given just shows a small part of the 
octagon, the rest being concealed by the fine minaret or 
tower, a structure which might easily be taken for a 
Christian belfry. I have selected this point of view to 
enable the tourist to recognise the building while he passes 
through the streets. It is very near the Turkish bazaar, 
almost opposite to which is the narrow passage that leads to 
its entrance. My guide procured me admittance without 
difficulty, and I was allowed to remain as long as I pleased 
for the purpose of sketching and examining the building. 
My ground-plan was taken in a very rough manner, as I 
only measured the distances by stepping, but it is sufficient 

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t— I 


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to give an idea both of the arrangement and actual size. The 
space between the four square piers is closed in by screens, 
and contains the tomb. I do not know if this interesting 
mosque has met with the attention it deserves ; a series of 
illustrations would, I am sure, be valuable. I also give the 
only other view I could obtain, showing the central octagon ; 
it is taken from a court in which is a pool or bath used for 
ablutions ; the covering over this is seen in the sketch. 

The date of this mosque is the end of the thirteenth 
century. Any one conversant with €rothic would be inclined 
to place it near the beginning of that century. But it is 
evident that we are not to look in the East for those rapid 
and decided . changes of style which are characteristic of 
Western mediaeval architecture ; indeed the style seems to 
have preserved its raedisBval character to very modern 
times, and this not by imitations and attempted revivals, 
but by the steady and continued adherence to old forms and 
principles. The pointed arch is used in Syria up to the 
present day, I believe, just as it might have been in the 
middle ages, and without any incongruity. Jaffa gives one 
the idea of a town of the fourteenth or fifteenth century, but 
I suppose it has as much modern work in comparison with 
the ancient as many towns not remarkable for antiquity. 
At Beyrout an arcade of pointed arches on slender columns 
is the common feature, and, notwithstanding its mediseyal 
air, appears to indicate the style of the day, as though it 
had remained unaltered for centuries. And the Christian 
conventual churches, which I have noticed as having been 
rebuilt, on the banks of the Nile, are in perfect keeping both 
with the old and modern work, retaining the mediaeval cha- 
racter, as it were, naturally, and without choice or effort. 

Yet, by the help of buildings whose dates are known, I 
believe it would be possible for a student of the mosque 
architecture of Cairo to form a reasonable conjecture as to 
the age of buildings with whose history he is not acquainted. 
There is a dome in the suburb north of Cairo to which, from 
the shafts at the edges of the jambs in the window arches, I 
should give a date corresponding with our Early English, 
and rather earlier than the Kalaoun. I do not know the 
name nor the history of the mosque ; it appears neglected, 
if not disused. The beautiful mosque of Sultan Hassan is 
known to belong to the fourteenth century ; and though 

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there is hardly a portion of detail analogous to that of our 
Decorated, yet its combination of grandeur and refined 

Dome of a Moique in the luburb of CiUro. 

elegance and delicacy of work points out its affinity to that 
phase of mediaBval architecture. Mr. Fergusson has de- 
scribed this mosque in his handbook, and given a plan and 

Mosque of Suluui Hm8ui, Cairo. 

section. The cut I give shows its general outline ; and part 
of a mosque, apparently of nearly the same date, is intro- 
duced in the sketch. If I had extended my picture a little 


Q Q 

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farther to the right, I should have brought in another 
mosque of the same character as the last, with a beautifully 
enriched dome, and a minaret crowned with two cupolas. 
The cornice of the mosque of Saltan Hassan is almost 
unique ; it is wide, and of a very bold projection, and en- 
riched with minute and delicate arches on brackets or 
corbels. The minaret is octagonal, but the compartment 
above the roof is square ; below this, however, it becomes 
polygonal, rising from the ground in this form, thus differing 
from the usual plan. The supports of the galleries, and 
indeed all the ornaments of both the large and the small 
minaret, are very Gothic in their character, more so than in 
those to which I should assign a later date, where the 
pattern or system of panelling is formed in great mea- 
sure of bands crossing one over another diagonally. I will 
not, however, say that this method of ornament is not used 
in earlier work. I have not made any sketches of panelling, 
but photographs which show it are easily to be obtained. I 
believe the style which I look upon as corresponding with 
our Decorated must have lasted pretty nearly to the end of 
the fifteenth century, and after this a style came on, remind- 
ing us (though still without much actual resemblance) of 
Late Perpendicular. The arches have a sharper curve at the 
haunch, and the lines are more nearly straight as they 
approach the point The trefoil-headed doorway still 
remains. The dome is often boldly ribbed, is more stilted, 
and has a less elegant outline. The round or slightly 
pointed arch is more rare, and I think in Cairo the horse- 
shoe arch is not much used in late work. We find good 
Mahometan work down to a very modern date ; indeed I 
suppose the style could hardly now be called extinct. 

In Constantinople there are of course no mosques (built as 
such) earlier than about the middle of the fifteenth century; but 
two centuries after that, or even later, a good style prevailed, 
independent of the classical element which was introduced 
into the more modern buildings. The minaret in Constanti- 
nople is a tall slender turret, round or polygonal in its hori- 
zontal section, having one or more projecting galleries, and 
finished with a spire. The larger mosques have several 
minarets ; the smaller, only a single one. They are remark- 
ably elegant, and from their great number give the city a 
very striking appearance. Indeed no European city, how- 

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ever rich in fine buildings, has so picturesque and varied an 
outline. The nature of its position, perhaps, gives it an 
advantage in that respect over Cairo, but the latter abounds 
in objects of greater archseological and architectural interest, 
and of more intrinsic beauty. The large minaret of Sultan 
Hassan is a fine specimen of one kind of minaret that prevails 
in Cairo, that of an octagonal form. The minaret of Sultan 
Ealaoun is an example of the square form, which is not 
uncommon. The outline of some of these is so Uke that of 
many Gothic towers, that they would not be out of place if 
attached to a Christian church. The minarets that are round 
and finished with a spire, like those of Constantinople, seem 
late. The usual finish is a bulb-shaped cupola. 

At Ramleh, between Jaffa and Jerusalem, is a minaret, 
which at first sight would be taken for a Christian tower of the 
thirteenth century. It is only on looking carefully at its details 

Minaret at Ramlob. 

that we see its true origin. It has, like our Gothic church 
towers, a pair of buttresses at each angle, from which, how- 
ever, the upper stages rise free. These have each a triplet 
of pointed arches, the lower one on shafts, very Early English 
in character, but the bases show the Saracenic element. 

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There is an inner tower which rises above the outer wall, and 
gives room for a staircase. This arrangement is not unknown 
in Europe ; we see it in S; Mark's, which, however, may be 
considered Eastern in its character. A church near Ravenna 
(S. Maria ad Portum) has a Romanesque tower of this 
description, the inner structure rising considerably above the 
outer one. At Ramleh, the upper part of the internal turret 
is ruined, so that we cannot tell what was the finish. Over 
the door is an. Arabic inscription. There are some remains 
adjoining, and extensive crypts- of plain pointed woric^ but 
nothing to indicate a mosque. I suppose the date is in some 
part of the thirteenth century, but we must allow for the con- 
tinuance of styles without material change. 

In the cemetery near the Jaffa Gate of Jerusalem is a 
tomb of the same type with that we have mentioned as per- 
vading the whole of the East, but valuable on account of the 
beauty of its composition, the care displayed in its workman- 
ship, and the certainty of its date. It is simply a square 
substructure supporting a circular dome ; the materia] is 
stone, and the masonry is excellent. It has a door of decidedly 
Gothic character, and with mouldings which in Europe 
would belong to the thirteenth century, attributable with- 
out doubt to the influence of the Crusaders. The other sides 
have small, plain, square-headed openings. The pendentives 
are of the Romanesque kind, consisting of a pointed arch of 
two square orders. In them, and at the points of change 

— ' ^^ 

from the octagonal to the circular form, are escallop shells, 
having the character rather of Cinque-cento than Gothic 
work. The tomb in the centre of the building is oblong, with 
sides having a panelling of blank pointed arches and a coved 

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top. The doorway consists of a pointed arch, with bold early 
Gothic mouldings, resting on short shafts which are sup- 
ported by brackets. The capital is much what we see in 
in early French Gothic, and the abacus is square. Within 
this arch is a trefoil arch of more Oriental character, but 
reminding one of the foliated arches we meet with in parts 
of France, and of which La Souterraine and Le Dorat present 
fine examples. The actual door is square-headed, at least 
has a horizontal transom. A flat arch 
appears above, cut in a Untel of a single 
stone, marked to represent keyed voussoirs. 
In the head of the trefoil arch is an Arabic 
inscription, of which I had a rubbing taken, 
and the translation given me contained the 
date 688 A.H., which corresponds with 
1310 A.D. The details of which I have I' '■ ; ^ .1 J 
spoken, which are extremely pure, are 
such as we should naturally have assigned to an earlier date, 
by more than half a century. 

At no great distance from this is another tomb of the 
same type, larger in dimensions, but less elegant. Here the 
pendentives have pointed arches of three square orders. The 
sides of the building have in the interior deep blank arches, 
pointed, of two square orders ; and on the exterior a flat 

Tomb near Jer jsalom. 

buttress on each face. Over each angle of the octagon 
internally, at the spring of the circular dome, is a small tre- 
foil arch, giving that part a more Gothic air than the escallop 

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4 SLi- 

Tomb in the Cemetery, near tho Jaffa Gkite, Jerusalem. 

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of the other tomb. In the doorway are Gothic mouldings, 
but the Saracenic capital shows itself. It will be seen that 
the construction of this tomb is not unlike that of the small 
Byzantine churches, with solid masses at their angles. And 
by cutting away some of the upper part of the thick walls, 
a similar outline might be obtained. 

I had not time to sketch any details of the mosque of 
Omar, called also the Dome of the Rock, or of the Akseh, in 
Jerusalem, and it was unfortunately a dark rainy morning 
when I visited them. I can only say that the effect was very 
impressive, and heightened by painted glass, rich and har- 
monious in effect, but only in patterns. As far as I could 
make out, the round arch prevails in the mosque of Omar ; 
but it was really too dark for me to note any detail, though 
this very gloom increased the solemnity of the effect. The 
Akseh is lighter, the quantity of deep-coloured glass not 
being quite so great In this the arches are pointed, and 
much stilted. Both buildings have a very Christian character, 
but at that early date the two styles were nearly identical. 
From the plan given in Mr. Fergusson's Handbook I do not 
see that there is any semicircular apse ; indeed I was struck 
with the arrangement of the part answering to the choir or 
chancel, which is perfectly flat. The dome, a small circular 
one, is supported by four piers, each of which has engaged 
columns of a classical proportion, with Corinthianising capitals, 
and square abaci, forming a re-entering right angle, over which 
is a small round arch, as of a Romanesque pendentive, but 
above is the concave surface of a Byzantine pendentive. Mr. 
Fergusson, in his chronological memoranda heading the 
cliapter, gives the date of the Akseh, 691 ; that of Caliph 
Walid's mosque at Damascus, 705 ; and the Tayloon mosque 
at Cairo, 876. In the last a Mahometan style seems to be 
fairly developing itself ; the other two present rather a Chris- 
tian aspect, though there may be points which lead us to 
admit that they were from the first genuine mosques. 

I was more fortunate at Damascus, for the mosque, being 
under repair, was more accessible, and the only impediment 
to my sketching with perfect freedom was the occasional fall 
of pieces of timber. As far as I could make out, not much 
mischief is meditated in the way of restoration ; I hope the 
authorities will be content with the repair of the roof, a 
wooden one of considerable pitch, covered with lead. This 

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is a very puzzling structure. There is so much in the general 
arrangement that does not conform with our ideas of a 
Christian church, and so decided indications of Mahometan 
work in that part which is most Christian and least Maho- 
metan in its composition, namely, the transept, that we can 
hardly come to any other conclusion than that the building, 
as it now stands, is entirely Mahometan. The enriched cor- 
nice inserted in the south wall, of late Roman date, having 
a Christian inscription in Greek, and some other similar 
remains, only prove that the mosque occupies the site of an 
older Christian church. It is very probable also that columns 
and other materials of the old church may have been used, 
and it may not be impossible that some of the columns still 
remain in situ. The building stands pretty well east and 
west, and has a nave, with north jmd south aisle, all of the 

Great Mosque at Damascus. 

same width and height. There are eleven bays or arches in 
each arcade, on pillars of a classical shape, with Corinthian- 
ising capital, and an abacus in the form of an inverted trun- 

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cated pyramid, like those at Ravenna. The arches are 
slightly pointed and horse-shoe, of one square order ; above 
is a range of small round-headed arches, about double the 
number of the pier arches below. Those of the eentral aisle 
are entirely within the church ; those on the outer walls of 
the aisles form windows. The transept is higher than the 
rest of the body, and reaches to the aisle walls, so as not to 
appear in the ground-plan. Over the intersection is a dome 
on an octagonal drum, rising little above the present transept 
roof, and having its sides pierced with small couplets of round- 
headed windows of rather a horse-shoe form ; the piers 
below the dome are square and massive, and the arches 
pointed and horse-shoe. The pendentives of the dome are 
Romanesque. The part eastward of the transept is equal 
and similar to that westward, so that the north side, which 
forms a side of the large open court, is a symmetrical front. 
The entrance is through the transept, which is enriched 
externally with lofty arches, round-headed or nearly so, with 
much of the Byzantine character. The open court is of 
much the same character as the mosque itself, but probably 
later. In it is a small building, which exhibits externally 
some rich Mosaic work. Possibly there may be remains of 

this description from which the date and original destination 
of the building mitjht be inferred. 

The south side, up to the bottom of the clerestory win- 

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dows, is hidden by houses and bazaars, but their flat roofs 
are accessible without difficulty, and the sketcher may work 
undisturbed. I rather studied the masonry, which is good, 
and of pretty large stones, to try if I could make out any 
breaks of design. There certainly are some changes in the 
masonry, but they did not lead me to any definite conclusion. 
The south transept has a low Roman pediment, behind which 
rises the high pitched roof, covered with lead. The front has 
tiers of round-headed windows, five in the upper stage and 
three in the lower one, which occupy a line rather higher 
than the clerestory. The octs^on under the dome is of 
smaller stones. 

The general view I have taken is from the wall of the 
castle, to which, with the help of my guide, I easily obtained 
access. It includes the three minarets and the outer wall of 
the court. The other view is the interior of the north aisle 
of the nave, which, being unroofed, shows part of the tran- 
sept and dome. 

On the outskirts of the city are some tombs ot the 
sama type- as those I have already mentioned. In some of 
those an octagon and a polygon of sixteen sides intervene 
between the dome itself and its square or rectangular sub- 
structure ; others have two equal domes. On the hill from 
which that marvellous view, obtained by taking the rough 
horse-track from the beaten road, presents itself, is a tomb 
with four open pointed arches, above which is an octagon 
and dome. Its character is almost as Gothic as those near 
Jerusalem; of which I have spoken. 

Though it does not strictly belong to my subject, I give a 
cut of the little circular temple at Baalbec (see the next 
page). I do not know that I should quite call it a gem, the 
arrangement of the cornice being somewhat too fanciful ; 
still it is a pretty thing, and purer in detail than much of 
the work connected with the larger temples. 

At Ephesus is a mosque, now disused and unroofed, which 
has two domes contiguous to each other, supported by the 
central arches of a building divided longitudinally by an 
arcade on columns. The arches, as well as the windows, are 
pointed ; I did not make out any signs of great antiquity. 

Before concluding my remarks, I may notice a subter- 
ranean church at Alexandria, cleared out, I believe within 
the last few years ; and also some excavations called the 

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Subternnoaii Churcb, near Pompoy's PilUr, Alexaadria. 

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catacombs, no doubt the work of early Christians. The 
church is cut out in a rock of not very liard or close texture, 
at no great distance from Pompey's Pillar. The entrance is 
by a flight of steps, at the bottom of which we find, on our 
left hand, a small semicircular apse with a kind of bench ; 

CircuUr Tempio at Bialb«c. 

on our right a nave cut in the rock, its roof arched, and its 
sides pierced with square-headed cells, evidently for the pur- 
poses of burial. Similar recesses are also cut in the end. 
In front is a recess forming a south transept, from which, 
also, smaller recesses branch out. The part coiresponding 
with the central tower is open to the sky, preserving its 
square form throughout. There is no *race of architectural 
character which could give the slightest hint of a date. The 
painting in the apse is sufficiently preserved to show that its 
subject is the miracle of the loaves. There are also figures 
on some parts of the wall, or vertical surface of the rock. 
The written characters are so rough that I at first thought 
they must have been scribbled by Greek sailors, but on 
examining them, I saw no reason to suppose they were 

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not original, and the inscriptions referred to the persons and 
incidents of the picture. In the central area, near what we 
may call the south-west pier of the intersection, is a hole 
sunk in the floor, about the size, shape and depth of an 
ordinary grave. The sketch and plan may give an idea of ■ 
this underground church. 

The catacombs, if I am right in so calling them, are also 
outside the town, among some of the rocks which form the 
sea coast. These are evidently of late Roman work, and are 
not without architectural character. After passing through 
an area, entered by a low opening and supported by square 
plain piers, and partly open upward to the sky, we come to 
a square-headed entrance, covered by a low pediment, the 
piers of which, if they may be so called, do not reach the 
ground, as seen in the front view. This leads into a circular 
space, with a doinical roof, and haying three recesses, corre- 
sponding in position to :a chancel and a pair of transepts.. 
These recesses are also cruciform, and in all probability have 
been tombs. The workmanship is dean and good ; and the 
architectural ornaments, few and simple as they are, show 
some care in their execudon. My fiketdi and plan will, 
I hope, in some measure, ^explain my very imperfect 

I have said nothing about the Ohristian Gothic buildings 
in and round Jerusalem, which owe their origin rather to 
European than Oriental art. The remains of a church at 
Lydda ; a church at Kuryet-el-Eneb (Kirjath-jearim) ; 
much of the church of t^e Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem ; 
the convent of S. Ann, near S. StejAen s Gate ■; a room in 
the building occupying the site, it is supposed, of David's 
tomb, and other edifices, are clearly of European character, 
with just as much Orientalism as appears in medisBval 
buildings of Sicily, and, perhaps, Spain. Some of the con- 
vents near Jerusalem may be more decidedly Oriental. 
Their churches are so incorporated with the conventual 
buildings, that little or nothing of 4;hem appears externally 
but the small central dome. Internally they are cruciform, 
have arches of one square order, pointed, with but little 
architectural ornament, painting being the chief enrichment. 
The light comes principally from the dome. 

My remarks have, as 1 have said, been the result of very 
cursory and limited observations. But what little I have 

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f 40 M » 

Early CbrUtian CaUcomb, near the sea ooMt, Alexandria. Late Roman Period. 

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seen convinces me that a wide field is open, and one that 
might be traversed with advantage both by the archaaologist 
and the practical architect. We learn at least one great 
lesson from the Mahometan style, — namely, that architecture 
is independent of sculpture, since representations of the 
human or animal form are rarely, if ever, introduced, and 
of vegetable types we see little more than a very conven- 
tionalised representation. And yet the mediaeval architec- 
ture of Cairo is no less noble, varied, impressive, and pic- 
turesque, than that of Caen, Nuremberg, or York. And 
without denying the excellence of the results produced by 
the combination of architecture with sculpture, I do not 
think we are doing justice to the former, if we do not claim 
for it the position of a perfectly independent art, and assert 
that an architectural composition of the highest order may 
exist without the aid of sculpture, just as a group of sculp- 
ture of the highest order may be produced and appreciated 
without any help from architecture. 

And another thing the architect may learn, is the employ- 
ment of the dome. It is true that the revived classical 
style, whatever may be its faults, has the merit of bringing 
this beautiful feature to its highest peifection ; yet, since it 
seems to be considered a necessity that our national style 
must be medisevalised ; and since the dome, whether we take 
into account its constructional advantages, its convenience, 
or its beauty, ought not to be excluded, something might be 
gained by the study of those edifices in which it prevailed 
coevally with our own golden epoch of architecture, and we 
might avail ourselves of many suggestions, both as to com- 
position, construction, and ornament, which would enrich 
our style without too much Orientalising its character. 

The Central Committee deaire to renew, with special gratification, the 
expression of their grateful sense of the constant and most friendly liberality 
of Mr. Petit, by whom the whole of the illustrations of tlio foregoing 
Memoir have been presented. 

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1?HB notes for this paper were made at the beginning 
of 1865, when a rumour was prevalent that the interesting 
and picturesque old earthwork at Wimbledon was threatened 
with serious injury by the proposed construction of some 
new roads. It is said that it was intended to divide 
the ramparts by two new roads diverging from the centre 
of the work, and to cut off a third part of the area by the 
boundary wall or fence of a proposed park — ^a place of public 
recreation in which such a feature of interest as the camp 
might well be made available, and suitably preserved. These 
rumours, happily, have died away* 

It would, no doubt^ be a hopeless task to endeavour to 
settle definitively the period to which these remains may be 
referred ; but it may not be unprofitable to set forth the 
evidence and the opinions which have been brought forward 
by various authofities on behalf of each of those nations to 
one or another of whom we are accustomed to attribute the 
numerous earthworks scattered throughout our island. Was 
Wimbledon camp the work of British, of Roman, of Saxon, 
or of Danish hands? There is something to be said in 
behalf of each supposition. 

The final syllable of Wimbledon will at once suggest a 
British origin for the name, if not for the camp itself. 
Conjoined, as it probably has been in this case, to a Saxon 
name (a» ha»been done in many other instances which will 
suggest themselves), the syllables don, din, dinas, dune, &c., 
are admitted to be tolerably safe indications of the existence, 
at some time, of a British stronghold, at the places so named. 
Brayley, in his " History of Surrey," ' after remarking that 
various authors ascribe it respectively to the Britons, 
llomans, Saxons and Danes, gives it as his own opinion that 

1 VoL iii. pp. 499 ct set). 

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262 "Cesar's camp," wimbledon. 

it probably was originally a British stronghold, subsequently 
occupied by other nations in succession. Mr. W. D. Saull, 
in a paper read before the Ethnological Society, on the 15th 
of March, 1848, speaks very decidedly in favour of the 
British origin of this earthwork ; and even goes so far as to 
distinctly refer it to the " Fourth, or Pastoral Period " of 
British history, when our rude forefathers kept their herds 
in enclosures of small extent — but numerous — upon the 
highlands. But there appears to be* no reason why this 
writer might not, with equal propriety, have referred it to 
his "Fifth Period,*' when, -as he describes it, large and 
strong encampments were formed on the downs, superseding 
the small hill-camps. Mr. Saull, on the supposition that it 
belongs to his ''Fourth Period/* refers Wimbledon to the 
same date as the enclosures at Edge Hill in Warwickshire, 
at Brailes, at Hooknorton Heath, and at Madmarston and 
Nadbury Camps. As examples of the " Fifth Period,'* to 
which Wimbledon would seem more properly to belong, Mr. 
Saull cites the earthworks on St. Catherine's Hill near 
Winchester, the camp on the Downs near Folkestone, and a 
very fine example at Danesfield near Stockbridge. 

Mr. Saull is not alone in his decided opinions on this sub- 
ject. The Rev. Thomas Hugo, at a meeting of the London 
and Middlesex Archaeological Society, on the ■ 26th of 
February, 1856, stated that "a large collection of hut circled; 
was distinctly visible on Wimbledon Common a short timb 
ago ; *' and suggested that Wimbledon was " the fortified 
fastness to which the Romans pui-sued Cassivelaunus.** 
In a letter to myself Mr. Hugo writes that the hut-circles 
to which he referred were numerous and conspicuous some 
fifteen years ago, in a line between the windmill and the 
" camp,** especially on the brow of the high ground on the 
north, over against the camp. They were round, and about 
4 ft. or 5 ft. deep, the edges overgrown with brake, and at 
the bottom of each was a mass of large stones. Mr. Hugo 
was then fresh from some investigations which he had been 
making into similar remains on Worle Hill, Somersetshire, 
and is quite clear as to having correctly attributed the pits 
at Wimbledon. But no recent investigations, either by Mr. 
Hugo, or by myself, have resulted in- a discovery, or rather 
re-discovery of these remains. 

But yet another trace of supposed British occupation has 

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vanished from this neighbourhood. Mr. T. Stackhouse, who, 
in the early part of this century, wrote a course of lectures 
(of which only two I believe were published) on the archi- 
tectural and other remains of Britain, states ^ that '* near an 
old single-trenched camp at the south-west corner of Wim- 
bledon Common, is a very small flat barrow, cut in the form 
of a cross. I do not know if it has been mentioned by any 
other writer." * 

Those wW know Wimbledon Camp will admit that it 
agrees pretty well with Caesar's well-known description of 
the British oppidum : 

'' Oppidum autem Britanni vocant, quum sylvas impeditas 
vallo atque fossa munierunt," especially when taken in con- 
nection with Strabo's echo of it : * 

'• UoXei? VavT&v €lsiv ol bpvfiol* V€pi4^pi^ain'€s yip bivbp€<ri 
KaTofiePKquivois €vpv\aipTJ KiuKkov ivrahOa koL avrol koXv^o^ 
Tsowvurai koL tcl Poa-KtifiaTa KUTaaraOiiivovaiv ov irpbs iroXifV xp^vov" 

Mr. A. J. Kempe, F.S.A.,* another of those who are 
unwilling that any but the Britons should have the merit of 
having formed this work, observes that its construction is 
somewhat peculiar, and that the indications, which still 
exist, of a second or outer vallum, occasioned the erroneous 
conclusion formed by some authors, that there was a double 
fosse. He remarks that writers on British military antiqui- 
ties have considered that it was one of the principles of 
British tactics to use concentric rings of ramparts, rising one 
above the other, and he finds such an arrangement faintly 
indicated at Wimbledon. , 

The accompanying plan and sections show the character 
of this interesting enclosure, about which so much has been 
written and so little is actually known. Constructed with 
the gravelly soil obtained from the excavation of the fosse, it 
consists of an entrenchment which would have been quite 
circular, but for the rapid fall of the ground on the north 
side : on that side it follows the contour of the surface, — an 
arrangement which seems to indicate that much importance 
was attached to the occupation of this precise site. The 
fosse is deeper and bolder at some parts than at others, but 
its average depth may be stated at about 12 ft., and the 

' Lecture ii. f. 49. ^ Lib. iv. cap. ▼. boo. 2 (Kramer, p. 

' Some supplementary remarks on the 313). 

subject of cruciform tumuli will be found ' ArchsDologio, vol izxi. p. 619 (1646). 
at the close of this paper. 


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264. "OJISAR's camp," WIMBLEDON. 

height of the vallum at. from 10 ft. to 20 ft. above the 
ground immediately beyond it. The outer vallum to which 
Mr. Kempe refers is more easily to be traced on the 
southern side than on any other ; but the outworks noticed 
by Brayley (p. 506), are now almost, if not entirely, erased : 
they aiso were probably on the southern side, where the 
ground is, from a military point of view, not so. strong as 
on the northern side. 

Allen, in his "History of Sutrey" (vol. i, p. 475), 
describes it as a round camp surrounded by a double ditch, 
including about seven acres, the inner:trench, in his time, 
deep and perfect. The true area of the enclosure is about 
fourteen acres. 

Salmon (p. 31) remarks that it is not on very advan- 
tageous ground (though it certainly appears to me to be on 
one of the best military positions in the neighbourhood), 
and that it was too small to contain an army. 

The interior has been ploughed, and any traces which 
might formerly have existed of huts, &c., are of course 
gone ; there is consequently little left, beyond its form and 
situation, and the conflicting pages of late writers, to give 
a clue to its origin. 

With one exception I am not aware of any relics having 
ever been found nearer to the camp than on the top of 
Kingston Hill, a mile or two ofiF, where some British and 
Roman pottery, spear-heads, &c., have been discovered.® I 
have been favoured with a communication from Mr. Albert 
Way, who tells me that ho has a note of a singular relic, 
possibly a sling-shot, found some years ago at the Camp, 
consisting of a large perforated object of baked clay. It 
was shaped like a cheese, was S^in. in diameter, 3f in. 
thick, and the hole was f in. in diameter. 

Bearing in mind, then, that the earthwork is situated on 
an elevated spot commanding an extensive view — ^is of a 
circular form — is near springs of water, and was probably 
in former times surrounded by a forest (a supposition 
strengthened by the presence of the oaks which still grow 
on its ramparts), we cannot deny that the situation and form 
of Wimbledon Camp fulfil most of the characteristics which 

. * lacluding a frAgmeut of a ciuerary writer, and now deposited in the British 
ufn, or of ft coiti-pot, discovered by the Museum. See Arch. Journ.YoI.xx. p. 37:2. 

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Cd3sar and Btrabo give, as distinguishing the oppida of the 
ancient Britons. 

Its fonn certainly does not belie the supposition that the 
entrenchment is of British origin. In looking through the 
Ordnance Maps, it is very noticeable that, along the Eoman 
roads, and in their immediate yicinity, there is, as might 
be expected, a marked tendency towards the rectangular 
outline which distinguishes, almost invariably, the camps of 
the Romans. But it must not be forgotten that square 
camps are also to be met with, occasionally, in the fast- 
nesses of Cornwall and North Wales, though generally the 
" camps '' in these parts are either circular or elliptical ; 
nor, as is well known, are instances wanting, both of 
undoubtedly British and Roman works, when the advan- 
tages of a strong and irregular position superseded the ordi- 
nary practice, and the vallum followed more or less closely 
the figure of the ground on which the camp was formed. 
. Such, then, appears to be the evidence in favour of the 
British origin of the camp at Wimbledon. Let us now 
examine what has been urged in favour of its having been a 
Roman work. 

It will be remembered that Surrey was long held by the 
Regni, and was probably governed by a Romano-British 
king ; and that it also lay in the line of march between the 
south-east coast of England and the passage of the Thames. 

Gale, in his " Antonini Iter Britanniarum/'^ thus argues in 
favour of a Roman road having passed through Wimbledon ; 
and his views seem to have been accepted by Mr. W. 
Hughes, who, in his Map of Roman Britain, published in 
1848, gives Wimbledon as the site of a Roman camp. 
Gale says, ^* Noviomago. Nunc Woodcote WaiTcn. A 
Londinio ubi decesseris ad Austrum, post cio cio Pass, vel 
circiter, via publica dispescit se in tres semitas ; quarum 
Occidentalior per Wimbledune (i.e. Windledune, ad Vin- 
dilin fluvium) & Vallum Germanorum, qui hie sub A. 
Plautio- meruere, pergit ad Kingstonium, vetus oppidum 
(sed & sedem, & nomen mutabit) baud dubi^ a primis 
Romanorum victoriis, firmatum praesidiis quemadmodum & 
Gattohy Bensbury, Wimbledune, & Burrow super Bensteed 
Downs, aliaque circumjacentia ad Thamisin loca ; id situs, 

7 lUr. iL pp. 71-2, ad. 1709. 

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2C6 "CiESAR'S camp/' WIMBLEDON. 

& Provinciao tutela postulabant. hlc Romaai primo T/uimesin 
per pontem trajiciebant, & fort^ Claudius ipse, hie in dunis 
proximis ad Combe cib Pass, ab hodiemo Kingstonio multi 
Romanorum imperatorum nummi sunt effossi.^' 

Dr. Roots,® the well-known collector of the Roman anti- 
quities found at Kingston Hill, and in the bed of the 
Thames (who is followed by Biden,^ the historian of King- 
ston), was also of opinion that Caesar occupied this 
entrenchment, if indeed he did not form it, whilst preparing 
for his conflict with Cassivelaunus, on the banks, of the 
river ; and he urges, in support of these views, the Roman 
remains which have been found in this neighbourhood. 
The great objection, however, to this theory, appears to 
lie in the circular fo)in of the enclosure. Its smallness, 
which gives Salmon his grounds for stating that it could not 
be of Roman construction, is, as has been shown, no valid 

Its claims to Saxon parentage appear to be as follows. 
Surrey was at one time under the dominion of the South 
Saxon kings ; and, as Holinshed informs us, the first battle 
between the Saxons themselves was fought at Wimbledon 
(a.d. 568), between the* forces of Ethelbert, King of Kent 
(then a child), under his generals, Oslac and Cnebba^ and 
CeauUn, King of the West Saxons, ** for the dignity of Bret- 
walda." Camden says of " Wibbandune, now commonly 
called Wimbledon," that " it is possible the military fortifica- 
tion I saw here, of a circular form, called Bensbury, might 
take its name " from Cnebben, who was slain here. 

The first two syllables of the name seem to point to a 
Saxon origin, for at least that part of the word. Wimbal- 
dus, Lysons says,^ was a Saxon name ; and indeed most of 
the names under which it has gone have a Saxon sound : 
such are Wipandune,^ Wiphandune, Wilbandune, Wibban- 
dune, Wilbaldowne,^ Wubbandune, Wibbandune,* &c.* The 
word was, however, sometimes spelt as it now is in 131.3— 
1327, as the Registers of Archbishop Walter Reynolds testify.® 

^ See Arcbaologia^ vol. xxz. pp. 490-2, ^ GamdeD. 

and vol. xxxi. pp. 518*21. * Soe Symmea's MS. Collections fur 

• Biden's History of Kingston (1852), Surrey, 6167, Plut. clxxix.-a, Brit. Mus., 
p. 8. for other modea quoted of spelling tbe 

^ Environs of London, voL i. p. 519. word. 

* Henry of Huntingdon. « Bray ley's Surrey, vol. iii. pp. 499 et 
' Qrafton 8 Chronicle, vol. i. p. 111. aeq. 

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"c^sab's camp/' WIMBLBDON. 267 

Nor should vre omit the consideration that, so far as we 
are acquainted with the earthworks of the Saxons, there is 
little in the camp at Wimbledon which conflicts with the 
received notions on the subject. Fosbrooke,^ quoting Strutt, 
ascribes to the Saxons those earthworks with a raised inte- 
rior surface, surrounded with a broad ditch, and encom- 
passed with an earthen vallum ; and he instances the small, 
double-trenched circular work at Mount Caburn, near 
Lewes, as a perfect specimen. High valla and deep ditches 
may generally, he thinks, be referred to the Saxons ; and 
the profile of the ramparts at Wimbledon may perhaps be 
considered bold enough to fulfil these conditions. 

It now only remains- to consider the probabilities of the 
Danes having constructed this encampment. Aubrey, in 
his "Natural History and Antiquities of Surrey," vol. i. 
p. 16, says it was made by the Danes, "as appears by the 
Chronicle." It certainly appears that after Surrey passed 
into the hands of the West Saxons, this part of the country 
was much ravaged by Turkill and Swaine, Danish warriors ; 
but I have not succeeded in finding the authority for 
Aubrey's positive statement ; and the only other evidence 
that occurs to me as bearing, however remotely, on the 
Danish origin of this entrenchment is the statement in 
Spelman^s "Life of Alfred," that "the Danish camps were 
always round, and with one entrance ; " a statement^ the 
accuracy of which woidd (not to multiply instances) be 
sufficiently disproved by the harp-shaped camp at Bratton, 
Wilts, — one of the best ascertained of the Danish positions. 
Pei'haps the utmost that could be said on this part of the 
subject is, that, so far as I am aware, there is nothing in 
the form of the work to entirely preclude the possibility of 
its being of Danish origin. 

In concluding these remarks, it may not bo out of place 
to notice, that the earthwork now under consideration has, 
at different times, borne for its name the various forms of 
the word Wimbledon which have already been mentioned ; 
that Camden know it as Bensbury ; and that Mr. Eempe 
tells us that, in 1846, it was called Warren Bulwarks. Of 
course it is also sometimes called " The Rounds ; " and, 
equally of com'se, its most usual name is " Caesar's Camp.'' 

7 Eaeyclopadia of AntiquU!68, toL ii. pp. 554, &c. 

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•* Cesar's camp," wimblbdon. 

Whether Wimbledon Camp was originally merely the 
scene of a fortified village and cattle-enclosure of the ancient 
Britons — or an encampment of Roman legions — or a 
fortress of either Saxon or Danish warriors — or whether 
it has been the stronghold of each in succession, it is 
obviously a site round which historic suggestions richly 
cluster ; and it is earnestly to be hoped, that, in making 
any future arrangements for the allotment of the Common 
and its vicinity, this interesting piece of antiquity may be 
judiciously conserved.® 


.The subject of cruciform tumuli is one of much interest. 
The notices which exist of such remains are, I believe, few, 
and the subjects of them appear to be of very uncertain 
origini Besides the very short account given by Stack- 
house of that at Wimbledon, I have hitherto been unable to 
find more than the following instances : — 

First, a large example on the top of a mountain at 
Margam, Port Talbot, South Wales (described in the Arch. 

Camb. vol. iii. p. 223), each arm of 
which* is 70 ft. long and 18 ft. 
wide. It is not figured anywhere, 
I believe, but of this work I hope 
to be able to procure a plan and 
further information. 

The second example is at St. 
Margaret's Park, eleven miles west- 
south-west of Hereford, and half-a- 
mile east of St. Margaret's church. 
It is noticed in the Journal of the 
Archaeological Institute, vol. , x. p. 
358, and vol. xi. p. 55, and is also 
fully described and figured in the 
Gentleman's Magazine for October, 
1853. p. 887. (See plan and Section.) No results were 
obtained by excavations made in the tumulus . itself, but 




Crueifonn barrow, St. M a 
'Hereford, llimension of 
width 15 ft, height 4 ft. 

s Though not, perhaps, immediately 
cbnnocted with on account of " Ceosar'a 
damp/' it mav be desirable to refer the 
reader to a description of twenty-three 
barrows which existed, up to 1786, on 
Wimbledon Common, about a mile to 
the north of the Camp; it will bo found 

in Douglas's Nenia Britannica, p. 93. The 
only relic discovered by Mr. Douglas ap» 
pears to have been a small earthen yessel; 
but it is probable that the banows bad 
been opened, about twenty-eight years 
before, by Dr. Stukeley. 

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"CiESAB's camp/' WIMBLEDON. 


traces of ancient habitations and pottery, and some remark- 
able bronze instruments have been found in the vicinity. 

A third additional example, near Banwell in Somerset- 
shire^ between Bristol and Bridgwater, is described and 
figured in Hoare's Ancient Wiltshire, vol. ii. p. 43 (under 
Roman era). Of this work also plans are here given. A 

(Hoare*8 Anc. WQta, toL U. p. 43.) (Beyer's Bristol, toL I. p. 85.) 

Cruciform birrow, Banwdl, Somertet. 

further description of this barrow will be found in Seyer's 
Memoirs of Bristol, vol. i. p. 85. Mr. Seyer describes the 
enclosing rampart as only about 3 ft. high, and surrounded 
by a slight ditch. It measures 35 yards from east to west, 
and 45 yards from, north to south. The cross ridge, he 
says, is about 2 ft. high and 4 ft, or 5 fl. wide, also edged on 
^1 sides by a slight ditch or trench, scarcely 6 in. deep ; 
and in the middle of the cross an excavation, apparently, he 
thinks, the mouth of an old well. 

Nothing, so far as I am aware, seems to be known posi- 
tively, at present, of the origin or history of these singular 
remains, except that they are doubtless of great antiquity. 
It is interesting to know that there is some reason for sup- 
posing that an example existed, not very many years ago, 
near Wimbledon Camp ; and it is to be hoped that any 
fresh light which may be thrown upon cruciform tumuli 
generally, may also cast a ray upon the now obscure history 
of the Camp at Wimbledon. 

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Br Ths Bet. GBEYILLE J. 0HE8TEB, B.A. 

Bblieying that nothing which tends to throw light on the 
antiquities of Carthage can fail to interest the archaeologists 
of England, I beg to submit the following brief notes to 
their consideration. On arriving at Tunis (on the 8th of 
January, 1866) I heard that since my former visit to Car- 
thage in the previous April, some excavations had been 
made near the more perfect series of cisterns, and that the 
antiquities discovered there, as well as others procured from 
various stone-digging Arabs, had been appropriated and 
preserved by Sidy Mohammed, eldest son of the Ehaznadar, 
or First Treasurer, Mustapha, who now wields almost supreme 
power in the Regency of Tunis. Through the kind inter- 
vention of Richard Wood, Esq., C.B., H. M. Consul-General, I 
received permission from the young Sidy (lord), to inspect 
his collection, which I found in a sort of garden-house in the 
grounds of his father's new villa, which is situated on the 
edge of the sea, close to the artificial piece of water that 
is probably the remains of the " Cothon," or port of ancient 
Carthage. This " Cothon," if such it be, is in fact enclosed 
within the grounds of the Khaznadar^s garden, and recent 
excavations in the small island in its midst have brought to 
light two broken pillars, the one of breccia, the other of 
a yellow marble, indicating the former existence of some 
magnificent building. The villa itself stands about a 
quarter of a mile in a direct line from the village of Dowar 
Kshut, and less than a mile from the French chapel of St. 
Louis, which forms such a prominent feature amidst the 
ruins of ancient Carthage. 

The Sidy's collection, which had not previously been seen 
by any European, has never been arranged or classified, the 
various objects lying about just as they were brought in. 

I proceed to notice the more interesting specimens. 

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Seven stones, four of which bear inscriptions in Punic or 
Phoenician characters, belong to the period of the ancient 

1. This stone has a beautifully cut inscription, and under 
it an object resembling a caducous, and a triangle sur- 
mounted by a disk. In this instance, as in No. 6, a kind 
of architectural ornament divides the inscription from the 


objects below it. This is the only perfect insciiption in the 
collection. I had unfortunately no materials with me to 
take a rubbing of this interesting relic, but I made shift to 
take an impression on wet paper, which I trust may lead 
to its decipherment 

2. A broken inscription, of which I took as accurate a 
copy as time and the de&cement of the stone permitted. 

3. An inscription, imperfect at top, but having below it 
a vase with handles, and on either side the latter a flower- 
bud resembling the lotus. 

4. An inscription im«- 

perfect below ; above / ^ /v > v v S>^ -7 / 

it an open hand. hO^l^h/V/^ ' 'J) 

tion'; below it an eye. / ^7-7 '0 4// 1\ f 
6. This stone pre- . i[ ^ a ^ 

sents a hand pointing 40 4/^0 J^AAt^^'I^ 

up to an eye, from / // / i A / \ 

band, like that on No. ^ ^W / / ^' / 

1. It would be sin- 
gular if this well-known Arab symbol, a charm against the 
Evil Eye, known sometimes as the Hand of Providence, 
and otherwise as the Hand of Justice, could be shown 
to have its origin in Phoenician sculptures, or by tradition 
handed down from those remote times in the unchanging 
East. In these cases, it will be observed, the hand and 
the eye are found in juxta-position. The hand which 
appears over the great entrance-gate of the Alhambra at 
Granada, is a symbol in universal use amongst the peoples 
of Arabian descent. A silver hand of this description 
VOL. xxni. u u 

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exhibited to the Institute last year, I bought from the head 
of a Degress in the Oasis of Biskra in the Sahara. 

7. This stone exhibits a well-executed palm-tree in fruit 

The already- named earrings and inscriptions ai-e all cut 
on a kind of close-grained limestone. In this connection I 
may mention that the Bev. Mr. Fenner, missionary to the 
Jews in the Regency of Tunis, possesses a small stone found 
at Carthage, with one line of a Punic inscription, and 
beneath it a beautiful flower, apparently the lotus, as in No. 
3. See the accompanying representation of this interesting 

To these may be added a small headless figure in a 
sitting posture, something like a Japanese idol, but which I 
am able to assign to the period of the ancient Oarthaginians, 
from its very close resemblance to six small stone figures, 
also headless, found in the Pbcenician temple of Hajar 
Kim in the island of Malta^ and now preserved in the 
Museum at Yaletta. 

Of Greek art I saw nothing, unless indeed I may except 
a small partially-draped torso of good work, and a beautifulr 
little vase of black, fine-grained pottery, elegantly orna- 
mented with white lines. 

Roman objects, as might be expected, are numerous. Of 
these the principal is a beautifiil statue of the youthful 
Bacchus, the size of life, crowned with grapes and standing 
beside a stump or. pedestal, wreathed with the same fruit. 
I observed also in. the villa itself a small recumbent statue, 
holding a kind of cup. This figure has unfortunately lost 
its head, but it is apparently a river-god. I saw also a 
mutilated bust of some imperial personage of the later 
empire, two or three heads of statues, an inscribed altar, and 
several fragmentary inscriptions, mostly of a memorial or 
general character. One of these inscriptions only seems to 
merit a detailed description. This stone is of a yellowish- 
brown sandstone, and exhibits an altar, approached by a 
step and surmounted by a large cone of some kind of pine. 
On either side this altar is a large five-pointed star, and 
below each star a ram. Below, to the left, is a kind of 
casket or box, and underneath it a vase, while the corre- 
sponding space to the right is occupied by a wall. Below is 
the inscription — 

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Inscribed Stone found at Carthago. 
In poMonion of the R«t. Vr. Fenner, at Tunif. 

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S • D • AVGSAO • L • 



The whole of this carving is in low relief, and of peculiar 
workmanship. The Roman pottery is all of a coarse and 
common kind, with the exception of some interesting Chris- 
tian lamps, to be noticed hereafter. There is not a single 
perfect specimen of the so-called Samian ware, although 
fragments of it are by no means of uncommon occurrence 
amongst the ruins. There are also a large number of small 
disks of various-coloured marbles, and of the beautiful green 
Egyptian porphyry, which the Romans have shaped out as 
pieces for a game resembling draughts. 

I now proceed to mention a class of monuments, which I 
regret I am unable to appropriate with any degree of cer- 
tainty. In the collection of Sidy Mohammed are six upright 
stelae, from five to six feet high, of which some have tri- 
angular tops. They are covered with sculptures in low 
relief, of a very debased style of art, and are stated to have 
been found in a place called " Tooboorsook,'' some two days' 
journey from Carthage, in the direction of the Algerian 
frontier. Upon each is a rude representation of a temple 
enclosing a statue, round the latter of which, in one instance, 
are numerous circular holes, with a deeper perforation in the 
centre of each, and apparently intended to contain disks of 
bronze or some other metal. On other portions of these 
singular stones are sculptured various conventional ornaments, 
and rude figures of men and animals. In one instance only 
is there any sign of an inscription, and in this the letters 
I — vs, in the midst of a small square, can alone be deciphered. 
If it were safe to conjecture, I might suppose these monu- 
ments to be the work of some rude Carthaginian sculptors 
frona the interior, who were trying to imitate the debased 
handiwork of late Roman times. Of the numerous pieces of 
mosaic pavement I need make no lengthened mention, as, 
like those discovered by Dr. Davis, and now in the British 
Museum, they are evidently of Roman workmanship, and 
present nothing remarkable in their material or design. 

I now come to Christian antiquities. These comprise a 
large number of lamps, and a most curious baptismal font 
made of lead. The lamps present the usual types, and closely 

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resemble those fouud ia the catacombs of Rome or Syracuse. 
Amongst other designs I noticed various crosses, the mono- 
gram of our Lord, the seven-branched candlestick, the pea- 
cock, the dove, the lion, the sacred Ix^vy, ^i^d, what is per- 
haps the most interesting of all, the "Three Children,'* 
Hananiah, Hazariah, and Mishael. I may add here, that two 
lamps from Carthage, belonging to Richard Wood, Esq., C.B., 
present, respectively, a martyr contending with a lion, and a 
figure holding a cross and treading underfoot a dragon. 

The font is indeed an extraordinary vessel, and it is 
much to be wished that it could be rescued from the profane 
hands of Moslems, and placed in our National Museum. It 
is, as has been already remarked, made of lead, a compara- 
tively rare material for a font It measures fifty-six centime- 
tres in height by fifty in diameter. In shape it is circular. 
Immediately below the brim, before the inscription, is the 
early Christian or Byzantine symbol of the Resurrection, 
two peacocks feeding out of a vase. The treatment 
much resembles that of the same subject represented on 
marble tablets let into the brick walls of Coptic churches in 
Egypt. The inscription is enclosed in a sort of fillet or frame, 
and reads as follows : — 


The letters* s and a, which I have supplied, as in the 
original they have coiToded away, show the whole in- 
scription to have read — 'AvT\ri<raT€ vboup ix€t €v<l)po<ruin]^, being 
the Lxx. version of Isaiah, c. xii., v. 3 : " Ye shall draw water 
with joy {€K T<av Urj-yoDv Tov <r<o'n]pCov) from the wells of the 

The English version, following more closely the Hebrew, 
has the less striking rendering : " Therefore with joy shall 
ye draw water out of the wells of salvation (ttjs o-wnypiaj)." The 
imperative form of expression rather than the future tense is 
perhaps intended in the present instance. 

I cannot refrain from remarking that the occurrence of 
this verse in such a connection affords an interesting inde- 
pendent proof of the high estimation in which the Sacrament 
of Holy Baptism was held in the church of S. Cyprian. 

Immediately after the inscription follows a group corre- 

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spoiiding to that of the peacocks, and representing a female 
figure supported by a sea-monster, and plainly intended to 
set forth the efficacy of the element of water in the Sacra- 
ment of Regeneration. Below are various groups, of which 
some are in a bad state of preservation. Among the perfect 
ones are our Lord as the Good Shepherd, with a sheep on 
His shoulders, a figure with the palm-branch of martyrdom, 
another holding a wreath and standing by an altar, a 
combat of lions, a bear, and two palm trees. All these 
groups are represented in relief, and some of them, especially 
the bear, with considerable spirit and fideUty. The shape of 
the Greek letters indicates that this most curious font 
belongs to a late period ; but it may be questioned whether 
a leaden font of so early a period has hitherto been dis- 
covered. It merits the most careful study, and, considering 
the place of its discovery, its inscription and the style of art 
which it exhibits, it must be regarded as an object of extra- 
ordinary interest. 

While on the subject of Christian antiquities, I may 
mention that, in the shop of a Hebrew shoemaker in 
Tunis, I found a large piece of white marble bearing the 
effigy of our Lord as the Good Shepherd, which had been 
brought from Carthage, and I was informed that a duplicate 
fragment had been bought and carried away to Spain by 
a late Spanish consul. The Rev. Mr. Fenner, who has 
travelled through the remoter parts of the Regency, informs 
me that he has discovered the i*emains of several Christian 
churches, and has found several Christian sepulchral inscrip- 
tions in some remote situations. The remains of African 
Christian art are not, therefore, so rare as Dr. Davis would 
lead us to suppose. 

It may interest some persons to hear that, during the 
recent excavations, the entire roof of the second largest series 
of cisterns at Carthage has been laid bare, and that it is 
even proposed to restore them to their oi-iginal purpose. 
The six circular chambera with cupolas, which Davis says 
" may have contained statues '' or held the guards of the 
cisterns, are now plainly shown to be cistenis themselves, 
since, like the other cisterns, they are plastered up to a 
certain height, the better to contain the water. At present 
they look like gigantic boilers. Dr. Davis has omitted to 
mention that between each pair of circular chambers there 

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are two square tanks, as shown in the annexed diagram. 
At the extremity of the cisterns, towards Sidy Bosaid, a 
paved chamber with three tribunes or apses lias been laid 


(P) c c 



a, a, cUten&i; 6, 5, circular cbftmbers ; c, c. tauku. 

bare, and several marble mouths of well-holes have been 
ascertained to have led down into each cistern from above. 
Many of these are still in situ. That the tribunes were of an 
ornamental character is proved by my having found several 
tesserae of blue glass mosaic, which had evidently fallen from 
the coved roofs above. Several large pieces of Roman mosaic 
pavement have been found in the past year in the vast mass 
of confused ruins which lie beside the sea below the cisterns ; 
and at the present moment huge stones, beveled like those 
in the Celtiberian walls of Tarragona, or the Phoenician 
walls of Syria, are being conveyed to Tunis from a spot below 
the hill of St. Louis. 

In conclusion, I desire to remark that there is nothing 
either in the present political state of Tunis, or in the 
character of the oriental mind, to lead to the expectation 
that the collection of Sidy Mohammed will long remain 
intact. Made without knowledge of antiquarian researches, 
it is at any moment liable to be dispersed, destroyed, or 
given, in a moment of impulse, to the most worthless adven- 
turer. Would it not, therefore, be desirable that our Consul- 
General should receive instructions from the Foreign OflSce 
to watch for a favorable opportunity to acquire it by 
purchase, or otherwise, for the British Museum, where it 
should be incorporated with the Carthaginian collections 
which were made by Dr. Davis at the expense of the 
nation 1 

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In a former volume of this Journal an inventory was given 
of the relics of metallurgy in Roman times,^ the massts plumbic 
or pigs of lead, that from time to time have been found in this 
country, and of which the greater part are preserved at the 
British Museum. Towards the close of the autumn of 1865, 
two objects of this description were found. at Bristol; of 
these, one, through the Uke liberality that we had formerly the 
satisfaction to record on a similar occasion, has been added 
to the Series in the National Collection. 

We are indebted for the following particulars to the Rev. 
Canon Scarth, who received timely information of the 
discovery from Mr. John Reynolds, a member of the Institute 
resident at Bristol. It occurred in making excavations in 
Wade Street on the eastern side of the city ; the precise 
spot being the original bank of the River Frome, which has 
there been confined in later times to a narrower channel than 
that in which the stream formerly flowed in its winding 

Roman Pig of Lead found at Bristol. British Museum. 

course towards the Avon. One of the pigs was taken to the 
shot manufactory of Messrs. Sheldon, Bush, and Co. at 
Bristol, the firm by which, in 1853, a similar relic, found at 
Blagdon, the earliest of the series hitherto known, had been 
preserved.^ The second passed into the possession of Mr. 
Edkins, whose collection comprises valuable antiquities of 
local interest. The two relics bear the same inscription, 

> Arcb. Joum. Tol. xvi. p. 22. « Ibid., vol. xi. p. 278 ; vol. xvi. p. 23. 

VOL, XXIII. ^ ^ 

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some letters of the name of the Emperor being obliterated, 
in the same part of the surface in each instance respectively ; 
this defect has probably been occasioned by an injury to the 
mould which, as Mr. Scarth suggests, may have been of clay. 
On the pig, however, last noticed, he remarks that there is 
the appearance as if a thin metal plate had been laid over 
the Emperor's name. 

The massa plumbi now, through the liberality of Mr. 
Arthm* Bush, added to the collection in the British Museum, 
measures 21 in. by 5 in. ; the inscribed face, namely, that 
which represents the bottom of the mould, 19 in. by 2| in. 
The weight is 76 lb. ; the weight of the second pig, in 
possession of Mr. Edkins, is 89 lb. The inscription, as shewn 
in the accompanying woodcut, may be thus read, the damaged 
letters being supplied : — 


Some question, it must be observed, has arisen in regard 
to the Emperor to whose reign these metallurgical relics 
lately found should be assigned. Marcus Aurelius having, 
A.D. 161, succeeded Antoninus Pius, by whom he bad been 
adopted, took the names of Marcus Aurelius Antoninus ; he 
is styled also Pius, as well as Pater Patriae. Caracalla, when 
created Caesar by his father Severus, a.d. 196, likewise took 
the names of Marcus Aurelius Antoninus ; he is styled Pius 
and Pater Patriae. Elagabalus, having represented himself as 
a son of Caracalla, took the same names as above given. It 
seems, however, most probable that the Emperor whoso 
name is found on these relics is Antoninus Pius, successor to 
Hadrian, by whom he was adopted in a.d. 138, when the 
Senate conferred on him the title of Pius. In a.d. 139 he 
took the title of Pater Patriae, which occurs on the pigs of 
metal under consideration, and he died in a.d. 161. Mr. 
Scarth is of opinion that they should be assigned to the 
reign of that Emperor, and the learned writer on Roman 
Epigraphy, Dr. McCaul, of University College, Toronto, con- 
curs in that conclusion. 

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No massa plutnbi of that period had previously occurred ; 
the praiseworthy hberality thus for a second time shown by 
Mr. Arthur Bush in enabUng the Institute to contribute 
such a relic to the National Collection cannot fail to be cor- 
dially appreciated. It may deserve notice that the weight is 
considerably less than that of many examples heretofore 
discovered ; the weight of the pig found near Blagdon, 
Somerset, and brought before the Institute in 1863, is 
163 lb. ; that of a pig bearing the name of Hadrian, found 
at Bath in 1852, and now in the Museum of the Literary 
Institution there, is 195 lb.' 

It is with pleasure that I take occasion to advert to the 
researches of our friendly trans-Atlantic coadjutor, Dr. 
McCaul, in the neglected field of Roman Epigraphy, and to 
the critical observations given in his " Britanno-Roman 
Inscriptions." * 

In the Inventory formerly published in this Journal six 
pigs of lead bearing the name of Hadrian were described, of 
which four had been found in Shropshire ; of these, one, 
brought to light in draining in the parish of Snead, in 
May, 1851, is now in the Museum of that spirited promoter 
of archaeological science, Mr. Joseph Mayer, F.S.A. The 
length of that specimen was stated to be a little more than 
2 ft., and the weight 190 lb. I find mention of another as 
found in the same district. In Bagshaw's " History of Shrop- 
shire,** published in that year, p. 678, it is stated, under 
Minsterley, that " in 1851 a Roman pig of lead was found by 
workmen in sinking through a slag-heap of smeltings ; on 
this pig was the following inscription in raised characters — 
IMP • HADRIANI ' Avo. The dimensions are stated to be, 
length 20 in., girth 20 in., weight 173 lb.''« 

I may here take occasion to append a few notices of some 

' Arcb. Journ. vol. zvi. p. 34. the coincidence of date, and the inscrip- 

^ First publUbed in the Canadian tion I had been tempted to suapect that 

Journal, and reproduced in 1863 in one thia pig might be the same as tliat aboye 

vol 8vo. London : Longmana. The noticed as found in 1851 at the Roveriea^ 

▼aloable notes on Piga of Lead, pp. 82- near Snead. That place is however dia- 

36, claim particular notioe, and I beg to taiib ten mUea or upwards from Min- 

acknowledge my obligation to tho aterley, which is situated about nine 

author^s oourteous criticism in pointing miles S.W. of Shrewsbury. The dimen- 

out some inadvertent errors in the In- sions and weight, however, do not cor- 

ventory given in this Journal, vol. xvi. respond ; they differ likewise from those 

p. 22, et seq. of the pig found about 1776 at Minsterloy. 

* Ba{^w*8 History, Qaxetteer, &c., of Arcfa« Journ. vol. xvl p. 32. 
Shropsliire ; Sheffield, 1851, p. 678. From 

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other mediaaval relics of the same class as those that have been 
described. In the British Museum there is a portion of a 
block or mass of lead found in the Thames, and bearing two 
stamps ; one of these, which is perfect, is described by Mr. 
Franks as a merchant's mark composed of two circles, a star 
and the letters t o, the imperfect stamp is a crowned H. From 
the form of the letters this object may be of the reign of 
Henry VL^ 

In the Museum at Caernarvon there is an oval cake of 
lead, measuring 20^ in. in length by 7^ in. in breadth ; the 
lower side is convex, the melted metal having been poured 
into what may be familiarly described as a boat-shaped 
mould ; the thickness at mid-length is about 3 in. It was 
found at Amlwch on the north coast of Anglesea, near the 
rich mineral district of the Parys Mountain, chiefly noted 
for its copper mines, which were probably worked, as 
Pennant observes, in Roman times ; lead containing a portion 
of silver, and zinc are also there obtained.^ 

I am not aware that any block or cake of lead has been 
noticed as found in the great source of mineral wealth of 
Britain in early times, namely, in Cornwall, where, however, 
that metal, comparatively less abundant than tin and copper, 
is by no means deficient. A singular image of lead, with 
slight admixture of other metal, was found on Bodwen Moor, 
about 1850, as related in this Journal^ This mysterious 
and grotesque object was brought before the Institute in 
1862, through the Right Hon. Sir Edmund Head, Bart. It 
was stated by Mr. Agar Robartes, in whose possession it 
remains, that it was at a considerable depth near one of the 
ancient sites of metallurgical operations, the so-called " Jews' 
Houses.'^ This figure measures about 6 inches in height ; it 
seems to represent a regal figure, seated, but the design is 
very enigmatical. On the breast are impressed, or cut, 
three Hebrew letters. Nun, Resh, and Shin ; on the left side 

^ Proceedings Soc. Ant, second Beries, 501b. ; it bore a mark described by 

▼oL ii., p. 88. Pennant as resembling an L. I noticed 

' Pennant, Tour in Wales, toI. ii., p. in the Caernarvon Museum a cake of 
265. It is there auggested that the ore copper, diam. 12 inches, stated to have 
may have been sent to be smelted at been found near Qwyerdy, in Anglesea ; 
Caerhdn, Caernarvonshire, where the its lower surface is flat, not convex, as iu 
copper cake inscribed socio boms was other ancient cakes of metal, for in- 
found. Pennant, ut supra, vol. i, p. 72. stance, those of tin described in this 
A round cake of copper was likewise memoir as found in the Thames, 
found at Llanvaerthlle, in Anglesea, a ^ Arch. Joum. vol. xix. p. 172. 
few miles from Amhrch. Its weight was 

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there is a character too indistinct to be identified, and upon 
the right the Hebrew Mem. The work is rude, but not 
archaic; it was examined with critical care by a learned 
Hebraist, Mr. Zedner, but no explanation has been offered, 
even by Dr. Barham and the assembled savans at the Truro 
Congress in 1862. The coincidence, that a relic bearing 
Hebrew characters should be found in a so-called "Jews' 
House,*' is doubtless to be regarded with suspicion, especially 
as imagery was repugnant to the faith and usages of the 
Israelites. The conjecture, that such a figure might have 
been fashioned for some necromantic purpose, in the dark 
practices of Mediaeval times, in which Hebraisms ^yere largely 
mixed up, seems to partake of the solution — ^^ ignotum per 
ignotos'^ I believe that no relic has been disinterred in 
Cornwall that can be connected with the traditions of 
Israelitish speculations in that county. 

I formerly mentioned a few mass<B plumbi discovered on 
the Continent, at Chalons-sur-Saone, Vieil Evreux, Lille- 
bonne,, and at Carthagena in Spain.^ In a subsequent tour 
in the South of France, my attention was called by M. 
Deloye, Conservateur of the Museum at Avignon, to a 
saumon de plomb in that collection. This object, in form 
resembling the pigs found in England, is of smaller size ; it 
bears the inscription segvsiavig. The particulars communi- 
cated by M. Deloye have been, stated in this Journal ; ^ it 
will suffice here to advert to the discovery, which occurred 
in 1850^ in a district known as le Forez, in the department 
of the Loire^ No lead mines exist in the neighbourhood ; 
the ponderous mass may have been deposited whilst in 
course of conveyance by the ancient line of communication, 
the Via Domitiana, in proximity to which it lay. It has 
been suggested that it vras the produce of mines in the dis- 

' Aroh. Journ., to!, xvi. p. 240, re- information that lie regards it as belong- 

ferenoes are tbera given to notices of ing to the time of Sevenis ; he proposes 

pigs of lead fonnd on the continent the following reading of the imperfect 

See especially a memoir by the Abb^ inscription — [sEV'PERTilKACiB'Ava * pa. 

Cochety *'sar le commerce etHndustrie This **Ungot de plomb" ia mentioned 

du plomb dons la Qaule et la Grande also by the Abb4 Cochet, in his Norman- 

Bretagne \ Tcpoque Romaine ; " Reyue die Souterraine, p. 120. 

ArchtoL, Dea, 1856, p. 548 ; and Mr. > Vol. zvii. p. 257. See also a memoir 

James Tates' Memoir on Mining Opera- by M. Augusts Bernard, entitled, "De- 

tions in Britain, Proceedings of the So- scription du pays des Segusiayes ; " Paris, 

merset Arch. Soc, vol. yiii. p. 17. The 1858, in which particular notice is taken 

pig found at Lillebonne in 1840 is of the taumon now to be seen at Avig- 

noticed by Mr. lioach Smith, Coll. Ant, uon. 
vol. iil. p. 87. I am indebted to him for 

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trict formerly occupied by the Segtisiavif as indicated by 
the inscription above noticed. 

In the " Museum at the Public Library at Basle, as I am 
informed by Mr, Franks, there are two leaden pigs bearing 
the inscriptions societat — s • t • lvo • reti. The section of 
these masses is semi-cylindrical ; the ends are cut oflF verti- 
cally, not obliquely as in the pigs found in England; the 
length is about 15 inches. A detailed notice of these relics 
will be found at the close of this memoir. Similar semi- 
cylindrical blocks of lead, before noticed, have been found at 
Carthagena ; a specimen may be seen in the British Museum, 
and another in the Museum of Practical Geology. 

In the enumeration of metallurgical relics given formerly 
in this Journal, I described a cake, supposed to be of lead, 
found in the Thames near Battersea Bridge.^ This object, 
of which I received information from Mr. Franks, is now 
in the British Museum ; it is of irregular oval form, 7 in. 
by 4 in. On the upper side there are three stamps, figured 
in the descriptions above cited. Two of them are alike, 
being oblong, and exhibiting the letters syagr. The R is 
reversed, and may be a monogram for Ri. The other 
stamp is circular; in the centre is the Christian monogram 
composed of x p, around which are the letters spes • • s • \ 
This stamp is not unUke a coin-die in execution, and it is 
attributed by numismatists to the fourth century : it has 
somewhat of the appearance of an official seal, and Mr, 
Franks has suggested that the oblong stamp may refer to 
the distinguished individual Afranius Syagrius, secretary 
(notarius) to the Emperor Valentinian in 369, and consul 
in 382.* This cake of metal, which weighs nearly 44 
ounces, has subsequently been analysed, and proves to be 
an alloy of about four parts of tin to one of lead. Mr. 
Franks obtained subsequently another oval-shaped cake, 
found likewise in the Thames near Battersea ; it was exhi- 
bited by him at one of the meetings of the Institute in 1862. 
It is of rather larger size than that ah-eady noticed; it 
measures 8|in, by 4^ in., and weighs 11 Of ounces. This 

' Arch. Journ. vol. xvi. p. 38 ; Pro- feated by Clovis at Soissons in 486. The 
ceedings, Soc. Antiqa. of London, vol. ii. style of the circalar stamp above de- 
second series, pp. 87, 235. scribed accords better with the times of 

s Another Syagrius, Mr. Franks ob- Valentin ian. This cake of metal has 

serves, grandson of the iVbtartiM, attained been described in this Joamal, vol. xxL 

almost regal power in Qaul, and was de- p. 169. 

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cake has likewise impressions of stamps on its upper sur- 
face ; two of these are rectangular, and evidently from the 
same stamp ; unfortunately the two impressions overlap, 
and the letters are, in consequence, to be decyphered wiUi 
difficulty. On careful examination Mr. Franks succeeded in 
forming a restoration, as here figured, the portions that are 
illegible in one of the overlapping stamps being supplied by 
the other ; with his wonted sagacity our friend has thus 
re-established satisfactorily the name syaobius, occurring 
likewise, according to his explanation, upon the cake before 
described. It will be noticed that on this second lump of 
metal the a and the B are, as on the former, both reversed. 
(See woodcut, orig. size.) The characters are rather more 
rude than in the other instance. The two other stamps are 
repetitions of a circular seal or brand, with the Christian 
monogram x p* (Chi and Rho ;) in the spaces seem to be 
rude indications of Alpha and Omega. 

Mr. Franks observes that the rarity of any Christian relics 
of the Roman period in Britain adds greatly to the interest 
of these metallurgical specimens. With the exception of the 
tessellated pavement at Frampton, Dorset, published by 
Lysons in the Rcliquice, and of a silver cup found at Cor- 
bridge near the Roman Wall, I am not aware that the 
Christian monogram has been found on any Roman monu- 
ments or relics in this country. It is not easy to suggest for 
what purpose such rude lumps of metal were stamped. The 
oblong stamp on the smaller cake resembles those on certain 
leaden seals of the Roman period found at Brough, West- 
moreland ( Verterce), of which a considerable collection was 
submitted to the Institute, through the Rev. Canon Scarth, by 
the Idndness of Miss Hill, of Appleby.* The cakes may therc- 

* Arch. Journ. vol. xx. p. 1 81. Several oeedingB See. Ant. Lond., first series, vol. 

of these seals are figured in Mr. Roach iii. p. 222 ; and a memoir on the Roman 

Smitli'a Coll. Ant., vol. iti. pL 83, p. 197 ; station at Brough, by Mr. U. Ecroyd 

vol. vi. pi. 16, 17, p. 117; see also Pro- * Smith,Trans.Hi8t.Soc. Lancashire, 1866. 

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fore, as Mr. Franks observes, have been the property of some 
oflScer employed in attaching seals to documents or mer- 
chandise, v^ho may have marked with his official seals the 
supply of metal with which he was furnished for that 

It has been stated that the metal of which the cake first 
found at Battersea is composed was considered to be lead. 
This proved to have been an eiTor ; the metal of both cakes 
has been analysed by Mr. C. Tookey, of the Museum of 
Practical Geology. The following is the result : — 

No. 1. 
Tin .... 79-60 
Lead .... 20*80 


No. 2. 
Tin .... 71-74 
Lead .... 2826 


The first, the smaller cake, it will be seen, contained 
rather more lead than that last found. The tin showed 
indications of a small quantity of copper.* 

To the kindness of Mr. J. T. Blight, of Penzance, a 
zealous investigator of the remains of all periods in his 
county, from rude dwellings of a very ancient race, such as 
the constructions at Chysauster that he has described in this 
Journal,® to the elaborate examples of Cornish church archi- 
tecture, I am indebted for the following account of a singular 
inscribed block of Tin preserved in the Museum at Penzance. 
I acknowledge also with pleasure the friendly interest in my 
researches that he has shown in presenting the accompanying 

This relic, which seems to appertain to a much more 
recent period than those hitherto noticed, may doubtless be 
of considerable antiquity, and its interest is increased by the 
&ct that it was found in one of those mysterious smelting- 
places of the West, the so-called Jews' Houses, which some 
have been disposed to assign to a very remote age. The 
discovery of the block of tin, of which, by Mr. Blight's kind 
courtesy, a representation is now for the first time given, 
has been recorded by the Rev. C. V. Le Grice, in 1846, in 

^ Proceedings Soc. Ant, second series, on Castallack Round, vol. ii., p. 66, Oct, 

vol. ii. p. 236. 1865 ; and his valuable notices of early 

' Arch. Journ.i toI. zviil p. 39. See Cornish Antiquities appended to his 

also Mr. Blight's ^remotrs on Chambers " Churches of West Cornwall/' J. H. 

at Boscaswell, and other remains, Journ. Parker, Oxford and London, 1865. 
Koy. Inst Cornwall, voL L No. 2, p. 7, and 

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the Transactions of tbe Royal Geological Society of Coni- 
wall. He remarked truly, that why the smel ting-places 
were called "Jews' Houses" it is not easy to conjecture, 
unless it were because the Tin Mines and the Tin Trade, at 
the earliest period of their authentic History, were in the 
hands of the Jews. It was therefore supposed that the 
Jews were chiefly engaged in the metallurgical operations of 
still earlier times in Cornwall. The remains of several 
Jews' Houses have been discovered, generally very near 
ancient stream-works, or vestiges of the earliest mines, of 
which the works were all open to the sun. All that is 
usually seen is a narrow, shallow pit, with a small quantity 
of charcoal ashes at the bottom ; frequently also a piece of 
tin mixed with earth or sand, often vitrified. According to 
tradition the earliest mode of smelting tin was a most simple 
process ; a small excavation was made ; sticks were piled 
together and the interstices filled with the ore ; the pile was 
set on fire and the smelted metal flowed to the bottom. 

Block of Tin, found at Trereifo, Ckyrnwall. Pennmoe If usetun. 

The smelting-place found at Trereife, in the parish of 
Madron near Penzance, was, however, of somewhat diflFerent 
character ; in the middle of a high bank of compact clay a 
space was brought to light in form of an inverted cone, 
about 3 ft. wide at top, and 3 ft. high ; at the bottom there 
was a flat stone about a foot in diameter, with small stones 
set round its edge ; on this stone lay some unctuous ashes. 
The sides of the cone or furnace were of hard clay. On one 
side of the bank there was a small ravine by which a blast 
of air was conveyed, possibly by some kind of bellows, and 

VOL. xxm. 

Y Y 

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through which the molten metal was discharged. This 
conical furnace was full of earth-rubbish, and upon this was 
found the block of tin, weighing 26 lb. ; it measures 
16^ in. by 8 in. ; the thickness at the top is 2 in. It could 
not have been smelted where it was found, but was probably 
deposited there with the intention of being removed sub- 
sequently. On examination of the block it is evident that 
it had been cast in a mould ; on one side there are several 
letters in relief, hitherto unexplained, with a cruciform 
device, somewhat resembling the mediaeval merchants' 

Mr. Le Grice notices another block of tin found in the 
centre of a barrow near Lanyon, in Madron, about five 
miles from Penzance. It is not stated where this reUc 
is now to be found. Also one found in the parish of 
Gwinear, near the east side of St. Ives Bay and the rich 
Herland mines. It weighed 34 lb. A third, of small size, 
weighing only 6lb., was brought to light in a stream-work 
at St. Just. Mr. Michell mentions two blocks found in a 
mine near St. Austell, each of them weighing nearly 261b.® 
Lastly, I may invite attention to an oval cake found 
at Chapel Forth in the parish of St. Agnes, and now in 
the Museum of Practical Geology in London. The deposit 
on which it Tay had been washed by the " streamers " for the 
oxide of tin that it contained. It is probable that many 
others have been disinterred of which no memorial has been 

I have thus endeavoured to gather together certain scat* 
tered particulars relating to the vestiges of ancient metal- 
lurgy that have come under my observation since the com- 
pilation of my former Inventory in 1859. I would refer any 
of our readers who may take interest in the subject to the 
observations by the learned President of University College, 
Toronto, Dr. McCaul,® who has devoted special attention to 
the elucidation of the difficult section of Roman Epigraphy 
presented by the relics under consideration. His remarks 

7 These particulars are extracted by deference to so high an authority, I must 

Mr. Blight's obliging assistance from a hesitate to accept the inscriptiou as of so 

memoir in the Transactions Roy. Qool. early a date. See Journal Uoy. InaU 

Soc. of Cornwall, vol. vl, 1816. Mr. R, Cornw., Oct. 1865. 
Stuart Poole in a memoir on the Phoe- ' Manual of Mmeralogy, p. 75. 

nidans and their Trade with Britain, ' Britanno-Roman L^cnptions, with, 

notices these letters as '' a Roman in- Critical Kotes ; London : Longman, 1863, 

sciiption and monogram." With all p. 82-55. 

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on the probability that some of the leaden masses may have 
been specially prepared for transmission to Rome, with a 
view to their display in some imperial triumph, claim con- 
sideration. He points out that there were apparently three 
formula of construction used in the inscriptions, namely, 
the nominative, indicating, as Dr. McCaul supposes, that the 
object was taken as spoil ; the genitive, denoting that the 
metal was the property of the emperors respectively, either 
as the produce of mines worked for their benefit, or, rather, 
as part of the imperial tribute ; and the ablative, indicating 
the time when the metal may have been smelted. 

The great interest that attaches itself to every fact con- 
nected with the production and export of Tin, has made me 
desirous to bring together all discoveries that may throw 
light on that obscure chapter of ancient metallurgy in Britain. 
The most remarkable, doubtless, of those discoveries is the 
block in form of a double galley, as has been conjectured, 
dredged up at the entrance of Falmouth Harbour, and 
figured formerly in this Journal.^ Sir Henry James, to 
whom archaeologists are so largely indebted for his repro- 
ductions of Domesday and of ancient documents, has pointed 
out the bearing of that discovery on the vexed question of 
the locality of the Ictis of Diodorus. He confidently 
places it at St. Michaers Mount.^ The bifurcate block of 
tin is explained by Sir Henry as conformable to the type 
indicated by Diodorus, " the astragalus, or knuckle-bone,"* 
to which he assures us, on the authority of Professor 
Owen, that the peculiar form is assimilated. It is natural, 
he observes, to inquire why this form was selected. " We 
are told that the traders resorting to Ictis there bought the 
tin from the natives and carried it to Gaul, over which 
it was transported on horseback in about thirty days ; it 
was, therefore, necessary that the blocks should be cast in 
such a form, and be of such a weight, as to be conveniently 
carried both in boats for transport to Gaul, and then on 

> Arch. Jouin., vol. xvl p. 39. vius tho aBiragal seems to haTe been a 

> Note on the Block of Tin dredged kind of ogive ; it ia commonly taken to 
up in Falmouth Harbour ; by Col. Sir be a moulding of a aemidrculor section, 
Henry James, R.B., Director of the and thus the leaden pigs found at Car- 
Ordnance Surrey. London : E. Stanford, thagena, and which are semi-cylindrical 
Charing Cross, 1863. in form, seem to have been regarded as 

* Or rather the huckle-bone, tho pas- types of the astragali of Diodorus. See 

tern, or tahu, of the heel, usod by the Mr. Yates' Memoir on Mhilog Operations, 

ancients in games of chance instead of Trans. Somerset Arch. Soc. 1858, p. 5. 
(lice. In architecture as used by Vitru- 

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horseback for the journey overland ; and it is impossible to 
look at this block of tin without being struck with the admir- 
able adaptation of the form and weight for this double pur- 
pose, and also for the purpose of being easily carried by 
hand by two men, or slung for lifting it either into or from 
a boat, or on and off a horse." The diagrams that accom- 
pany Sir Henry's memoir fully support the conclusions thu3 
ingeniously suggested. The bifurcate ends of tlie astragal 
seem well suited tp facilitate transport like, a hand-barrow;, 
to use a homely illustration ; its general form would fit th^ 
curved bottom of the boat, the ribs of which coming up 
through the divided ends of the metal block, would prevent 
any shifting of the heavy cargo in a rolling sea, and, when 
disembark^ in Gaul, a pair of these astragali would be pre- 
cisely the proper weight for a horse, when adjusted on either 
side of a pack-saddle, by a simple contrivance for which the 
peculiar shape seems, as Sir Henry has shown, perfectly suited. 
In connection with the important questions that are asso- 
ciated with these vestiges of the early occupants of the 
British Islands and of their industrial relations with distant 
nations, I may in conclusion refer to a memoir, before cited, 
on the Phoenicians and their trade with Britain, communi- 
cated to the Royal Institution of Cornwall by Mr. Stuart 
Poole. He has invited notice to the remarkable coincidence 
between the weights of certain blocks pf tin found in Corn- 
wall, including the '^ astragalus '\ last noticed^ as compared 
with the ancient standard designated the later ^ginetan or 
Commercial Attic. It may be asked, how it should occur 
that we find a Greek, not a Phoenician, system of weight— 
the Phoenicians, however, as Mr. Poole observes, would use 
the standard most useful in the markets of the Mediterranean, 
and the Commercial Attic was this for at least four centu- 
ries before the Christian era. If it can be demonstrated, by 
aid of such facts as I have sought to collect, that these blocks 
of metal were adjusted to a Greek system of weight, in a 
remote and comparatively uncivilised country, it is obvious, 
as Mr. Poole truly says, that we have an additional reason 
for supposing that the story of Phoenician trade with Britain 
is true.* 

* Jouraal of the Royal ItutitutioQ of Cornwall; Oct. 1865, pp. 1-10. 

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. Whilst tba foregoing notices were in the printer's hands 
I have received, through the wonted kindness of pur friend 
Dr. Keller, representations of the metallic massce that exist 
in the Museum at Basle, as previously stated. It appears 
•that these relics, here figured, had originally formed one pig 

Inscrlptlotia on a leaden pig found ai Bula 

of lead that may have, measured about 30 inches in length. 
It is, however, uncertain whether the block had been broken 
previously to the discovery, which occurred, Nov. 4, 1653, 

FrognienU of a leaden pig (Dleyklumi)en) foand at UaUe. 

in the garden of the convent of Klingenthal, in Little Basle, 
beyond the bridge over the Rhine. It has been noticed by 
Wagner, Bruckner, and several later writers ;V more fully. 

* Mommsen, loser. Confsed. HeWet. 
Lat., Mitth. Soo. Ant. Zurich, vol. x. p. 
V7, No. 10; 1854. See also Wagner, 
Mcrclirius HelvcticuJ', p. 45, cd. II., 

} 688 ; the unpubliflhed Thesaurui laser. 
Ant., by Remigius Fesch, MS. in Fubl. 
Libr. Basle ; Bruckner, Beach r. HUf-. 
Herktvurd. der Landschah Basel, p. 2891. 

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however, by Mommsen, in his valuable collection of the 
Roman Inscriptions of Switzerland. That learned palaeo- 
grapher suggests that the two stamps, here shown, may have 
formed one inscription, as had been previously suggested by 
OroUius. The weight of one portion is given by Mommsen 
as 32^ lib. ; he gives that of the other, as " 34f libras pon- 
deris ejus quo Basileaa ferinim appendere solent.'' The weight, 
as sent to me by Dr. Keller, on information received from 
th^ keeper of the Museum at Basle, slightly differs from 
this statement.^ 

The following observations are given by Mommsen : — 

** Partes liodie junctas olim uoam massam effecisBO et testantur anil- 
quiores et demonstrayit Rothius ; inscriptioneB daobus sigillis altera jazta 
alteram impressiB sunt spatio inter utramque ioterposito. Pnoctacomplura 
apparent in superficie casu sparsa, ut nihil impediat quominus in altera 
legatur Societatis Till Lucretii."* 

Albert Way. 

where the above-mentioned nuusa is 129, or 17kil. 187gr. 

figured; Roth, Roman Inacr. of the * OrelliuB had proposed to read the 

Canton of Basle, in Trans. Ant. Soc of inscription thus, in exUmo — Socuiatia 

Basle, L p. 23, 1843; and Orellius, Sexti Lueretii, '*In massa plumhea ]x. 

Inscr. Helvct., Mitth. Ant Soc Zurich, librarum." See Monument* Minora, in 

Yol. iL the Collection Inscr. Helvet. by Orellius, 

» Weight of No. 1, as given by Dr. p. 210, No. 812; Mitth. Soc. Ant. Zfirich, 

Keller, 31 i lib., or 15f kil. ; No. 2, 84 lib. vol. iL 

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Since my remarks were written (see page 189, ante)y a 
very remarkable testimony in favor of my explanation of 
the so-called Moss-finds in Denmark has been found in the 
writings of Orosius (a historian living in the fifth century), 
and brought out by M. E. Beauvois in a review of Mr. Engel- 
hardt's work on Nydam in the French newspaper " LlUus- 
tration,'' for 1866, (p. 264, No. 1236.) 

After having stated (Historia Adversus Paganos, lib. v. 
ch. xvi. ed. Colonia, 1561, p. cci.) that the defeat sustained 
by the Romans, in the year 111, B.o. in the battle against the 
Cimbri and other nations near Arausio (now Orange), in 
the South of France, was so decisive that only a few escaped 
with their lives, Orosius gives the following striking account 
of the manner in which the victors treated the spoils: 
" Hostes binis castris atque ingenti prseda potiti, nova qua- 
dam atque insolita essea'cUione cuncta qusa ceperant possum 
dederunt ; vestis discissa et projecta esty aurum argentumque 
in flumen aJbjectum, hrica virorum concisay phcderce eguoi^um 
disperditcB, equi ipsi gurgitibus immersi, homines laqueis coUo 
inditis ex arboribus suspensi sunt, ita ut nihil prsedsB victor, 
nihil miseiicordisd victus, agnosceret. Maximus tunc Romsa 
non solum luctus, verum etiam metus fuit, ne confectim 
Cimbri Alpes transgrederentur Italiamque delerent.'' 

Remembering how systematically the objects discovered 
in our mosses in such large hoards have been destroyed, cut 
and torn asunder, before being deposited, and also to what 
degree warlike accoutrements predominate in the moss-finds — 
in some places (as in Vimose), largely interspersed with 
remains of horsetrappings and of the horses themselves — ^it 
seems impossible to look upon this passage otherwise than 
as containing a description of the very process to which 
these remarkable moss deposits owe their existence. It 

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cannot be supposed that the treatment to which the spoils 
from the Roman camp and the battlefield in this case were 
subjected, formed an exception to the rule, something pecu- 
liar to that occasion. What the " Barbarians '' did was no 
doubt done in obedience to a custom of theirs, which bade 
them sacrifice the spoils of war by rendering them useless 
(ea^secratione nova, etc.), and then immersing them in water, 
either in sacred lakes, rivers or outlets from the sea, or in 
the nearest suitable localities ; and the testimony of Orosius, 
adduced by,M. Beauvois, therefore appears to afford, so 
strong a support to the explanation I hare, suggested and 
advocated in the text above, that this theory now seems 
almost to have acquired scientific certainty. It is so much 
the more striking, though I do hot wish to lay undue stress 
bn the circumstance, as the account of Orosius expressly 
refers to the Cimbri after whom the ancients gave the name 
of the Cimbrian peninsula to the peninsula of Jutland, in 
which these remarkable moss deposits were first discovered.* 

The sword represented by the cuts opposite has not been 
found in South Jutland, but may serve to illustrate the style 
of its time — the first division of the late Iron age — when 
compared with those of the early Iron age figured in Engel- 
hardt's work and those of the conclusion of the Iron age 
figured above (p. 182). Almost all the objects of that period 
show similar serpent ornaments. 

^ With regard to the statement, that killed; whence perhaps his surname, 

the men were suspended by the neok "The Lord of those that are hung." 

from the trees, Mr. Eogelhordt observea (Kragehul Moeefund, p. 18). Tnuular 

that this was precisely the mode in tor's note, 
which victims sacrificed to Odin were 

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Sword fuuud at DildsOmoce in Fyen. (Late Iron Age.) 
ScAlc, of the tirord handle, two thiids orlfinal size ; details, tame size as the original. 


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Original I9ocument0« 

From the Origin^], In the PuUio Btooid OHUm. 
Contribatad by If r. Josaph Bnrtt, an JlMlitant Kaep«r of the PabUo Beoordi. 

The foUowmg deed is among some miBceUaneouB documents latdj trans- 
ferred to the Pablic Record ^ce from that of the Keeper of the Land 
Reyenae Records and Enrolments. 

It sets forth that on the 6th September^ 1286, a certain instmment was 
dolj exeonted at Waltham by the Abbot of Waltham Holj Cross, in the 
presence of witnesses, monishing those who were entitled to use the church 
there that it had need of repair, and requiring the Dean of Waltham to 
certify how the parishioners diould respond to the monition. On Sunday, 
the 8th September, the feast of the Nativity of the Virgin, this instrument 
was read by the Dean to the parishioners assembled in the church, and 
explained to them in English by one of the clergy. The Dean then ex- 
horted them at once to set about the work of repair. On Sunday, the 
22nd of September, this exhortation was repeated ; and on Sunday, the 
29th of the same month the Dean executed his formal and official answer 
to the precept of the Abbot, certifying that he had exhorted the parishioners 
of Waltham, as required, and that he anticipated no opposition to the 

This is told in the sententious language of a notarial instrument, in 
which eyery detail of the proceedings is most minutely described and set 
out ; and the description of the SetJs of the Abbot and Prior is also most 
carefully and circumstantially given. 

This document fixes the precise date of the great alterations that were 
made in the fabric of the church at the end of the I3th century, when it 
was found that, in consequence of the bad foundations and other causes, 
the Taulting of the aisles had pushed out the aisle walls, and had become 
yery dangerous. The new architect, therefore, took down the yaulting 
and threw the aisle and triforium into one height ; he next tried to remodel 
the great arcade by throwing the naye arch and the triforium arch into one ; 
however, luckily, this was found to be a yery dangerous proceeding, so if 
was given up after the westernmost bays had been thus treated. Then a 
west front was added, and a very beautiful composition it was, so far as 
we can judge by what remains. The tracery of the windows is also very 
peculiar, and has an undulating look. When the present tower was built, 
in the time of Philip and Mary, the great western window was destroyed, 
and the tower built upon the cill ; so we have no means of judging as to 
what it was like. During the Inte repairs, the top of the old western doors 

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came to light ; they were of the same date as the rest of the work, and 
haye been reproduced in the new doors. It was impossible to re-use them, 
as thej had warped very considerably. Altogether, it must be confessed, 
that the inhabitanU of Waltham in 1286 managed to secure the flervices 
of a yery excellent architect, although he did great injury in an antiquarian 
point of yiew, by remoying eyery bit of the old ashlary, filling in of the 
triforium, &c., that he could take away, without actually hurting the 
stability of the edifice. 

The beautiful lady chapel is of a later date than the alterations to the 
west end,— the mouldings being much smaller, and much more numerous. 

In nomine Domioi Amen. Per presens publicum instrumentum omnibus 
appareat eyidenter quod anno Domini millesimo ducentesimo oetogesima 
sexto secundum cursum ecclesie Anglicane Indictione quartadecima sexto 
die Septembris in Abbathia Sancte Crucis de Waltham Ordinis Sancti 
Augustini Londoniensis diocesis ad Romanam Curiam nuUo modo pertt- 
nente in yiridario prope inferiorem aulam que Camera Abbatis appellatur 
in presentia liiei infrascripti tabeliionis et testium infrascripterum ad hec 
specialiter yocatorum et rogatorum yidelicet fratris Petri de Syeringea 
canbnici predicte abbathie dominorum Ricardi rectoris ecclesie de Netles- 
Vrelld et Walteri de Norton ac Magistri WilUelmi le Graunt clerieorum et 
Johannis de Borham literati. Venerabilis pater Dominus Reginaldus Dei 
gratia Abbas predicte abbathie fecit quasdam literas quarum tenor de yerbo 
ad yerbum inferius annotatur suo sigillo prbprio cera yiridi per fratrem 
Henricum de Cybetey concanonicum et capellanum suum inibi tunc pre- 
sentem sigillari. Et idem Abbas statim postmodum cepit et manu propria 
tradidit fratri Henrico de Templo concanonico suo Decano de Waltham 
predicta tunc personaliter ibidem existenti ipsas literas sic sigiilatas injua- 
gens sibi yiye Tocis oraculo quod mandatum in ipsis Uteris contentum in 
omnibus diligenter et fideliter exequeretur. Quod se facturum promisTt 
Decanus memoratus. Tenor yero earundem literarum talis est. Regi- 
naldus' permissione diyina Abbas Sancte Crucis de Waltham dilecto sibi in 
Christo filio et concanonico fratri Henrico de Templo Decano de Waltham 
predicta salutem in auotore salutis. Cum de antiqua et approbata et hac- 
tenus pacifice obsenrata consuetudine et in contradictorio judtcio optenta in 
regno Anglie parochiani quarumcumque ecclesiarum parochialium ipsas 
ecclesias parochiales cum ruinam minantur yel reparatione indigeant 
aliquali reparare et propriis sumptibus refioere teneantur et ipsas de noyo 
construere si lapsum omnino paterentur, ac dicta consuetude adeo fuerit 
notorie obsenrata quod a quoquam inficiari non potent seu negari et ecclesia 
parochialis de Waltham predicta ad quam tanquam ad parochialem habi- 
tatores et incole yille de Waltham predicte ac quam plures alii extra yillam 
predictam infra limites parochie ejusdem ecclesie commorantes tanquam 
parochiani ipsius cujus cura ad nos specialiter pertinet recursum habuerunt 
ibidem omnia sacramenta ecdesiastica recipiendo de necessitate oportet 
reparari tibi auctoritate ordinaria qua fungimur in hao parte districte preci- 
piendo mandamus quatenus omnes habitatores et incolas yille de Waltham 
predicte et omnes alios qui infra limites ejusdem parochie commorantur qui 
ad dictam ecclesiam de Waltham tanquam ad suam parochialem ecclesiam 
in omnibus suis sacramentis ecclesiasticis recipiendis tarn ipsi quam eorum 
antecessores a tempore cujus memoria nou existit habuerunt recursum et 
adhuc habent etiam hiis diebus se pro parochianis ipsius ecclesie gerendo 

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et qui parochiaDOS ipsius ecclesie se nominant et tales ab omnibus de patria 
seu vicinio communiter nuncupantur moneas legitiuie et officaciter inducas 
ac precipias eisdeni quod dictam ecclesiam parochialem de Waltham pre* 
dicta quam parochialem hacteuus ut premittitur habuerunt et que eorum 
paroohialis existit et que de necessitate ac ulilitate refectione et reparatione 
indiget citra Octabas festi Sancti Micbaelis proximo futuri reparare inci- 
plant et ipsam reficiant et reparent ut tenentur a reparatione incepta cum 
inceperint nullatenus desistendo donee dicta ecclesia mode debito repara- 
retur sub pena excommunicationis majoris quam ex nunc in personas eorum 
proferimus in hiis scriptis si hujusmodi monitionibus inductionibus et pre- 
ceptis contempserint obedire. Yolentes etiam cerciorari legitime si prefati 
parocbiani hujusmodi monitionibus inductionibus et preceptis paruerint ut 
contra non parentes in hac parte nostrum officium exequamur tibi firmiter 
injungendo mandamus quatenus nos per tuas litteras patentes harum seriem 
continentes distincte et aperte citra festum Sancti Luce Ewangeliste 
proximo futurum certifices de die receptionis presentium et de nominibus 
eorum quos resistentes et rebelles inyeneris in hac parte et qualiter hoc 
mandatum nostrum fueris executus. Datum apud Waltham die Veneris 
proxima ante festum Nativitatis beate Marie Virginis gloriose anno gratie 
millesimo ducentesimo octogesimo sexto. Est autem predictum sigillum 
ipsius Abbatis quo idem Abbas fecit supradictas literas sigillari oblongum. 
In cujuB sigilli caractere est jmago cuj'dam Abbatis stantis super scabellum 
induti casula et aliis sacris sibi convenientibus cum mitra in cnpite tenentis 
manum suam dextram cirotecatam cum anulo in digito erectam ad dandum 
benedictionem et in manu sua sinistra cirotecata baculum pastoralem et est 
proprium nomen supranominati Abbatis in illo caractere Tidelicet a latere 
dextro predicte jroaginis sub brachio ejus dextro sunt hujusmodi littere 
REOI et a sinistro latere ejusdem ymaginis sub brachio ejtfs sinistro sunt 
hujusmodi littere KALD' et prima littera et secunda ejusdom nominis sunt 
supra tertiam et quartam et quinta et sexta sunt super residuas alias litteras 
nominis ejusdem. In superiori vero parte circumferencie ejusdem sigilli est 
forma cujusdam stelle et post illam formam sunt in ipsa circumferentia hec 
et sunt in predicta circumferencia a parte sinistra jmaginis predict! Abbatis 
a superiori parte illius jmaginis usque ad predictum scabellum hec predicta 
yerba S* Reginaldi Dei gratia Abbatis et a parte dextra jmaginis supradicti 
Abbatis a predicto scabello usque ad formam predicte stelle sunt hec pre- 
dicta yerba ecclesie Sancte Crucis de Waltham et est superior pars predict! 
bacul! pastoralis in predicta circumferencia inter primam litteram et secun* 
dam proprii nominis predict! Abbatis scilicet inter 'r' et 'e' et est sub 
predicto scabello quedam subtilis area in inferiori parte predicte circum- 
ferencie. Post hec prefatus Decanus personaliter constitutus anno et indic- 
tlone supradictis octayo die Septembns scilicet die Dominica in festo 
Nativitatis beate Marie Virginis in parochial! ecclesia de Waltham predicta 
coram ipsius ecclesie parochianis tunc ibidem in copiosa multitudine con- 
gregatis in presentia me! infrascripti tabellionis et testium infrascriptorum 
ad hec specialiter vocatorum et rogatorum videlicet dominorum Walter! de 
Norton Radulfi de Tappelawe Magistri Nicola! Magistri scolarum de 
Waltham predicta Johannis diet! le Fevere Robert! de Glastonia et Wil- 
lelmi de Offiuton clericorum et aliorum fecit suprascriptum mandatum sibi 
ut premittitur • • . ditum de vcrbo ad verbum publico recitar! et Anglico 
exponi per Magistrum Willelmum le Graunt clericum tunc sibi personaliter 

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asaistentem et statim postmodam idem Decanus omnes habitatores et 
iuoolas yille de Waltham predicte et omnes alios qui infra limites ejusdem 
parochie tunc commorabantur qui ad dictam eoclesiam de Waltham tan- 
quam ad suam parochialem ecclesiam in omnibus suis sacramentis ecclesi- 
asticis recipiendis tam ipsi quam eorum anteccssores a tempore cujus 
memoria tunc non ezistebat habuerunt recursum et etiam tunc illis diebus 
se pro parochianis ipsius ecclesie gerendo et qui parochianos ipsius ecclesie 
se nomioarunt et tales ab omnibus de patria seu yicinio communiter nuncu- 
pabantur auctoritate predicti mandati monuit in genere et efficaciter 
induxit ac precepit eisdem quod dictam ecclesiam parochialem de Waltham 
predicta citra Octabas festi Sancti Michaelis tunc proximo futuri reparare 
inciperent et ipsam reficerent et repararent ut tenebantur et quod a repara- 
tione incepta cum incepissent nuUatenus desisterent donee dicta ecclesia 
mode debito repararctur sub pena excommunicationis majoris in suprascripto 
mandate nominate sive late. Item idem Decanus personaliter constitutus 
eisdem anno et indictione vicesimo secundo die Septembris, scilicet, die 
Dominica in crastino Sancti Mathei apostoli in parochiaU ecclesia de 
Waltham supradicta, coram ipsius ecclesie parochianis tunc ibidem in 
oopiosa multitudine congregatis in presentia mei infrascripti tabellionis et 
testium infrascriptorum ad hec specialiter vocatorum et rogatorum videlicet 
dominomm Ricardi Rectoris ecclesie de Netleswelle et Radulfi de Tappe- 
lawe Magistri Willelmi le Graunt Hervei de Borham Walteri de Dunstaple 
Johannis dicti Le Fevere et Roberti de Glastonia clericorum et aliorum 
omnes habitatores et incolas ville de Waltham predicte et omnes alios qui 
infra limites ejusdem parochie tunc commorabantur qui ad dictam ecclesiam 
de Waltham tanquam ad suam parochialem ecclesiam in omnibus suis 
sacramentis ecdesiasticis recipiendis tam ipsi quam eorum antecessores a 
tempore cujus* memoria tunc non ezistebat habuerunt recursum et etiam 
tunc illis diebus se pro parochianis ipsius ecclesie gerendo et qui parochi- 
anos ipsius ecclesie se nominarunt et tales ab omnibus de patria seu 
viclnio communiter nuncupabantur auctoritate predicti mandati monuit 
et efficaciter ioduxit ut piius ac precepit eisdem idem quod pridem. 
Eodem vero anno Indictione quintadecima penultimo die Septembris 
scilicet die Dominica in festo Sancti Michaelis in predicta abbathia 
inter celarium et coquinam in presentia mei infrascripti tabellionis et 
testium infrascriptorum ad hoc specialiter vocatorum et rogatorum vide- 
licet domini Jordani presb3'teri ecelesie de Wormele domini Radulfi 
de Tappelawe et Qervei de Borham clericorum ac Johannis de Bor- 
ham litterati prefatus Decanus postquam ecclesia parochialis de Waltham 
supradicta que tempore predicte prime monitionis inductionis et precepii 
rcparatione indiguit fuit competenter refecta ac etiam reparata quasdam 
litteras certificatorias quarum tenor de verbo ad verbum inferius annotatur 
sigillo Decanatus de Waltham predicta cera viridi sigillavit et statim post- 
modum idem Decanus personaliter accedens ad prefatum Abbatem qui tunc 
fuit in sua superior! camera in predicta abbathia in presentia mei infra- 
scripti tabellionis et testium infrascriptorum ad hoc specialiter vocatorum 
et rogatorum videlicet predictorum domini Jordani Presbyteri ecclesie de 
Wormele Ilervci de Borham cierici et Johannis de Borham litterati ipsas 
litteras certificatorias sic sigillatas tradidit in manus Abbatis memorati 
ipsum Abbatem per easdem litteras certificatorias certificans prout in ipsis 
litteris certificatoriis continetur. Tenor vero carundem litterarum certifi- 
catoriarum talis est. Vencrabili in Christo palri Domino Reginaldo Dei 

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gratia Abbate SancieCrucis de Waltham buus hnmiiU et devotus concanoni- 
cus frater Henrieus de Templo Decanus de Waltham predicta salutem 
obedientiam revereiitiam et honorem debitam tanto patri. Mandatum yes- 
trum sexto die Septembris anno Domini millesimo ducenteBimo octogesimo 
sexto recepi in hec verba : — Reginaldus permissione divina Abbas Sancte 
Gracis de Waltham diiocto sibi in Ohristo filio et concanonico fratri Hen- 
rico do Templo Decano de Waltham predicta salutem in auctore salntis. 
Onm de antiqna et approbata et hactenus paoifice obsenrata oonsuetadine 
et in contradiotorio jadioio obtenta in regno Anglie parochiani qnarum- 
camquo ecclesiaram parochialinm ipsas ecdesias parochiales cum ruinam 
minantar yel reparatione indigeant aliquali reparare et propriis suinptibus 
reficere teneantur et ipsas de noYO construere si lapsum omnino paterentur 
ac dicta consuetude adeo fuerit notorie obsenrata quod a quoquam infioiari 
non poterit seu negari ct ecdesia paroohialis de Waltham predicta ad.quam 
tanquam ad parochialem habitatores et incole yiile de Waltham predicte ac 
quamplures alii extra yillam predictam infra Umites parochie ejusdem ecelesie 
conunor^tes tanquam parochiani ipsius cojus cura ad nos specialiter per* 
tinet recursum habuerunt ibidem omnia sacramenta ecclesiastica recipiendo 
de necessitate oportet reparari tibi auctoritate ordinaria qua fungimur in 
hac parte distriote precipiendo mandamus quatenus omnes habitatores et 
nicolas yille de Waltham predicte et omnes alios qui infra limitcs 
ejusdem parochie commorantur qui ad* dictam ecdesiam de Waltham 
tanquam ad suam parochialem ecclesiam in omnibus suis sacramentis 
ecdesiasticis recipiendis tam ipsi quam eorum antecessores a tempore 
cojus memoria non existit habuerunt recursum et adhuc habent etiam 
hiis diebus se pro parochianis ipsius ecelesie gerenido et qui parochianos 
ipsius ecelesie se nominant et tales ab omnibus de patria seu Ticinio 
communiter nuucupantur moneas legitime et efficaciter induoas ac precipias 
eisdem quod dictam ecdesiam parochialem de Waltham predicta quam 
parochialem hactenus ut premittitur habuerunt et que eorum paroohialis 
existit et que de necessitate ac utilitate refectione et reparatione indiget 
citra Octabas festi Sancti Michaelis proximo futuri reparare incipiant et 
ipsam reficiant et reparent ut tenentur a reparatione incepta cum ince- 
perint nuUatenus desistendo donee dicta ecclesia mode debito reparetur 
sub pena excommunicationis majoris quam ex nunc in personas eorum pro- 
ferimus in hiis scriptis si hujusmodi monitionibus inductionibus et preceptis 
contempserint obedire. Volentes etiam certiorari legitime si prefati paro- 
chiani hujusmodi monitionibus inductionibus et preceptis paruerint ut 
contra non parentes in hac parte nostrum officium exequamur tibi firmiter 
injungendo mandamus quatenus nos per tuas litteras patentes harum seriem 
continentes distincte et aperte dtra festuni Sancti Luce Ewangeliste 
proximo futurum certifices de die I'eceptionis presentium et de nominibus 
eorum quos resistentes et rebelles inyeneris in hac parte et qualiter hoc 
mandatum nostrum fueris executus. Datum apud Waltham die Veneris 
proxima ante festum Nativitatis beate Marie Virginis gloriose anno gratie 
millesimo ducentesimo octogesimo sexto. Hujus igitur auctoritate mandati 
omnes habitatores et incolas ville de Waltham predicte et omnes alios qui 
infra Umites ejusdem parochie commorantur qui ad dictam ecclesiam 
de Waltham tanquam ad suam parochialem ecclesiam in omnibus suis 
sacramentis ecdesiasticis recipiendis tam ipsi quam eorum antecessores a 
tempore cuius memoria nou existit habuerunt recursum et adhuc habent 
otiam hiis diebus se pro parochianis ipsius eeclesie gerendo et qui parochi- 

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anos ipsius eecleaie se nomiaant et tales ab omnibus de patria sea yicioio 
communiter nuneupantur monoi legitime et efficaciter indnxi ac preeepi 
eisdem quod dictam ecdesiam parochialem de Walthaui, predicta quam 
parochialem hactenus ut premittittir habueront et que eoram parochialis 
existit et que de necessitate ac utilitate refectione et reparatione indigait 
citra Octabas festi Sancti Miohaelis tunc proximo futuri reparare iaciperent 
et ipsam reficerent et repararent ut tenebantur a reparatione ineepta cum 
incepissent nullatenus desistendo donee dicta ecclesia modo debito repara- 
retur sub pena excommunicationis majoris in suprascripto mandato Tostro 
nominate sive late. Verum cum hujusmodi monitionem inductionem et 
preceptum fecissem publico et soUempniter in ecclesia parochiali supradicta 
prefati habitatores et incole ville de Waltham predicte et alii qui infra 
limites ejusdem parochie commorantnr de quibus superiua plenior fit mentio 
medio tempore de pecunia sua propria contribuerunt ad reparandnm et ad 
reficiendum eornm ecclesiam parochialem supradictam. Ita quod eadem 
ecclesia eorum propriis sumptibus est competenter refecta ae etiam repa- 
rata. Nullos vero resistentes nee rebelles in?eni in hac parte quin ipsa 
parochialis ecclesia sit ut premittitur refecta ac etiam reparata. In cujus 
rei testimonium has litteras sigillo Decanatus de Waltham sigillatas Veneran- 
de patemitati Testre transmitto patentes. Datum apud Waltham predicta 
die Sancti Michaelis anno Domini supradicto* Est autem pi^ictum 
sigillum quo prefatus Decanns ipsas litteras certificatorias sic sigillavit 
oblongum* In cujus sigilli caractere est quedam crux ad modum crucis 
lignee habentis vestigia ramorum abcisorum stans super summitatem 
cujusdam arce habentis desuper hinc inde quasi flores sub qua area est 
inseolpta jmago hominis a pectore supra caputio deposito pendente manibus 
junctLs erectis. Et est a latere dextro predicte crucis forma cujusdam lune 
et a latere sinistro ejusdem crucis est forma cujusdam stelle. In superiori 
vero parte circumferencie ejusdem sigilli est forma cujusdam stelle et post 
illam formam sunt in ipsa circumferentia hec yerba : S' DeCANI : SOe 

Acta sunt hec que supradixi anno Indictionibus diebus et loois supra- 
scriptis preseniibus testibus memoratis. 

Ego Stephanus filius quondam Boberti de Soelphangf Nor- 
wjcensis diocesis auctoritate sedis apostolice publicus tabellio 
premissis que supradixi interfui et ea yidi et audiyi et ut supra 
leguntur scripsi et in publicam formam ad preces et mandatum 
predictorum Abbatis et Decani redigl meo que signo signavi. 

Indorsed* Instrumentum factum tempore Domini Reginaldi Abbatis 
nostri sexti de reparatione ecclesie parochialis de Waltham. 

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^roceetiittfls at lEeetinss of tlje ^rcliaeoloflical )£n0tltute« 

July 6, 1866. 
The IfAnqniB Camden, K.(i,, President, in the Chair. 

The Nohle Chairman stated that, in pursuance of the recommendation 
made at a pre^ous meeting (see p. 155, ante), the Central Committee 
had prepared a memorial to the Earl of Clarendon in regard to the 
Monasterj of Monte Cassino, praying that the influence of Her Majesty's 
Goremment might he exerted, with a Tieir to presenre that yenerahle 
institution from the operation of a measure lately hrought before the 
Legislatiye Chamber in Italy, for the suppression of monasteries in that 
country. Lord Clarendon had responded to this appeal ; informing him 
(Lord Camden) that some time siiice he had made, through Her Majesty's 
Minister at Florence, a representation as earnest as oould with propriety 
be addressed by one Government to another upon its own internal affairs, 
describing also what were the feelings of the learned and enlightened 
classes in this country, on learning that Monte Cassino and some other 
monasteries were about to bo confiscated. During the preyious month, 
however, Mr. Elliot reported that the bill was being rapidly proceeded 
with, and that an amendment excepting the Convent of Monte Cassino 
was prepared by M. Massari, and summarily rejected. Under these cir- 
cumstances. Lord Clarendon feared that little hope could be entertained 
of arresting the measure in question ; he promised, neyertheless, to trans- 
mit the memorial of the Institute to Florence, for the purpose of its being 
submitted to the Italian Government. 

On a subsequent occasion the following very gratifying assuranee was 
transmitted by Lord Stanley to Lord Camden : — " It appears by the reply 
which Her Majesty *s Minister at Florence has received to the representa- 
tions which he was directed to make to the Italian Government in favor of 
the Benedictine Monastery of Monte Cassino, that, although it is impos- 
sible to exempt that establishment from the operation of the recent law 
for the suppression of conventual establishments, yet a provision of that 
law will admit of the Government taking measures for the preservation of 
the Monastery as an artistic monument, and that all that is possible will 
be done to save the monuments contained in it from injury." 

In reference to a subject that has excited so much attention in this 
country, the following statement, for which we are indebted to Mr. James 
Yates, being an extract from a letter addressed to him from Florence by a 
distinguished Honorary Member of the Institute, M. Pulsky, cannot fail 
to prove acceptable to the readers of this Journal : — 

VOL. xxur. 3 A 

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*' Since you are interested in the Convent of Monte CosBino, I must tell 
you that it has been declared to be a national monument, to be main- 
tained in its present state. The archiyes, libraiy* and monuments of the 
Abbey remain intact in the building, and the Abbate Tosti will be appointed 
the custode, for the benefit of all scholars, who, like you and me, care 
for the monuments of old, even if they are monasteries. The Florentine 
Consent of San Marco, the late abode of Sant' Antonino, the first reformer 
of prisons, of Fra Angelico and Fra Bartolomeo, the painters, of Savonarola 
also, is likewise to be preserved as a national monument, principally on 
account of the frescoes of Fra Angelico in the cells. The same measm-e 
is to be extended to all the monasteries the architecture of which is important 
for the history of art ; the rest are to be sold to the highest bidder, unless a 
company could be formed to buy all the monastic property of the peninsula." 
The Marquis Camden then took oi^casion to remind the members that 
their approaching meeting, in the metropolis, which had been favored 
with the special sanction of the Queen, would present feature.s of unusual 
interest. , Her Majesty had been pleased to direct that eyery facility should 
be given' for the examination of architectural details, and also of the pre- 
cious works of art, at Windsor Castle. 

Mr. Frederick Botle, F.R.G.S., read a memoir on the ancient tombs 
of Nicaragua (printed in this volume, p. 41) ; he exhibited numerous dia- 
grams, with a large collection of vases, and other sepulchral relics, that 
had been discovered in his researches, made in conjunction with Mr. Jebb. 
These remarkable vestiges of the early races have subsequently been depo- 
sited in the British Museum. 

Professor Bugkman, F.R.G.S., sent a notice of the T>ccurrence of flint 
implements and weapons in Dorsetshire, particularly on his own farm in 
the parish of Bradford Abbas, between Yeovil and Sherborne. He laid 
bcforo the meeting a classified selection of specimens, comprising arrow- 
heads, some of them being delicately wrought, flakes, knives, and scrapers, 
portions of celts, cores of flint from which apparently flakes had been struck 
off, and numerous worked flints of less distinctive forms, but showing traces 
of the hand of man. These relics will be noticed more fully on another 

The Hon. W. Owen Stanley, M.P., read a notice of certain ancient 
interments brought to light in Anglesey, on the estates of the late R. 
Trygarn Griffith, Esq., at Carreglwyd. Mr. Stanley likewise brought 
before the meeting a photograph of an elaborately ornamented urn found 
at Rhosbirio, in Anglesey, in a cist formed of slabs of stone. It is of 
the peculiar class designated, by Sir R. Colt Hoare and other antiquaries, 
drinking-cups, doubtless used as depositories for food in the tomb. The 
beautiful example described by Mr. Stanley will be figured hereafter in 
this Journal, with his notices of other early vestiges recently found in the 
same district. 

Mr. Thomas North, Secretary of the Leicester Archaeological Society, 
communicated the following account of an Anglo-Saxon Cemetery at Mel- 
ton Mowbray, Leicestershire. 

*< Archeeological research has demonstrated that our Saxon ancestors 
used two kinds of interment,— cremation and deposit of the remains of the 
bones in an urn, and simple inhumation, or burying the body clad in its 
usual dress, and accompanied, according to the position, sex, iic, of the 
person, by weapons, or by personal requisites and ornaments. The second 

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of tbeee modes of burial was, perhaps, that most prevalent ; and it is 
well for archffiological inquiry that it was so, because it is from the grayc 
of the Anglo-Saxon that we learn almost all wo know of the state of his 
ciyilisation, and so are enabled to form opinions — crude though they may 
be— ^of bis mode of life, and personal appearance, as eyidenced by the 
articles which — ^highly prized by him when aliye — were, as marking the 
affection of relatives and friends, deposited in the grave after death. That 
the corpse was generally clothed, is shown by the discovery in some Anglo- 
Saxon graves of shreds of woollen cloth, mere fragments, but sufficient to 
prove the custom referred to ; and the usage is further demonstrated by 
the frequent finding of the buckle of the girdle that encircled the waist, and 
from which, in the case of the men, tbe knife and sword were suspended. 
The objects found in the graves of the men, for to them — passing by the 
graves of the women — are these remarks restricted, are usually weapons 
of offence and defence. Taking, for example, a grave opened some years 
ago on the Chatbam Downs — a well-known example — near the right 
shoulder was found a spear-head, the socket of which still contained a 
decayed portion of the wooden shaft ; near the last bone of the vertebra) 
lay a bronze buckle, which had fastened the girdle ; on the nght side, near 
the hip, was a knife, with impressions of its case or sheath remaining upon 
it ; between tbe thigh-bones lay the boss of the shield ; on the left side 
lay an iron sword thirty-five inches in length ; and at the feet of the 
skeleton was a vessel of red earth, which, in common with others found in 
Anglo-Saxon graves, is thought to bavo been appropriated to certain rites 
of purification by water or by wine. In addition to these ordinarily dis- 
covered articles, others are occasionally found, which do not here require 
notice. Although solitary Anglo-Saxon graves sometimes occur, it is clear 
that, as a rule, the interments were in groups or cemeteries. It is to such 
a cemetery existing in Leicestershire that I wish to call attention. About 
the year 1860, some men employed by Mr. Fetch of Melton Mowbray, 
found, when working for clay upon higb ground on the north side of that 
town, a number of skeletons, and, in one or more of the graves some 
beads, a knife, and pottery, all of a character indicating their Anglo-Saxon 
origin. This discovery excited Mr. Fetch's curiosity. Upon inquiry he 
found that very many interments bad been previously discovered, and the 
contents of the graves scattered by the workmen, who, being ignorant of 
the value of such relics, took no care of them ; indeed the beads he just 
referred to were found in one of the cottages used by the children as toys. 
Again, in 1862, seven skeletons were uncovered, and were carefully ex« 
amined. On that occasion no relics were discovered, and it was inferred 
that the bodies had been interred in a state of nudity. I am, however, 
inclined to think that they belonged to the lowest class, the serfs and bond- 
men, who would be buried in their ordinary coarse garments, without 
weapon or ornament. Every vestige of thoir dress would, in the lapse of 
centuries, pass away. It should be remarked that the skeletons were found 
upon the substratum of gravel, at a depth of about two feet from the sur- 
face ; their position was east and west, the feet being towards the east. 
Nothing more, so far as I can learn, was discovered in this cemetery until 
a few weeks ago, when, on removing a further portion of the surface-soil 
in order to work the gravel and clay beneath, skeletons were again found, 
and with them the relics which I will describe, and which have been placed 
in my hands for minuto inspection. The internments appear to have been 

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made with care and uniformity ; tlie position of the skeletons was still 
about east and west, the feet being towards the east. 

** In one grave were found a spear-head, a knife, and the boss of a shield. 
The spear-head, found on the right side of the skeleton, measures 15 in. 
from the point to the barb, which is 1| in. wide at its greatest width ; its 
entire length from the point to the end of the socket is 22 { in. — an unusual 
length, from 10 to 15 in. being, I believe, the ordinary dimensions. The 
knife is 8^ in. long, and was found close by the ribs on the right side of 
the skeleton. The conical boss of the shield, being 3 in. high and 5^ in. 
in diameter at its base, including the rim, with its brace 5} in. long, and 
the rivets for fastening it to the wooden shield, was found upon the centre 
of the skeleton. In other graves were found a second boss of a shield 
about the same size as that just described ; also ^ear-heads, measuring 
respectively 16^, 11, 11, 9, 9, and 6 in, in length, and three knives 
measuring respectively 5, 4}, and 4 in. in length. In one grave was 
found an urn of the rude form and manufacture well known as belongmg 
to the Anglo-Saxon period. It measures 5| in. in height, 5^ in. in 
diameter at its mouth, and 6\ in. in diameter at its central or widest part. 
It had been made apparently by the hand, of a dark coloured clay, and is 
imperfectly baked. The only attempt at pattern was made by drawing the 
finger or a stick vertically over the widest part of the urn, when the clay 
was moist, and so leaving a rude ribbed ornament. The last object 
claiming attention is a specimen of the double-edged Anglo-Saxon sword, 
34^ in. in length, and 2| in width, having the small cross guard which is 
sometimes found at the extremity of the handle of these swords, and which 
is presumed to have appertained to the hilt, which, being generally of 
wood, has in almost all, if not in all cases, disappeared. Hilts of metal 
are found, but they are rare. This sword also bears upon it fragments of 
the wooden scabbard, in which it was encased. In cutting away the earth 
sheer down for several feet, the end of this sword was found projecting 
through the section. It was carefully taken out, and the spot marked for 
further examination. I, in company with a friend, visited the spot, but 
though the surface soil was carefully removed, neither there, nor in several 
other places opened in our presence, were other further traces found of the 
Anglo-Saxon cemetery, in which, according to Mr. Fetch's computation, 
between fifty and sixty graves have been disturbed. There is, however, 
every reason to believe that other discoveries may hereafter be made.*' 

A memoir was then read by Mr. Scharf, F.S. A., on the curious historical 
picture exhibited at South Kensington, and hitherto regarded as portraying 
Queen Elizabeth's Visit to Hunsdon House in 1571. It has been printed 
in this volume, p. 131, ante. 

Mr. Nichols, having been requested to offer some observations upon the 
locality of Blackfriars, as represented in the picture, remarked that he did 
not attribute much reality to the landscape in the background, except that 
it may give a general idea of the detached buildings then existing in the 
fields and gardens on the Surrey side of the river. He regarded the grand 
house immediately behind the figures as the mansion of Lord Cobham, in 
which the Queen was entertained, notwithstanding that the procession is 
represented as already passing it by. This house, after the attainder of 
Lord Cobham in 1603, passed to Lord Hunsdon, and then acquired the 
name of Hunsdon House — whence the confusion with the Queen's visits 
to Hunsdon House in Hertfordshire. It was the same which became the 

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scene of a very memorable catastrophe in 1623. Being then occupied by 
the French ambassador, the Roman Catholics were accustomed to celebrate 
their services there on the upper floor ; and having assembled in large 
numbers to hear a sermon from Father Drury, a favourite preacher, the 
floor gave way and many lives were lost. In the smaller engraving in the 
first edition of Queen Elizabeth's Progresses, an unwarrantable liberty is 
taken in elevating this house (in the picture) with an additional story, 
probably to make it more nearly resemble its assumed original in Hert- 
fordshire. Inquiry being made where the house stood, Mr. Nichols replied 
that he believed very near the site of jthe famous Blackfriars Theatre (shown 
in the map by Playhouse Yard), in which Shakspeare was a partner ; sub- 
sequently occupied by the King's Printing-office, and now by that of the 
Times newspaper in Printing-house Square« The small parish church of 
St. Annej in which the nuptials of Lord Herbert and Mistress Anne Russell 
were celebrated, was burnt down In the fire of 1666, and the parish then 
united to St. Andrew in the Wardrobe, but its site is still occupied by a 
small charity-school, about which are several memorials of former interments. 

Mr. ScHARF then proceeded to offer a short account of a remarkable 
interment lately brought to light in the choir at Westminster Abbey. 
Several relics found on the occasion were brought, by the kind permission 
of the Dean, for the inspection of the meeting. 

'* In the course of preparations for a new reredos in Westminster Abbey, 
the workmen discovered a large coffin of Purbeck marble lying immediately 
below the pavement in the centre of the large space in front of the higli 
altar. The foot of the coffin touched the basement or steps which had 
supported the altar. The contents of the coffin were examined in presence 
of the Bean and Subdean of Westminster, the President, Secretary and 
Director of the Society of Antiquaries, Mr. Gilbert Scott (architect to the 
Abbey), Mr. Joseph Burtt, and others experienced in such matters. The 
coffin contained the remains of a human skeleton ; the number of bones 
almost complete, in good preservation, and a portion of the upper jaw of a 
second person ; but this fragment appeared to have been accidentally 
deposited with the rest, as the position of the bones indicated that the 
body had been considerably disturbed after the original interment. There 
was no lid, and the mass of pavement weighed down on the contents of the 
coffin. It was found that the bones had been taken out of the coffin and, 
with the exception of the head, replaced with the chest and knees down- 
ward. The bones of the arms were much displaced. Fragments of an 
ivory-headed pastoral staff, also a patin and chalice of common white metal, 
were found in the usual position at the sides of the body. The remaining 
space within the coffin had been filled up with rubbish, consisting chiefly of 
chalk, sand, and fragments of pavement tesser®. As each portion was 
discovered, and prior to removal, Mr. Scliarf made an exact note of the 
position in which the various bones and fragments had been deposited. 
The skeleton was afterwards examined by Mr. Barnard Holt and Mr. T. 
Hillman, surgeons to the Westminster Hospital. It appears probable that 
the remains, at first supposed to be those of Abbot Ware, were more pro- 
bably those of his predecessor, Richard de Crokesley, Abbot of Westminster 
from 1246 to 1258. Another coffin, also of Purbeck marble, and probably 
that of Abbot Ware, was subsequently discovered nearer to the northern 
extremity of the pavement, but no attempt was made to disturb it. The 
human remains were carefully replaced, the bones being laid ui theur proper 

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order, and finally the coffin was closed with a solid stone lid, strongly 
cemented, hearing an inscription prepared hy the Dean, recording the 
date of discoYery and the names of those present at the investigation.*' 

^ntitiuUiti atOi Wiafki at €[rt dBf^ihittn^ 

By Mr. J. B. Waring. — ^A series of tracings from the archaeological 
publications of Burope illustrative of Stone Monuments, and the traces of 
ornamental design, as shown in ancient weapons, personal ornaments, 
sepulchral urns, iac,, vestiges of races which have left behind them in these 
relics almost the only memorial of their existence, or of their social condi- 
tions. This collection has been formed to supply materials for a work that 
Mr. Waring proposes to publish, with the object of throwing light oi^ ob- 
scure questions of archsDological inquiry. 

By Mr. Arthur Trollope. — Two Roman relics, of unusual fashion, and 
in perfect preservation, found in 1865. One of Uie objects exhibited is a 
bronze JibtUa (here figured, original size) of elegant design and workman- 
ship ; the surface is partly enriched with lustrous bright white metal ; the 
ground of the pretty ornament on the broad extremity appears to have 
been thinly encrusted with red enamel. It was found in the parish of St. 
Peter in Eastgate, Lincoln. Armlets and other personal ornaments thus 
plated with a thin coating of metal, supposed to be tin, occur, although 
rarely, amongst Roman remains in this country ; fbtdae thus ornamented 
are noticed in the Catalogue of the Museum formed at the Meeting of the 
Institute at York, p. 8. Such objects have sometimes been described as 
silvered ; according to Pliny, both tin and silver were employed in producing 
*' tncoc^^ia / " ornaments, however, of Gaulish workmanship decorated with 
allmm plumbum were, as he states, scarcely to be distinguished from silver. 
Pliny, Nat. Hist. lib. xxxiv. c. 17. The second object, probably of Roman 
date, sent by Mr. Trollope, had recently been found in railway operations 
on Ganwick Common, near Lincoln. It is a bronzo volsellaf or tweezers, 
in very singular fashion, combined with a picker, possibly for the nails ; it 
may, however, have been used as a piercer or tubula, for various purposes, 
like the stiletto of our timos. At one of its ends there is a semicircular 
projection with three nicks ; upon this is hinged a pair of flat tweezers, 
part of which has been broken ofi* ; a thin plate between the blades of this 
implement falls into either of the nicks, so as to keep the tweezers either 
at right angles to the piercer, that serves as a handle, or extended entirely 
in a straight line. The ingenious construction of this little implement, so 
far as we are aware unique, may be best understood by the accompanying 
woodcut (original size). VoUellm combined with the ear-pick and nail- 
cleaner are not rare ; see Mr. Roach Smithes Roman London, pi. xxxiii. 

By Mr. Hewitt. — Two large maps of Eastern China, obtained in the 
country by Col. Gordon, R.E., whilst he was engaged in the campaign of 
L864. They exhibit remarkable exactness of detail, although deficient in 
scientific construction ; and they had been constantly used by Col. Gordon 
in his operations against the insurgents in those parts of China. 

By the Hon. Fulke Grbville, through Mr. B. T. Wiluams. — A valuable 
roll relating to the lordships, manors, and possessions in the Marches of 
Wales, brought into the king*s hands, in 10 Henry VIL, and enrolled 
amongst the records of the Exchequer. This document, preserved amongst 
Mr. Greville's evidences, is of considerable interest in regard to Uio 
nncient condition of the Principality and the adjacent counties. 

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Bronso Fibula tinned and wuuneled, found at Linooln. 

Bronse Tireezon and Pioker, found on CSanwick Common near Lincoln. 
In the possession of Arthur TroIIope, Erq. 

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Held in London, July 17 to July 25. 

The Inaugural Meeting of the tirenty-first Anniyersary of the Institute 
was opened in the Guildhall of the City of London. The Hall had been very 
oonveniently fitted up for the purpose by the directions of the Court of 
Common Council, by which court all the requisite facilities for the purposes 
of the meeting had been most kindly placed at the disposal of the In- 

At twelve o'clock the Right Hon. the Lord MiiTOB (Alderman Phillips, 
now Sir Benjamin Phillips) accompanied by Mr. Deputy Reed and many 
leading and influential members of the Corporation, took the chair, and 
opened the proceedings. He was very happy to have the honour of offering 
a yery hearty welcome to the Archaological Institute in that ancient hall. 
It was yeiy gratifying to find that the Institute, after trayelling through the 
principal cities of the countiy during the last t*yenty-one years^ now that it 
had arrived at its majority, had returned to pay its respectful acknowledg- • 
ments to the city to which it owed its birth. As the chief magistrate of 
that city he felt greatly gratified upon that occasion. In the presence of 
such a company it woidd be presumptuous for him to occupy their time by 
further addressing them, and he would therefore simply offer them, in the 
name of the Corporation and of the general body of citizens, a most cordial 
and hearty welcome ; assuring them that the citisens had a high yeneration 
for the past, and that they desired to see the Institute attain the highest 
possible development and efficiency. 

The noble President of the Institute, the Marquis Caicbbit, expressed his 
thanks to the Lord Mayor for the kind and cordial reception he had given 
to the Institute, regretting only that in that ancient and noble hall of that 
ancient city, their Honorary President, His Royal Highness the Prince of 
Wales, had not been able to stand in the place he then occupied^ and return 
thanks on their behalf. 

Lord Talbot de Malahidb next addressed the meeting. After referring 
to the many points of beauty and archaological interest in and about the 
fine hall in which they were assembled, he mentioned many in various parts 
of the City which would well repay their consideration. In reference to 
the improvements which were taking place in various parts of the City, he 
trusted that the chief historic features of the place would be preserved. He 
had heard it said that we should take a lesson from the capital of France, 
but he thought we should be sorry for it, for Paris was changing its his- 
toric bearing and was fast losing its characjter as one of the ancient capitals 
of Europe. 

Mr. W. TiTE, M.P., wished to add a few words as a citizen of Londos 
upon the value of those annual congresses which stirred up a love for an- 
tiquities, and drew attention to the desirability of their preservation. In 
the provinces immeasurable good had thus been done, and he trusted a like 
benefit would accrue from their present assembly in the metropolis. He 
believed he could not find a more appropriate place than that Guildhall to 
show the utility of the study of medissval architecture, and of the effects of 

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such gatherings as these. Sir Christopher Wren had hidden the fine old 
roof of that hall with a plaster ceiling, and it was owing to the feeling 
which the Institute had been mainly instrumental in disseminating that 
the design of that fine old roof had been brought to light and was so 
thoroughly appreciated. London was now a city of offices ; — it had been 
a city of churches. Most of those present would be taken to see some fine 
examples of those churches ; in several of which works of conservation, if 
not of restoration, were being carried on. He wished to specify those 
of St. Bartholomew the Oreat, St. Helen's, Bishopsgate, and Austin Friars. 

Mr. A. J. B. Beresford Hope, M.P., said, that after having devoted 
themselves so long to archsoological explorations in the provinces, he feared 
they would find themselves, on making London their field of operations, in 
the position of the belle of the country ball-room suddenly called upon to 
take the lead of the London season. The Institute had returned to the 
spot whore it had its birth, and that spot was richer in archeological in- 
terest than perhaps any other in the kingdom. It had not ventured to take 
such a step without careful consideration and great preparation. They 
intended to enjoy a good and full archeological week, and the programme 
of each day's proceedings would, he believed, satisfy every one. Mr. Hope 
then detailed the arrangements of each day which, he said, would show that 
• the Council had provided an ample and varied bill of fare. 

The Lord Bishop of Oxford next addressed the meeting. He said that 
if in this great city, the heart of a country, the process of renovation pro- 
ceeded at too swift a pace to be agreeable to archaeologists, the streets of 
London must be admitted to be in a most satisfactory antiquarian condition, 
or he would not have been so late in arriving at that meeting. For three 
quarters of an hour he had been on the road from Waterloo station, the 
delay being caused by a single cart with six deals which, by a judicious 
twist at intervals, effectually baffled all the ingenuity of his coachman, and 
kept a whole line of omnibuses and carriages at bay. Renovation had not 
in London destroyed all its monuments, nor was it so thorough as in some 
provincial places. He hoped the result of the present congress would be, 
by bringing to notice rery many relics still preserved in obscure places, to 
cause the members and visitors of the Institute to regard London not only 
as the centre of novelties, but as the best preserver of antiquities. 

The Rev. E. Hill then further explained the intended proceedings of the 
week, and the arrangements for the excui-sions. 

In acknowledging the cordial vote of thanks which was passed by the 
meeting, the Lord Mayor remarked that he trusted the citizens of London 
would not be entirely condemned on account of the luckless cart which had 
so impeded the access of the Right Reverend Bishop to the meeting. That 
difficulty showed the respect that was paid to the rights of the humblest 
individual, — a respect of which he trusted the citizens of London would 
always be proud. It was a difficulty owing to the jealousy of interfering 
with the liberty of the subject. 

On the termination of the meeting, the President and a large party in- 
spected the crypt under the Guildhall, the documents in the Town Clerk's 
Office, the City Library and Museum. Mr. Charles Baily, of the architect's 
office, had made many convenient arrangements for this inspection, and 
most obligingly pointed out the characteristic features of tho architecture 
to the party. In the Town Clerk's Office, Mr. Woodthorpe had most 
kindly displayed a fine selection of documents from the City archives. 

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Among the HSS. were the charter of liberties to the City from William 
the Conqueror, granted in the first year after the conquest. It is a little 
slip of parchment, about 7 in. long by 3 in. wide, and expresses in the old 
English tongue that the citizens of London should keep the liberties they 
had in Edward*s time ; charters by almost every other sovereign from that 
period to Henry VIII. ; the «• Liber Albus;" the •• Liber de Antiquis Le- 
gibus,'* and several other ** Libri " of almost equal fame and value, the 
very sight of which was once most jealously guarded ; ancient chronicles 
and custumals, &c. 

In the Library and Museum were shown a fine collection of maps and 
plans of London and the neighbourhood ; many Roman and mediaeval 
antiquities found in London ; the objects used in the early civic pageants ; 
a large collection of autographs ; leaden << signacula " or pilgrims* signs. 
These had been most obligingly arranged by the Librarian, Mr. W. 

From the Guildhall the party proceeded to the church of St. Bartholo- 
mew in Smithfield, now in the course of restoration under the direction of 
Mr. Skter and Mr. Lewis. Mr. W. Titb, M.P., gave a brief history of 
the church from its foundation by Habere, the well-known minstrel and 
jester of Henry I., and recounted the story of his being led by a dream to 
build a church and hospital on this spot. 

Mr. Parker pointed out the existing evidences of the early church, and 
explained how the nave. had been destroyed to make the present church- 
yard, and how the side walls of the lady-chapel still existed in the neigh- 
bouring fringe manufactory. The fabric had been lamentably ill used and 
encroached upon — portions even appropriated for private purposes. Several 
of the fine architectural features of the church and the remains of the early 
foundation were the subjects of discussion among the visitors, who expressed 
a general feeling of approval as to the works in progress. 

From St Bartholomew's the party next went to the church of St. Helen's, 
Bishopsgate. This was described by Mr. Wadmore, the architect charged 
with its restoration. It is one of the few City chiurohcs which escaped de- 
struction by the Great Fire. The present building is a foundation of the 
1 3th century, and is remarkable for its two parallel naves and its numerous 
tombs. Among these are the tombs of many City worthies, including those 
of Sir John Crosby, Sir Thomas Gresham, and the singular Francis Ban- 
croft, whose coffin is not yet screwed down, as he left an annuity to the 
Mercers' Company to look occasionally at his body. From St. Helen's 
church, Crosby Hall was visited, where Mr. Williams, the lessee, most 
courteously received the party, and Mr. J. H. Parker obligingly pointed out 
the chief characteristics of the building, as the only existing specimen of 
the houses of the merchant princes of London in the fifteenth century. It 
afibrds a noble example of the mansions of the time, the hall being one of 
the finest that remains, and its original character has been less injured than 
is usual in the process of restoration. 

The evening was reserved for a Oanversaxione at the Deanery of West- 
nunster, where a very large party was most hospitably and cordially enter- 
tained by the Very Reverend the Dean and Lady Augusta Stanley. Not 
only were all the handsome reception rooms thrown open on this occasion, 
but the quaint old Deanery assumed its mediaval proportions, and embraced 
the Cloisters, the Jerusalem Chamber, and the College Hall in which the 
Westminster scholars now have their ** commons." 

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Nicholas Litlington (Abbot from 1362 to 1386) re-built this portion of 
the Monastery, and the Deanery occupies the site of what was then the 
Abbot's house. 

Litlington was executor of Cardinal Langham, whom he succeeded in 
the Abbacy of Westminster, and who left a vast sum of money for the 
fabric of the Monastery. With this money two of the present cloisters 
were re-built, the conventual buildings of the eastern side of Great Dean's 
Yard, and the Abbot's refectory, now the College Hall. Litlington's 
initials are still visible in the cloisters. Much of the roof of this Hall is 
Elizabethan, together with the musie gallery which has been inserted. 

In the Deanery are many portraits of deans, chiefly collected by Dean 
Turton. A portrait of Queen Elizabeth, said to have been presented by 
her to Dean Goodman, has been found to have been almost re-painted in 
Sir Godfrey Eneller's time, and to have been presented to the Deanery by 
Dean Willcocks. 

In the course of the evening the party roamed over all the outlying 
portions of the Deanery, passing through the Jerusalem Chamber, the 
College Hall and their passages into the Cloisters, and peering into nooks 
and comers where some old vestige of the early buildings was to be seen, 
or some quaint or fine example of their architecture to be admired. With 
most considerate kindness the Rev. Lord John Thynne and other canons 
and residents had thrown open the doors of their gardens and houses for 
this purpose, and many curious groined chambers and cellars were lighted 
up for the inspection of the visitors. In the Jerusalem Chamber the Dean 
related shortly what was known about the locality, and pointed out its most 
remarkable features, illustrating his remarks by anecdotes of some of his 
distinguished predecessors. In his own library he had lately found what 
had every appearance of being a priest's hiding-place, traditionally said to 
have been used by Atterbury. In another closet it has been the usual 
custom, since the Restoration, to place the regalia on the eve of coronations. 

During the evening a select body of singers from the Abbey choir, ably 
conducted by Mr. Turle, sang some choice old madrigals and part-songs in 
the College Hall. 

Besides the various works of art and valuable drawings which were dis* 
played in various rooms, among which were conspicuous the copies of 
the Bayeux tapestry, showing the earliest representation of the Abbey, 
a series of cases filled with selections from the muniments, and now 
for the first time publicly exhibited, were shown in the drawing-room. 
Among them were numerous finely-written charters to the Abbey from 
the time of King Edgar to Henry VI., including some whose authenticity 
is disputed. Conspicuous among these was the charter of the famous 
Dunstan in a most suspicious handwriting, but with a fine and genuine- 
looking seal. Among them were the records of the singular proceedings 
relating to the right to the body of Henry VI., which was claimed by the 
Abbot of Chertsey as having been rightly buried there ; by the Dean 
of St. George's Chapel, Windsor, as having been moved there from 
Chertsey in obedience to the royal will, and by the Abbot of Westminster 
as having been promised to that establishment. The evidence in sup- 
port of the Westminster claim is the only part of the proceedings known. 
Judgment was given in favour of the claims of Westminster, and another 
record of the house gives the actual sum paid for the removal of the body ; 
but this fact requires corroboration. Among them too were several letters 

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of King Henry III. to We Master of the Works during tlie rebuilding of 
the Abbey relating to those works, and a reference to what seemed to be 
an estimate of the cost of the rebuilding. There were of course many deeds 
of feofment, &c. relating to "old Westminster," as well as to the Abbey 
itself. Many of these wero of very early date, and had fine seals attached 
to them. Numerous '* stars '' of Jews, doubtless deposited for safety in 
the treasury of the abbey, and some original subscriptions of crosses by 
monks in tlie thirteenth century to the tows of the order of St. Benedict 
were also shown. The large and magnificently illuminated missal of Abbot 
Litlington was also exhibited. It is a very fine example of the art of the time 
and in excellent preservation, except where the service of Thomas a Becket 
is erased according to the proclamations of Henry VIII. and EdwiCrd VL 
The plate of the parish of St. Margaret was a great object of attraction 
in the drawing-room of the deanery. It consists of a loving cup, presented 
in 1759 to commemorate the successful issue of the suit relating to the fine 
east window of the church, which was objected to as infringing the statutes 
against pictures and images ; and a remarkable object called '* The Over- 
seer's box." One of these functionaries had bought a fourpenny tobacco 
box of horn at Charlton fair, and from it had replenished his neighbour's 
pipe. In 1713 he left it to those officials who had established a fraternity. 
In 1720 an ornamental rim was added by his grateful successors — silver 
side-cases, embossed borders, engraved plates upon which Hogarth exer- 
cised his skill, followed at intervals ; till (like a medi»val relic) the original 
box is almost lost under the heap of ornamental silver in which it is en- 
shrined. It has now four large outer cases, and is much larger than an 
ordinary hat-box. These cases are composed of separate plates, on which 
are engraved emblematical and historical subjects, and portraits of distin- 
guished persons. Among them are many most interesting subjects of local 

Wednesday, July 18. 

A meeting of the Section of Primeval Antiquities took place in the 
theatre of the Museum of Economic Geology in Jermyn Street, at 10 a.m, 
where Sir John Lubbock presided. The chairman delivered an inaugural 
address, which is printed in this volume, p. 190. 

A meeting of the Section of History also took place in the theatre of the 
Royal Institution in Albemarle Street, where the Very Rev. the Dean of 
Westminster delivered an inaugural address. As the substance of this 
address will be published by the Dean in a volume to be entitled *' Historical 
Memorials of Westminster Abbey," it need only be shortly referred to here. 
As an illustration of History, specially applicable to au archieological 
gathering in the metropolis, the Dean gave that of the Abbey of West- 
minster, describing the wild condition of the ** Isle of Thorns " at the 
earliest times when any known reference was made to it ; when it was a 
dense thicket inhabited only by wild beasts, and a lurking-place for the 
outcast or robber. The first origin of Westminster is to be sought in the 
natural features of its position, which include the origin of London no less. 
The Thames is the parent of London. The rising ground on which the 
whole of the ancient city stood attests the reasons for its site. These hills 
were surrounded and intersected by greater or smaller streams of water 
flowing from the high ground on the north. Its gravelly soil and a pure 
spring of water wotUd seem to have attracted the first settlers of Thorney 

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Island. Dr. Stanley then spoke of the manner in which the first church 
was built in that •* terrible place," as an existing charter of the Abbey 
describes the locality ; how the monastic body settled there grew and 
prospered ; and how the original of the present existing structure was 
designed and built by Edward the Confessor. Westminster Abbey is, in 
its origin, the monument not merely of the personal piety, but of the 
personal character and circumstances of its founder. Edward the Confessor 
was a curious compound of gentleness and fury, of recklessness and mild- 
ness. He was the last of the Saxons. He was also the first of the 
Normans. His reign is the earliest link which reunites England to the 
Continent. The idea of a regal abbey on a hitherto unexampled scale may 
have been suggested by the accounts of the dedication of the Cathedral of 

After the Dean's address a paper was read by Mr. E. A. Freeman 
upon "King Harold " and the " College of Waltham." 

Hitherto the foundation of Waltham has been spoken of as an abbey, 
and its inhabitants as monks. Waltham and its founder thus got mixed 
up with the crowd of monastic foundations, the creation in many cases of a 
real and enlightened piety, but in many cases also of mere* superstition or 
fashion. The great ecclesiastical foundation of Earl Harold was something 
widely difierent. Harold did not found an abbey ; Waltham did not be- 
come a religious .house till Henry IL, liberal of another man's purse, 
destroyed Harold's foundation by way of doing honour to the new martyr 
of Canterbury, and put an abbot and Austin canons in its place. 

Harold's foundation, in short, was an enlargement of the original small 
foundation of Tovi the Proud. Toyi had built a church for the reception of 
the miraculous crucifix which had been found at Montacute ; he made an 
endowment for two priests, and the Holy Rood of Waltham became an 
object of popular worship and pilgrimage. Tovi's estate had been granted 
to Earl Harold, with whom it was a favorite residence. The earl now 
rebuilt the small church on a larger and more splendid scale, calling in all 
the resources of architecture as developed in Normandy. He enriched it 
with precious gifts and relics, and increased the number of clergy to a 
dean and twelve canons, besides inferior officers. Harold made his founda* 
tion an educational establishment, and brought over an eminent German 
scholar and reformer, Adelard of Liittich, to be its head. To establish 
such a foundation in the reign of a king who was almost a monk, was a 
bold deed. The college at Waltham stands in opposition to Westminster 
Abbey ; and it was probably Harold's preferen<je for the secular clergy 
that brought upon him the obloquy he undergoes at the hands of ecclesias- 
tical writers. The foundation of the College of Waltham deserves to be 
dwelt upon as an era in our ecclesiastical history, instead of being slurred 
over as a monastic foundation of the ordinary kindi 

The church was finished and consecrated in the year 1060, and the 
ceremony was performed in the presence of the king and queen, with most 
of the chief men of the land. 

So this noble foundation became peculiarly identified with its founder, 
and it was to Waltham that Harold went for prayer and meditation in the 
great crisis of his life ; it was at Waltham that his body found its last 
resting place ; at Waltham his memory still lived fresh and cherished, 
while elsewhere calumny had fixed itself upon his name. 

It is said that a mysterious warning of coming evil was given by the 

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Holy Rood of Waltham before the great struggle upon the field of Senkc, 
and two of the canons of the college had followed their founder to that fatal 
spot. They sought his body among the slain, and his mother offered a 
great bribe to the Conqueror for leave to remove it. But their search was 
in vain, till they were aided by Harold's former mistress. The body, thus 
found, was committed by Duke William's orders to William Mallet, a 
Norman knight, and by his care buried under a heap of stones upon the 

But William afterwards relented, and he allowed the body of his former 
rival jto be removed from the shores of -Sussex to his own minster at 
Waltham. Here he was buried by the high altar ; but a later change in 
the fabric involved a translation of his body. For his tomb we now seek in 
vain, as we seek in vain for . the tombs of most of the noblest heroes of 
our land. But what the men of his own time could do they did ; the 
simple and pathetic tale of the local historian shows us how the fallen king 
was lamented by those who had known and loved him, and how his memory 
lived with those who shared his bounty without having seen his face. 

A tomb called by Harold's name was shown in the Abbey of Waltham 
down to the Dissolution, and fragments of it remained to Fuller's time. 
That there must have been a good reason for this appropriation, and that 
the version as to Harold's fate presented by the writer is the moft prob- 
able one, was given as the result of a careful criticism and comparison of 
authorities by Mr. Freeman. 

In the afternoon an excursion was made (by the Great Eastern Railway) 
to Waltham Abbey. After a visit to the Gross ^the party proceeded to the 
church, where they were received by the incumbent of Waltham, the Rev. 
J. Francis, who had most courteously made every arrangement for their 
comfort. Here Mr. Freeman discoursed upon the structure ; maintaining 
that there were more remains of the church built by Harold than Mr. 
Parker was disposed to admit. Mr. Burges, by whom the restoration of 
the church had been ably carried out, gave many explanations as to the 
original condition of the building and his proceedings. 

An evening meeting of the Historical Section was held iu the Royal 
Institution, when the Rev. J. R. Grbem read a paper upon '< Thomas a 

The writer remarked that in the reign of Stephen a great religious re- 
vival was going on, and in the revolution that seated Stephen on the throne, 
London first assumed that constitutional position it has since retained. 
After a reference to the condition of England at the death of Henry I., 
the circumstances of Stephen's arrival from France were noticed, and the 
apparent hopelessness of his venture till he arrived before London. The 
great importance of the foreign element among the trading and industrial 
classes in the City, even'anterior to the Conquest, was discussed by Mr. 
Green. Gilbert Beket, the father of the martyr, was a member of this 
Norman colony, which greatly influenced opinion in London in favour of 
Stephen as against his Angevin rival. The religious element, which was 
struggling against the tyranny of the higher clergy, asserted its importance 
in the critical condition of afiairs, and contributed much to the restoration 
of peace and freedom. London was proud of its religion ; — it was then 
building its Cathedral^ and other noble churches were rising up here and 

^ Printed in the volume entitled " Old Mr. Murray, under the title London and 
London," which has been published by her Election of Stephen. 

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there. London had become the definite place of the royal election, and 
the voice of her citizens was accepted as the representative of the popular 
assent. The folk-mote was summoned at the east end of St. Paul's, and 
amid the applause of all, the aldermen appointed Stephen king. And king 
he was. 

During the same evening a concert took place at the South Kensington 
Museum, which was attended by many visitors to the congress ; who in 
the interval inspected the fine collection of archsological objects deposited 

Thursday, July 19. 

A meeting of the Architectural Section was held at the Royal Institu- 
tion, at 10 A.M.; Mr. A. J. B. Berbsford-Hope, M.P.^ in the chair. The 
chairman delivered an introductory address.' 

The speaker, after dwelling upon the rich stores of antiquarian treasures 
which London possesses, adverted to the glorification of the capital in which 
all writers of the Elizabethan period indulged. No good archssological 
history of London yet existed, and he trusted the effect of this congress 
would bo to supply that want. The way in which the surrounding villages 
had been swallowed up was especially worthy of consideration. The dif- 
ferenceTin that respect between London and continental cities was remark- 
able, — was it not owing in some degree to an Englishman's love of inde- 
pendence, whose every house was his castle ? Partly to that feeling, and 
perhaps to the desire of a landlord to cover his land with houses before his 
rival, might be owing the^ great area of low inadequate houses. A long 
and lamentable list might be given of the objects of antiquarian interest 
which had been swept away by this advancing stream, and while many of 
these demolitions were doubtless called for by the course of modern im- 
provement, many were wanton and barbarous, and sufficient care had not 
been taken to have the objects themselves accurately drawn and described. 

Dr. Guest followed with a paper on "The Campaign of Aulua Plautius,*' 
and the origin of London. Printed in this volume, p. 159. 

At eleven o'clock a meeting of the Section of Antiquities was held in 
the theatre of the Museum of Geology, when Mr. S« Birch, keeper of 
Oriental, British, and Medieval Antiquities at the British Museum, de- 
livered an introductory address. This will be printed in the next number 
of the Journal. 

Mr. De Salis then read a paper on <*The Mint of Roman London," which 
will also be printed in the next number of the Journal. 

At one o'clock p.m. there was an adjourned meeting of the Sections of 
History and Architecture in the Chapter House of Westminster Abbey. 
This fine ruin was expressly prepared for the reception of the meeting by 
the considerate attention of Mr. G. G. Scott, with the permission of the 
Commissioners of H. M. Woods and Works. A sum of money had been 
voted by Parliament for the restoration of this building, and the clearing 
out of the old wooden fittings and presses was expedited for this occasion. 
Divested of these ungainly incumbrances the building revealed all its fine 
proportions, and the relics of its rich embellishment by sculpture, mural 
painting, and encaustic pavement ; and in this condition the associations 
of its past history came fresh upon the spectator unsullied by the too new 
and gay appearance which a restoration so often produces. Every avail- 

' Printed in the volume " Old London " previously referred to. 

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able portion of its large area was filled bj the members and visitors of the 
Institute to hear " The History of Westminster Abbey as a place of Royal 
Sepulchre," by the Very Reverend the Dean.* 

The Abbey had been fifteen years in building. Edward the Confessor 
had spent upon it one-tenth of the property of the kingdom, and it was to 
be a marvel of its kind. It was the first cruciform church in England, 
from which all the rest of like shape were copied — an expression of the 
increasing hold which the idea of the Crucifixion in the tenth century had 
laid on the imagination of Europe. The end of the life of the Confessor 
was preceded by two remarkable visions— ^f the Seven Sleepers, and John 
the Baptist. In a few days after the solemn dedication of the Abbey, the 
King and Confessor breathed his last, amid a general feeling of gloomy 
foreboding. So urgent seemed the pressing danger, that on the very next 
day took place at once his own funeral and the coronation of his successor. 
As usual in the funerals of all our earlier sovereigns, he was attired in his 
royal habiliments : his crown upon his head ; a crucifix of gold, with a 
golden chain round his neck ; the pilgrim's ring on his hand. 

In the Middle Ages the funeral of the sovereign was the eclipse of the 
monarchy for the time being. Till the timd of Henry YII. the royal 
corpses lay in state, and were exposed on biers. 

The sepulchral character of Westminster Abbey became the frame on 
which its very structure depended. I^ its successive adornments and en- 
largements, the minds of its successive founders sought their permanent 
expression, because they regarded it as enshiining the supreme act of their 
lives. The first begibning of the royal burials at Westminster is uncertain. 
It was the grave of Edward the Confessor which eventually drew the other 
royal sepulchres round it. 

The Dean then adverted to the burials of the Norman kings in various 
places, and described the canonisation of the Confessor and the building of 
the shrine in the new and magnificent abbey of Henry III. He then 
passed in review the circumstances attending the funerals of Henry III. 
and his relations, of Edward I., Edward II., Edward III., Richard II., 
and their fan^ilies. The tomb of Richard II. and his queen closes the 
circle of the chapel of the Confessor, and the direct line of the descendants 
of its founder, Henry III. 

The Lancastrian house, which begins the new transitional epoch, had no 
place in this immediate circle. But Henry V. cherished a peculiar vene- 
ration for the Abbey, — not only did he give it gifts,,but he added to the 
church some of its most essential features. Dying in France, Paris and 
Rouen both offered, it is said, immense sums of money to have his body 
buried there. But his known attachment to Westminster prevailed, and 
no king's funeral in the Abbey had ever been so grand. Room for his 
grave was created by a summary process, on which no previous king or 
abbot had ventured. The extreme eastern end of the Confessor's chapel, 
hitherto devoted to the sacred relics, was cleared out ; and in their place 
was deposited the body of the most splendid king that England had down 
to that time produced. His tomb accordingly was regarded almost as that 
of a saint in paradise. He alone of the kings, hitherto buried in the 
Abbey, had ordered a separate chantry to be erected, where masses might 
be for ever offered up. 

1 The substimce of this address will '* MemorialB," previously mentioned, un- 
appear in the forthcoxDiog volume of der the title " The Royal Tombs,'* 


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Henry YI. was not willing to abandon his hold on the Confessor's shrine. 
In his time was probably erected the screen which di?ides the shrine from 
the high altar, with the legendary scenes from the Confessor's life carved 
on it. It was well recollected by the old vergers and workmen, how he 
visited the abbey at all hours of the day and night, to fix the place of his 
sepulchre. After much deliberation, he decided upon a spot at the back 
of the altar, saying, *< Here methinketh is a convenient place." The space 
was traced out by the master mason, and the tomb was ordered. But ** the 
great trouble" came on, and nothing was done. Henry perished in the 
Tower ; thence his body was removed to Chertsey for burial ; and thence 
to St. George's Chapel at Windsor. In the reign of Henry YII. it was 
decided to remove the body to Westminster, and the archives say that 
5002. (equal to 50002. of our money) was spent on its transference. But 
the language of the wills both of Henry YII. and Henry YIII. show that 
it still remains at Windsor. 

The chapel which was to contain the elaborate tomb of Henry YII. was 
begun in the eighteenth year of his reign ; and in that work the old gene- 
ration was at pnoe set aude. Six years afterwards the king was laid 
within fhe tomb. His funeral corresponded to the grandeur of his mauso- 
leum* Within three months, the body of the mother of Henry YII. was 
laid within the royal chapel. She was always ** Margaret Richmond," and 
her outward form'of existence belonged to the medisdval past. 

Not all the prestige of royalty could save the treasures of the Confessor's 
chapel at the Reformation. All thought of enlarging or adorning the 
Abbey was extinguished in the mind of Henry YIII., and he determined 
that his bones should be laid at Windsor beside his best-loved wife, Jane 
Seymour. Under the reactiian of Queen Mary's time, the link with royalty 
was carefully Tenowed. King Edward YI. was laid in the chapel of 
Henry YII., and the funeral service of the reformed church was for the 
first time used over his body. No monument was erected to him, and 
the only memorial to the only Puritan sovereign of England was destroyed 
by the Puritans. The broken chain of royal sepulchres was thus pieced 

Anne of Cleves, Mary, Elisabeth, followed in their time, and each of 
their funerals has some special and distinctive feature. Then came the 
line of the Stuarts. In the tombs of the rival queens, Elizabeth and 
Mary Queen of Scots, the series of royal monuments is brought to an 
end. They are the last sovereigns in whom the gratitude of a successor 
or the affection of a nation have combined to insist on such a memorial. 
But the Abbey, so far from losing its attractions during the Civil Wars, 
drew unto it not only the lesser magnates of the Commonwealth, but the 
Protector himself. At the Restoration, all these were summarily ejected, 
and nothing marks the spot where Oliver Cromwell once lay, beneath the 
great oast window. With the Restoration, tho burials of the legitimate 
princes recommenced, but with a privacy and gloom contrasting with the 
joyous solemnity of the first entrance. 

For about another century the roll of royal burials was continued in 
almost unbroken succession ; ending with several members of the family of 
George II. With many most interesting details, relating to several of 
these ceremonials, the Dean concluded his lecture, which had been listened 
to with the most marked attention, and which was most warmly applauded 
at its termination. 

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After a short adjournment for refreshment, the Meeting re-assembled 
in King Henry the Seventh's Chapel, to hear a lecture by Professor West- 
macott, on " The Sculptures in Westminster Abbey." ' 

The Professor commenced by remarking that though the Abbey had been 
made the receptacle of the monuments of the most remarkable historical 
personages in the annals of England, the interest of the visitor is chiefly 
drawn to those remains which can be associated with the earlier founda- 
tion : — To the Oothio sculpture attention would bo directed in the first 
instance. This would be judged simply as art, and the position it was 
entitled to in that respect. In that respect, Gothic sculpture must always 
occupy a very inferior position. But it must be judged as a peculiar and 
exceptional phase of art sui generis, and, with all its anomalies in the 
treatment of the human figure, there is evidence of unquestionable power 
and effect. It is matter of surprise that, considering the remains of pure 
ancient art in southern countries, no better ideas of the beauty and dignity 
appropriate to holy subjects and persons should have first illustrated the 
doctrines of Christianity. But all the arts were then in a state of move- 
ment, and had no fixed principles. 

The sculpture in Westminster Abbey must be regarded : — First, in rela- 
tion to the architecture, simply as decoration; Secondly, as '* subject " 
sculpture; Thirdly, as <*memoriar' sculpture. The two latter classes 
would form the subject of that discourse. The Professor then discussed 
in detail the merits of the various pieces of sculpture falling under these 
heads. The screen of Edward the Confessor, executed in the reign of 
Henry VL, was especially remarked upon, and its artistic defects con- 
sidered to be balanced by the tone of feeling it displays. The statues in 
the chapel of Henry vll. also came in for a considerable share of 

The monuments, beginning with those of the early abbots in the east 
cloister, were then passed in review, and their characteristics and artistic 
treatment considered. The principle exhibited in these works continued to 
influence monumental design when subsequently such memorials were 
extended to the noble and distinguished among the laity. The monu- 
ment of Henry III. was remarkable for the simple pose of the statue, and 
the graceful arrangement of the drapery. In the adjoining statue of Queen 
Eleanor there is a calm, gentle expression of the face, the hands are 
designed with the utmost grace, and extraordinary elegance and beauty is 
displayed in some of the details. Portraiture was evident in that and in 
other royal monuments. The fine tombs of Edmund Crouchback and 
others displayed the fanciful and elaborate peculiarities of the Gothic 
style ; but the later monuments were not proofs of progress in the style. 
In Torregiano's works in the chapel of Henry YII. is a mixture of the 
classical orders with certain Gothic traditions. This corrupt style preceded 
the Reformation. An *' unfortunate'* taste characterised the tombs of 
Elizabeth and Mary Queen of Scots ; allegory was afterwards resorted to, 
the design was overladen, and the religious sentiment of the work disturbed. 
Many examples of such a taste existed in the Abbey ; as well as of the 
huge compositions of the Jacobean period. Of the later monuments, that 
to Mrs. Nightingale by Roubiliac was tho most remarkable. It was full of 
pathos and touching sentiment, but it offends against propriety and good 

.1 This lecture ii printed at length in the volume ''Old LondoD." 

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taste. The greater portion of the later statues have a mere portrait 
character, and ought never to have been pkced in the positions they 

Returning to the chapter-house, Mr. G. G. Scott then delivered a dis- 
course upon the architecture of the Abbey. Mr. Scott had hoped that on 
the occasion of a London Congress such as that now assembled, the same 
great master of archaeological investigation would have elucidated the 
architectural history of our great royal Abbey, that had brought his labours 
to bear with such wonderful success upon the cathedrals and other great 
architectural monuments where the annual meetings of the Institute had 
been held during the last twenty years. Unfortunately, Professor Willis's 
health had suffered too much of late to permit him to undertake such a 
task. Mr. Scott then gave a sketch of the Saxon history of the Abbey, 
quoting (among others) the description in the life of the Coi^essor published 
in a lately edited chronicle. It was clear from these statements that the 
Abbey was viewed as the first of ''Norman,'* rather than as the last of 
** Saxon" churches — the church was in general plan not unlike many 
Norman conventual churches ; that it was cruciform, with a lofty centrd 
tower as at St. Alban's and Tewkesbury; that it had two western towers, 
as at Durham, Canterbury, and other Norman churches ; and that it had 
(what was also common) an apsidal eastern end. It would appear that the 
aisles of the eastern end were in two storeys, both vaulted, as is often seen 
on the continent, and at Gloucester. The choir proper was under the 
central tower, as usual ; and on the south side was a cloister, with dormi- 
tory, refectory, and offices adjoining in due order ; while at the east was 
the Chapter House. Probably some of these buildings were not built in - 
the time of the Confessor ; but it is evident they had grown old by the 
early part of the thirteenth century, and that the nave was not finished till 
after the Confessor's death. 

Happily there are by no means scanty remains of the Confessor's build- 
ings. These are, the substructure of the dormitory, almost entire ; portions 
of the dormitory itself ; a wall of the refectory, including its arcading, and 
some fragments of the monastic offices. To these might be added, the 
bases of two of the great piers of the choir discovered within the last few 

The rebuilding of the church by Henry III. is mentioned by every 
historian. The Lady Chapel was built twenty-five years before the rest, 
and was no part of the king's great scheme. Of the progress of the build- 
ing of the Abbey nothing is known but from the fragments of the fabric 
roUs, which have been so well annotated by Professor Willis, and which 
show that the works progressed rapidly. There can be no doubt that the 
king intended the building to excel in beauty any other structure of the 
kind, and in this intention he fully succeeded. The style is in advance 
of that usual in England at the date, and all its details are extremely 

Mr. Scott then described the plan of the Abbey, its general construction, 
proportions, materials, workmanship, and details of the sculpture. He 
then discussed the position of the cloister, and the extent to which it was 
built by Henry HI. After some remarks upon the question of the central 
towerj he referred to the other works of Henry III. in connection with the 
Abbey. A MS. in the British Museum, lately copied for the Dean and 
Chapter, had enabled him to identify tlio '* Rcvostry " and St. Faith's 

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Chapel, with that known as the Gbapel of St. Blaize. This MS. was full 
of information upon the early arrangements and customs of the Abbey. 

Mr. Scott then described the Chapter House, and spoko of its design, 
its decorations, and its proposed restoration. The history of the fabric 
through the succeeding reigns was then continued, the points of difference 
distinguished, and the additions and alterations commented upon. Of the 
works in the Abbey during the reigns of Henry lY. and Henry V., and in 
the cloisters in the reigns of Edward III. and Richard XL, many details 
existed among the archives* Much was done by means of the munificent 
bequest of Archbishop Langham, and by the .industry and skill of Abbot 
Lidington, who bad (he task of executing his will. From time to time 
the works were continued till the Dissolution, when the towers were still 

At the conclusion of his discourse, Mr. Scott conducted the yisitors to 
inspect the principal parts of the fabric to which he had made especial 
reference. The remains of the substructure of the dormitory were first 
examined. Entering the church from the cloisters a pause was made in 
the south transept ; thence the party passed to the ambulatory of the 
eastern end, where the beautiful ancient '' retabulum " was inspected, and 
the adjoining monuments were adrerted to. The many beautiful and 
interesting objects in Edward the Confessor's Chapel next engaged the 
attention of the party. Here Mr.'Scott showed the remnants of the bases 
of the Confessor s church which had been yery lately found, and described 
recent discoveries in relation to the burial of abbots, &c. 

After leaving the church Mr. Scott visited with some of the party the 
remains of the refectory, where the ancient hatches between the kitchen 
and the refectory had been laid open to view on that very day. 

In the evening a meeting of the Historical Section was held in the 
theatre of the Geological Museum in Jermyn Street. The chair was taken 
by Lord Talbot de Malahide, and Mr. W. Hepworth Dixon read a paper on 
the *' Historical Associations of the Tower of London." 

The Tower of London may be called one of the most poetical monuments 
in Europe, its aspect being most striking to a traveller entering London 
from the sea. As a state prison, as a fortress, as a court of justice, as an 
arsenal, as a military museumj as a strong jewel-box, it fills the mind with 
picture, poetry, and drama. 

Even as to length of days the Tower has no rivals among palaces and 
prisons. The oldest bit of palace in Europe, that of the west front of the 
Burg in Vienna, is of the time of Henry. III. The Kremlin in Moscow, 
the Doge's palace in Venice, are of the fourteenth century. The Seraglio 
in Stamboul was built by Mahommed II., Pope Borgia built the oldest 
part of the Vatican, the old Louvre was commenced in the reign of our 
Henry VIII. , and at the time of our Restoration Versailles was yet a 
swamp. Neither can the prisons which have earned any large celebrity in 
history and drama — with the one exception of St. Angelo in Rome — com- 
pare with the Tower of London. 

Prom the reign of Stephen to that of James II., the square white edifice 
in the centre, known as Julius Cesar's tower, was a main part of the roynl 
palace of our English kings ; and for that large interval of time its story 
is in some measure that of our English society and of our English court. 
Hero were the rpyal wardrobe and jewels, the mint, the courts, the queen's 
gardens and royal banqueting-hall. The great prison was begun by a 

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prelate, and (as far as we know) the first prisoner was also a prelate. Ho 
was Ralph Flambard, Bishop of Durham and Lord Chancellor. For his 
many crimes he was seizedi on the death of Rufus being known, and 
lodged in the Tower ; whence he escaped by making his watchers drunk. 
A window is shown as that from which he descended bj means of a rope. 

In King John's time the Tower-warden irritated the people much by 
overstraining his right to fish in the rirer. Kidels— weirs fitted with nets 
— were used, greatly to the injury of the fish and of trade. Richard I. 
solemnly gare up his rights but the Tower-wardens still greatly rezed the 
citizens and the fishmongers. The access to the courts in tiie Tower was 
also the subject of many discussions between king and people — ^the old 
English practice for the courts to be open mnd unguarded being in jeopardy. 
The Wakefield Tower, in which was a gateway that had been a puzzle, 
was connected with the great hall where the Common Pleas was held — 
which explains the puzzle. 

In the reign of Henry III., Richard, King of the Romans, was confined 
in the Tower by the barons after the battle of Lewes, together with Queen 
Elinor. Edward 11. and Isabella kept a splendid and unhappy court in 
the Tower. Roger Mortimer was then a prisoner, and during Edward's 
absence he obtained access to Isabella, and afterwards escaped. The story 
of their guilty passion and their tragic end is the most singular and most 
shameful episode in our royal history. During the Wars of the Roses the 
Tower was the magnificent home, sometimes the miserable jail, of our 
Yorkist and Lancastrian princes. Among the presents here given by 
Henry VII. to Elizabeth of York, his queen, is a book in which we have 
the earliest known yiew of the Tower. Qjie of the most remarkable prison 
stories was that of Sir Henry Wyat and the cat, who came into his dun- 
geon, stayed with him, and bettered his scanty fare by catching pigeons 
for him. A picture of Sir Henry with his faithful cat is in the Exhibition 
of Portraits at South Kensington. 

The imprisonment of the great Duke of Norfolk and his gifted son. Lord 
Surrey, were then spoken of by the lecturer, who, reyerting to the plan of 
the Tower, divided it into three parts or groups, and dealt in detail with 
the points of interest in each. 

The first group comprised the outer walls, gates, &c. The famous 
Water Gate, or Traitor's Gate, was by far the most remarkable of these, 
and the entrance of many a prisoner of note was illustrated by some 
episode or other. Opposite to this gate was the Bloody Tower, the entrance 
to the.Tower proper, which formed the second group ; and Mr. Dixon put 
together with great force and clearness the evidence which convinced him 
that the bones found in the White Tower were the bones of the princes 
murdered by Richard III., which had been removed from the Bloody Tower. 
In the Bloody Tower the most notable prisoners were Thomas Cranmer, 
Edward Courtney, and Sir Walter Raleigh. The latter was confined there 
twelve years, and it was the scene of his historical labours, of his chemical 
experiments, and of his political conversations. In tho council chamber 
adjoining was a torture room, where James I. came down to question Guy 
Faux. The Bell Tower, the Beauchamp Tower, and the other towers of 
the fortress, were each referred to in detail, together with many of the 
celebrated and touching events of which they had been the scene. 

The third group, or division, was tho White Tower. This was the 
centre of our national life from the accession of Stephen (o the flight of 

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James II. Here were lodged our royal prisoners, and our foreign captires. 
With a full account of the most engaging of these prisoners, Chanes of 
Orleans, one of the captives ^of Agincourt, Mr. Dixon concluded his essay. 

On the same evening a meeting of the Historical Section was held at the 
Royal Institution, when Mr. G. Scharf read a paper " On the Historical 
Paintings at Windsor and Hampton Coiu*t."' 

Mr. Scharf commenced hy giving a short account of the existing remains 
of early royal portraits in this country down to the period of the formation 
of the catalogue of the pictures of Henry YII I., included among his^housc- 
hold goods, and now in the Public Record Office. A sunilar inventory, 
five years later, is in the British Museum, which contains some additional 
pictures. Mr. Scharf gave extracts relating to the works of art mentioned 
in this inventory, and identified a considerable portion as at present existing 
—chiefly at Hampton Court and Windsor. The title of part of the inven- 
tory, ** Hanginges," gave the lecturer the opportunity of speaking of tlie 
tapestries in the royal collections. These collections received considerable 
additions in the reign of James I. Both the sons of that king evinced an 
early interest in art, and agents were sent abroad for the purchase of 
pictures. The result is shown in the great catalogue of the royal pictures, 
&e*9 at' Whitehall Palace, compiled by Yander Doort in 1639. This was 
carefully analysed by Mr. Scharf, who gave much curious information as to 
its contents, and referred to their present localities and condition. By the 
Commonwealth the royal collections were sold and dispersed, but at the 
Restoration many of the pictures were recovered. The catalogue of the 
pictures of Charles II. and James II., signed '* W. Chiffinch," was the 
means of identifying many pictures in the earlier collection as returned to 
royal possession. Mr. Scharf commented at some length on several 
entries in this catalogue, and continued his account of the collections at 
Westminster, Kensington, Hampton Court, Greenwich, and Windsor Castlo 
down to the present time. 

Friday, July 20. 

A meeting of the Architectural Section was held at 10 a.m. at the 
Royal Institution, Mr. A. J. B. Beresforb Hope, M.P., in the chair. 

Mr. J. H. Parker gave a discourso upon tho Architectural History of 
Windsor Castle. 

The situation of this Castle points it out as a natural position for a fortress 
in primitive times. All primitive fortresses consist of earth-works, and tho 
more ancient are constructed on the bolder scale. The wide and deep 
fosses and the high artificial mound at Windsor indicate an early date. 
Roads were at the bottoms of the fosses, and on the bank between them 
were buildings, first of wood, afterwards of stone. The outer fosse was 
much deeper than the other, and subterranean passages connected the two. 
The outer fosse is recorded to have been of the usual dimensions of a 
Roman fosse 100 feet wide and 30 deep. In tho third century a change 
took place in Roman practice of fortification, and tho works at Windsor 
would have been so made, had thoy been of the period of King Arthur, as 
was believed in tho reign of Edward the Third. They are moro likely of 
the timo of Caractacus, when the Britons constructed so many fortresses. 

3 ThiB lecture is printed at length in the volume " Old London," under the title 
" Royal Picture Galleriea." 

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The Saxons continued to use the fortified places of the Britons, retiring 
to them for protection. Edward the Confessor is believed to hare resided 
chiefly at Old Windsor, and to hare retained the Castle in case of need. 
The ancient moats and low mounds at Old Windsor are believed to belong 
to a period before the Roman Conquest, and it is probable the Romans had 
a camp there. Throughout England we find a Roman camp in the yalley 
a mile or two from a British Castle or Town, where they stationed them- 
selves when they hud siege to it. The manner in which Britain was then 
defended was similar to that practised by the New Zealanders of our own 
time, a New Zealand Pah being very similar to a British fortress. 

The castles of the Roman barons who came over with William the Con- 
queror were of earth-works and wood only. The earliest stone keep in 
England is that of Bishop Gundulph at Mailing in Kent, which was built 
after the Conquest. There is no evidencTe of William the Conqueror having 
built Windsor Castle. The passage in Domesday rather proves that there 
was a castle previously existing on this spot in the manor of Clewer, which 
had been inhabited by Earl Harold in the time of the Confessor. 

William the Conqueror exchanged lands with Westminster Abbey to 
retain Windsor Castle. William Rufus held his court, and had a prison at 
Windsor. Henry the First made Windsor his habitual residence. His 
buildings there would bo chiefiy of wood, but some of the fragments of 
stone carving found there may bo of his time. In Stephen's time Windsor 
is mentioned in the treaty of Wallingford as a fortress of importance. 

The first mention of Windsor Castle on the great exchequer rolls of 
account is of the reign of Henry the Second, and it relates to the vineyard. 
The buildings of this reign cost ^800, and many fragments- of that period 
have been found; Part of the gateway still exists, and the lower part of 
the south wall of the Upper Ward. The postern was arched with stone on 
chalk walls, and has door-ways of this period. 

In the reign of Henry III. begins the history of the existing Castle. 
The Lower Ward was then built of stone, of which many portions yet re- 
main. The fortifications are built on the old walls, which aro faced and 
altered. The lower part of the Clewer Tower is almost unaltered, and 
shows a prison chamber of the period. Tho entrance to it (which remains) 
waa from the road at the bottom of the inner ditch ; tho inner windows 
were into the same road ; tlio outer are loop-holes only, with a cell for a 
prisoner in each. Each Tower was a separate dwelling-house. There is 
frequent mention of a trehuchet or catapult, which was probably placed on 
the Clewer Tower. The details of the Royal Chambers, kc, near the 
wall, are minutely given in the records. The King's Hall is now the 
Chapter Library ; the other chambers have been destroyed. Of the Chapel 
part of the North wall is preserved ; the Galilee is the passage at tho East 
end behind the altar of St. George's Chapel. The West end of the Chapel 
has been rebuilt several times, but the measurements continue the same as 
in the early accounts* Tho Arcade in the Cloisters was protected by a 
wooden roof only, — a painting of a king's head of the time of Henry III. 
is still upon the Cloister wall. The Chapel has been altered at various 
times, and is now the Royal Tomb-house, restored as a memorial to the 
late Prince Consort. In the reigns of Edward I. and II. the works in 
progress were continued, and a Bowe or lunette made. 

Tho reign of Edward III. is one of tho most important in the history of 
Windsor Castle. A large part of the existing Castle was built at that 

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period, and the accounts have fortunately been presenred, so that we have 
& great mass of materials for the history of the fabric during this reign. 
In the first year a survey was made of Uie Castle, which shows the extent 
of repairs necessary. In the eighteenth year, the Round Tower was entirely 
rebuilt from the ground for the purpose of holding the Round Table, and 
we have every item of the expenditure on that account recorded ; including 
that for repairing the bridges over the fosses lest they should be broken by 
the carriage of the great Round Table ; t.^,, the stones for the Tower. 
There were then seven bridges over the fosses, all of which can be traced ; 
and, of course, so many gates. The Round Tower was completed in about 
ten months, at' an expenditure of about £10,000 of our present valuation. 
It consisted of a shell of stone with an open court in the centre in which 
was placed the table, protected by a timber lean-to covered with tiles pro- 
jecting from the walls. At Carcassone and Amboise similar buildings 
existed, said to hare been built in rivalry to that at Windsor. The work 
at Windsor was hurri^, so that the netv order of knights might dine in it 
on St. George's day following. As altered by Wyatville, the Round Tower 
is nearly double its original height, a brick wall being built within the stone 
wall to carry the additional weight 

Edward III. did not build a new chapel at Windsor, but only completed 
that begun by Henry III., and made additions to it. There are many very 
curious and valuable notices in the accounts relating to the furniture and 
decorations of this chapel, which appears to have been of two storeys. 
The accounts for building the Cloisters are also very full and interesting. 
Among the accounts are many entries for painting the vaults below the 
Treasury (now called the Aerary) or Muniment Room, which was probably 
the porch to the Chapter House then building, and which the knights used 
as a vestry. Of the Chapter House itself there are many notices, though 
now all traditions of it are lost The house for the College of Canons, now 
the Deanery, was built during the 25th and 26th years of Edward III., 
but it has be^n very much altered and added to. The canons' houses were 
evidently timber buildings, and probably covered with thatch. An entirely 
new hall and offices were built in the upper bailey where the Royal apart- 
ments now are, and the fine series of vaults under these apartments are the 
remains of William of Wykeham's work. The small tower erroneously 
called " King John's Tower," is doubtless the *' Rose " Tower of these 
accounts, upon the beautifying of which much expense was bestowed. The 
new Royal Apartments of Edward the Third were richly decorated with 
painting, tapestry, and painted glass. 

The important works carried on during the reign of Edward III. were 
not completed at the death of that monarch, and they were continued by 
his successor. The accounts, however, show that they consisted chiefly of 
the necessary offices and repairs to existing buildings. The Ring resided 
there very often, and indulged much in the sport of hawking. Geoffrey 
Chaucer was clerk of the works of the chapel in his reign. 

For the reigns of Edward IV. and Henry VII. the records of the works 
at Windsor were considerable, and of these Mr. Parker gave a succinct 
account, applying the entries among them to the structures themselves. 
With the reign of Henry VIII., during which little was done at Windsor, 
the architectural history of Windsor might be said to close. 

Professor Willis then gave an account of the Architectural History of 
Eton College. 


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The Professor prefaced his account with some introductory remarks on. 
the general history of colleges and their growth. The Universities were 
at first corporations of learned men, the teachers in wliich instructed by 
means of lectures, the students being obliged to find lodgings for them- 
selyes. Soon, however, generous persons gave funds to assist poor students. 
A more definite shape was then assumed by these institutions ; and lodg- 
ings were provided, that the morals and manners of these students might 
be under superintendence and control. The next step was to purchase 
houses, endow them, and provide them with statutes. Thus arose the 
communities termed colleges, residing in buildings called the Domus or 
Aula^ which at first contained little else than chambers, he:, to lodge and 
live in. The first of these colleges was Merton College, Oxford, founded 
in 1264 ; othera followed at intervals up to 1379, when William de Wyke- 
ham erected the first college complete in all its details, and so well 
organized as to serve as a basis for all subsequent erections. His plans 
included a preparatory school at Winchester, from i^fhich the members of 
his Oxford College were to be selected. This led to the consideration of 
King's College, Cambridge, and its appendage, Eton. 

The Professor gave a touching account of the efifect of the misfortunes of 
Henry YL, in retarding and finally suspending these works, followed 
by a parallel between his continual devising of plans for the education and 
elevation of his people and those by the late Prince Consort. In Henry 
VI.'s *< Will" is a complete specification for his colleges, in which he 
has laid downs his plans so clearly, that the lecturer was able to transfer 
them to paper and exhibit diagrams of the grouiid>plans to his audience as 
a basis for comparison with that of the actual buildings existing there. 
Henry, however, modified his plans considerably. He first founded a col- 
legiate grammar-school at Eton and a small college at Cambridge, dedicated 
to St Nicholas, that saint's day having been his birth-day. He soon 
enlarged his plans, increasing the number of his beneficiaries and con- 
necting, by statutes copied from Wykeham's, Eton School, with King's 
College at Cambridge. 

The contemporary building accounts and documents, containing the 
King's projects and instructions, long mislaid, and believed to have been 
stolen, were by a fortunate accident discovered in a forgotten recess of the 
library at Eton, about two months since, and liberally submitted to the 
Professor's inspection. They contain abundant proofs of the personal in- 
terest which the King took in the details of the college buildings, and of 
the changes and improvements introduced by him as time went on. They 
show that the works at Eton were of two kinds, carried on simultaneously. 
First, the enlarging, refitting, and altering of buildings that already stood 
on the site purchased by the King, including the parish church, of which 
he obtained the advowson, and its conversion into a collegiate church. 
These buildings were made to serve for the purposes of the new College, 
which enabled the school to be brought into active existence from the be- 
ginning, without waiting for the erection of the magnificent architectural 
pile described in his Will and other documents, and which was commenced 
simultaneously with these temporary operations ; but which, even if carried 
on in prosperous times, would necessarily have occupied many years in com- 

The permanent College was also begun ; the first buildings commenced 
being the great chapel^ which now exists, and the hall and kitchens. This 

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chapel was placed in the old parish church-yard, to the north of the old 
parish church, and was planned as the chancel of a large collegiate church, 
to be provided with a nave or body for the parishioners, as described in the 
King's Will, dated 1448. But, after the signature of this Will, the King 
enlarged and altered his plans. He sent persons to Sarum and Winton, 
and other parts, to measure the choirs and nares of churches there, and had 
improved designs made for the college buildings of Eton. 

Among the documents lately discovered were two specifications relating 
to the chapel, one exactly corresponding to that of the WUl, but in which 
every dimension is struck through with a pen, and an increased dimension 
written above it. The other specification describes the chapel or cliurch, 
as it is called, in difierent phraseology from that of the Will, and more com- 
pletely. The dimensions of the latter paper are greater than in the cor- 
rected document, and they correspond exactly with the chapel as it exists. 
Minute directions are given for the foundations of the chapel ; the founda* 
iions for the enlarged dimensions are to be laid outside the walls then 
in progress, to be constructed with the greatest care, and with *' mighty 

The deposition of the King in 1461 put an abrupt stop to the buildings, 
which had languished during his increasing misfortunes. They were re- 
sumed, however, in 1475, but not under favourable conditions. The great 
chapel had evidently been completed in great haste, as was evidenced by 
the abrupt depression of the window-heads. The hall too shows similar 
evidences that its walls and windows were intended to have been carried to 
a much higher elevation, and that after a sudden interruption it had been 
hastily put into a condition to receive the roof, which is of very plain con- 
struction. The magnificent body of the collegiate church designed by the 
founder was never even commenced. 

The arrangement of the college buildings differs- entirely from that de- 
scribed in the Will of the founder in 1448. The Pri»fessor concluded from 
this, and from the mention of a plan or " Portratura " exhibited to the 
King in the following year ** for the finishing of the buildings of the Col- 
lege," that he, when adopting an enlarged design for the chapel, had also 
determined upon another disposition of the other buildings. 

The paper concluded with an examination of the present buildings^ and 
a comparison of them with those mentioned in the will of Henry VI ; to- 
gether with a history of those which had been subsequently added. 

Shortly after two o'clock a very large party assembled at the outer (west) 
gate of the Tower of London, where they were met by Mr. G. T. Clark* 
who led them through the postern of the Byward Tower to the quay* 
where he mounted a temporary platform, and gave a short introduction to 
the history of the Tower, and a general outline of its plan, before con- 
ducting Uiem over the fortress. 

Returning into the Outer Ward, the party then proceeded to examine 
St. Thomas's Tower, the ancient Traitor's Gate, and the other towers of 
the ward ; then passing through the Bloody Tower into the inner ward, 
the Bell, Beauchamp, and other towers, and main features of the building, 
were inspected, Mr. Clark carefully pointing out the peculiar characteris- 
tics of each spot. Owing to the largeness of the party, and the narrow- 
ness of many of the passages traversed, a division was sometimes made, 
and the knowledge of some others of the company was turned to good 
accouut in explaining parts of the structure. The entire circuit of the 

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fortress was thus made, and the party haying now heen guided into St. 
John's Chapel in the White Tower, were glad to avail themselves of the 
excellent supply of seats which Lord de IiU>s and the other officials had 
most ohligingly supplied for their convenience. Here Mr. Clark gave a 
full account of the history and architecture of the Tower.' 

Mr. Clark hegan hy remarking that the circumstances of our country 
had not been favourable to the production of military buildings of the 
-first class, and our nobles had not been under conditions to justify the 
construction of great castle-palaces like those of France. Castles of which 
the quadrangular Norman keep is the type are confined, or very nearly so, 
to our own country and to Normandy. By the Normans, this class of 
fortress was introduced into England ; and in their erection the Normans 
■frequently availed themselves of the earthworks of strong places which 
already existed. The pre-eminence of the Tower of London, even in a purely 
military and architectural point of view, does not, however, depend alone 
upon its keep. It is, in its present state, a fine and very complete example 
of the concentric fortress, not indeed the execution of one period, but 
nevertheless presenting much harmony of design. 

When, having crossed the Thames, the Conqueror marched in person 
to complete the investment of London, he found that ancient city resting 
upon the left bank of its river, protected on its landward side by a strong 
wall, with mural towers and an exterior ditch. It is related that before 
the Conqueror entered London, he directed a fortress to be built which 
should command the city. This, of course, was a temporary camp ; and, 
while in that camp, he selected the present site of the Tower as that of 
his future citadel ; displacing, for that purpose, a part of the Roman walL 
The Tower is said to stand upon the site of the second Roman bulwark ; 
but this is doubtful, though Roman remains have been found within the 

Nearly in the centre, but now detached and alone, stands the Keep, the 
oldest and most stable part of the fortress. Around it is the Inner Ward, 
in plan generally four-sided. Encircling this is the Outer Ward, following 
the same general plan. And encircling all is the Ditch, which is divided 
from the river by a narrow strip of land. The ground covered by the 
Tower rises considerably from the river — a material advantage in repelling 
an attack from that side. 

Csdsar's Tower (as it is called) rises 90 ft. from the floor to the crest of 
the present battlement ; above which rise four turrets, three of which are 
square and one round. The walls are from 12 to 15 ft. thick, and the 
internal area is about 91 by 73 ft The basement is crossed by a wall 
10 ft. thick, which rises to the summit, and one of the two chambers so 
-formed in each story, is again subdivided by another wall, so that every 
floor is divided into three chambers. On the fourth, or upper stage, is the 
*' State floor," on which is the Council room together with the chapel of 
St. John — the chamber in which Mr. Clark was then discoursing. This, 
the earliest and simplest, as well as most complete Norman chapel ia 
Britain, must have witnessed the devotions of the Conqueror and his imme- 
diate descendants. The church, which was afterwards built, was evidently 
-intended rather for the garrison at large than for the sovereign. The 
upper gallery was no doubt used for the principal persons, while the house- 
hold occupied the floor below. The walls were probably painted and hung 

' Printed at length in the volume " Old London," previously referred to. 

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with tapestry, and the eastern widcIows contained stained glass, placed 
there, with other ornaments, hy Henry III. This chapel was dismantled 
in 1550 ; all crosses, images, and plate of gold heing directed to he melted 

The place and manner of the original entrance to the Keep are unknown. 
It was probably at the second stage, or first floor level, on the north side. 
There is no subterranes^ chamber in the Keep, or throughout the fortress. 
The arrangements of the interior are well designed to guard against a 
surprise, but must have been very inconvenient to those residing in it. The 
ahsenoe of ornament, and the general roughness of the work^ lead to the 
conclusion that the Keep was built in haste. 

The Inner Ward is inclosed within a curtain wall, having four sides, 
twelve mural towers, and a gatehouse. Its level is from 15 to 20 ft* 
above that of the Outer Ward. In the south-east quarter of this ward 
stood the palace, between the 'keep and the ward wall. The entry is 
through the gate-house in the south front, called the Bloody Tower. Por- 
tions of the curtain wall exist between some of the towers, which have 
been the chief prisons in the fortress. In the St. Martin Tower, the crown 
jewels are kept, f^d have been since about 1^1. 

The Outer Ward is a strip of from 20 ft. to 110 ft. in breadth, surround- 
ing the Inner ward, and itself contained within the ditch, of which the 
wall forms the scarp. Its only regular towers were ^re on the south-front. 
Of these the principal is St. Thomas's Tower, better known as Traitor's 
Gate, and as the Water-gate of the Tower. The arch, 61 ft. in span, and 
15^ ft. in rise, which crosses the hasin within the outer wall, is a very 
remarkable piece of construction. On two of the floors in one of the 
turrets are doors facing openings in the Wakefield Tower, to which there 
were probably drawbridges. The Byward Tower, at the junction of the 
south and west ditches, is the great Gate-house of the Outer Ward. 

The quay does not appear to have had any permanent parapet wall, heing 
sufficiently commanded by the Outer Ward. It was probably the work of 
Henry 111., by whom the ditch, the great defence of the Tower, was 
greatly increased in depth and breadth. 

The building of the Tower was entrusted by the Conqueror to Gundulf, 
a monk of Bee, who, in 1077, was consecrated Bishop of Rochester. By 
him the Keep was doubtless completed, and much progress made with the 
walls of the enciente, the palace buildings, and the Wakefield Tower. 
Works continued to be carried on at intervals ; and, in the time of Stephen, 
the Tower was considered to be impregnable. Much was done to strengthen 
the Tower during the reign of Richard I. At the accession of Henry 111., 
in 1216, the wall of the enceinte of the Inner Ward from Lan thorn Tower 
to Wakefield, Bell, and Devereux Towers, was in existence, together with 
the palace, the church of St. Peter, and other buildings within it. Pro- 
bably the Inner Ward wall abutted direct upon the river shore. During 
the reign of Henry 111. considerable additions were made to the fortress. 
The works are said to have heen once interrupted by supernatural agency, 
on account of the displeasure with which they were regarded by the citi- 
zens. With the death of Henry, and the earlier years of his son, the 
history of the Tower, as a specimen of military architecture, may be said 
to decline, and its history as a state prison, if not to begin, to prepon- 

During the reign of Edward 111., the Beauchamp, the Salt, and perhaps 

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the Bowyer, towers were built. la 1336 a survey of the Tower was made 
by the king's directions, and the repairs shown to be needed were done in 
the following year. In that reign it became the chief royal arsenal, and 
the mint, and record office were there. The strong monarchs employed 
the Tower as a prison, the weak ones as a fortress. It was the custom 
for the king to lodge a short time in the Tower previous to his coronar- 
tion, and proceed thence in state to that ceremony.. 

By a survey taken in 1532, it appears that the Tower had been allowed 
to go greatly to decay, as a general repair was shown to be necessary. 
The buildings of the palace had probably fallen into decay in the reign 
of Elizabeth, by whom, or by James, the great hall was removed. In the 
I7th centuiy many changes were made, and the White Tower was much 
altered by Sir G. Wren. 

At the c<Hnmencement of the present century, the Tower was a great 
jumble of ancient and later buildings, the towers and walls being almost 
completely incrusted by the small official dwellings by which the area was 
closely occupied. More recently, the general improvement in public taste 
has made its way into the Tower ; Mr. Salvin has been appointed its 
architect, and Lord do Ros its lieutenant. 

In the evening, a Conversazione by the Royal Institute of British Archi- 
tects was given at the commodious and elegant rooms of the Institute in 
Conduit Street, to which all visitors at the ArchsBological Congress were 
specially invited, and enjoyed a most hospitable reception. On that 
occasion, many fine works of art were exhibited, and a special collection 
relating to the metropolis was most kindly formed by the Council. 
Among these were : — 

Several volumes of prints, maps, and drawings, illustrating the topo- 
graphy of Old London, from the Library of the Corporation of the City of 
London ; a large coloured drawing of the Palace at Whitehall, and other 
works by Inigo Jones ; together with some modern buildings and designs, 
by Mr. W, Tite, M.P. 

Fac-simile of part of the ** retabulum," Westminster Abbey ; and a 
series of fifteen drawings of portions of the interior of the Abbey, by Mr. 
G. G. Scott, R.A. 

Photographs of various details, St. Paul's cathedral, by Mr. F. C. 

Drawings and photograph of the Temple Church, and drawings of the 
Middle Temple Hall, by Mr. J. P. St. Aubyn. 

A collection of drawings, by Capon and others, of the palace at West- 
minster, and of views in London, by Mr. J. Dunn Gardiner. 

Many drawings, designs, &c., by various Members, of buildings by 
them in London. 

Saturday, July 21. 
. This was the day for the Excursion to Windsor and Eton. 

By 11 A.M. the Members and visitors had assembled in large numbers 
on the Castle Hill, many of them having arrived by early trains. 

The appointed rendezvous was King George IVth's Gate, imme- 
diately facing the Long Walk. The weather was most propitious, and the 
beauty of the scene was most charming. The spot was selected as spe- 
cially suitable, on account of the modern entrance being nearly in the 
place of one of the great gateways of the Norman period, and as being 

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close to the exit of one of the postern passages which, hj Tier Majesty's 
gracious permission, and the kind and zealous attentions of the officers of 
the Board of Works, had heen opened for the gratification of the visitors. 
Here Mr. Parker gave a short discourse, recapitulating the main points of 
his lecture of the previous day, and pointing out the principal features of 
the Castle, as apparent from the spot on which they then were. The 
entrance to the postern passage was among the fine shruhs immediately 
outside the wall, and on the top of the "slope'* on that side. The 
descent had heen made as convenient as possible, and very many ladiea 
were among those who entered the quadrangle by that route. It seemed 
as though the extreme end of the passage had not been struck, but an 
opening had been made in the crown of the arch covering it The passage 
was about 6 ft. high and 4 ft. wide, and was well and evenly cut through 
the solid chalk. At about the middle were the jambs for a door, with holes 
for the bar. At the further end — the original entrance to the postern — 
was another well-coDStructed arch of the Norman period. This is now 
undcFone of the servants' bedrooms. Scrawlings of names, ** graphitic'' 
in handwriting as late as the reign of Elizabeth, were seen on several parta 
of the walls. After examining the remains of the Norman gateway, the 
party crossed the quadrangle to the servants' hall, and thence by the 
stewards' room to the kitchen cloister. The north terrace was then 
reached, along which the party passed to the gate by the Wykeham Tower. 
These portions of the castle were of the time of Edward III. The next 
point of interest to the party was the Round Tower, where the remains of 
the ancient timber- work and fittings were seen, and the inner core of the 
old tower, round which the present structure was erected, was subjected to 
careful examination* 

Owing to the largeness of the party a division of the number was at 
times found expedient, and Mr. G. T. Clark and Mr. Burtt assisted in 
pointing out the chief features of the portions of the Castle under notice. 

Descending the hill from the Round Tower the Chapel of St. George 
was reached, and here the Honorable and Very Reverend the Dean kindly 
received the party, conducting them through the Dean's cloister and study 
and the Wolsey Chapel (where are the beautiful Salviati mosaics in course 
of construction in this Memorial Chapel to the late lamented Prince Consort) 
into St. George's Chapel. In the Dean's library had been collected 
together many interesting drawings and engraTings, together with the 
famous Red Book of the Garter, and some relics connected with the royal 
burials at Windsor. In the deanery too was shown the famous screen of 
the Knights of the Garter, upon which the arms of the knights are em- 
blazoned. In the chapel Mr, Parker briefly referred to the leading points 
in its history, and pointed out its most interesting features. 

Emerging by the west door of St. George's Chapel the canons' houses in 
the curious horse-shoe cloister were examined, and thence the visitors 
passed on and into the Clewer Tower. This is one of the finest portions 
of the work of Henry III. existing in the Castle. The lower storey, that 
used for the prison, is intact ; and, as in the instance of the ancient postern, 
the most convenient facilities had been provided for the comfort and care' 
of the visitors by the kind supervision of the clerk of the works. 

Mr. Parker repeated the principal points in the history of the tower ; 
and, in conclusion, expressed in most cordial terms his thanks for the 
valuable assistance and kind help which had been given to the objects of 

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the meeting by the Very Rev. the Dean, Mr. Woodward, her Majesty's 
librarian, and the oflScers under them. 

Mr. Beresford Hope warmly seconded this expression of thanks, and 
trusted that the Dean and her Majesty's librarian would convey to her 
Majesty their sense of the kind attention which had been paid to the wishes 
of the officers of the Institute in the arrangements for the meeting. He 
then moved their adjournment to the Quadrangle of Eton College, where 
Professor Willis would meet them at four o'clock. It should be mentioned 
that the state apartments, library, and armoury were open to the visitors 
of the meeting during the whole day — a privilege which was warmly appre- 
ciated and well turned to account. Many of the more choice treasures of 
the library were most kindly displayed to view by Mr. Woodward, and the 
massive and more remarkable plate was also exhibited. 

The Dean with most courteous hospitality entertained a large number of 
the party at lunch, and by special invitation numerous guests were most 
hospitably received by the Rev. the Provost of Eton, Dr. Goodford. Several 
of the masters and other officers of the college also welcomed visitors 
of the meeting to their tables. 

Shortly after four o'clock the Rev. Professor Willis, attended by the 
Rev. the Provost and other distinguished members of the meeting, 
took post on the steps leading to the College Chapel. Shortly recapitu- 
lating the main points of his lecture in town on the previous day, and of 
the plans by which it was illustrated, he proposed to show the difference 
between the design given in Henry the Sixth's will and the actual execu- 
tion of the work as shown by the present state of the buildings. The signs 
of interruption in the works atid of abruptness in their completion were very- 
evident in many places even to the unprofessional eye, especially in the 
heads of the windows of the chapel, and in the cloister arcade. A peram- 
bulation of the college buildings was then made, the party passing from the 
quadrangle into or through the schools, the hall, the cloisters, into the 
beautiful garden, and back again into the magnificent chapel. At many 
points the Professor directed the attention of the visitors to some special 
circumstances affecting the portion of the structure under notice. The 
ready and skilfully contrived access from the hall to the master's house was 
much remarked. On emerging again into the quadrangle a cordial vote of 
thanks to Professor Willis for the profound knowledge and skill which he 
had displayed in his treatment of this difficult subject was submitted to the 
meeting by Dr. Goodford, and carried with acclamation. With a very 
general expression of their great obligations to the Rev. the Provost, 
and the authorities generally at Windsor and Eton, the large concourse of 
visitors took their departure. 

On Sunday, July 22nd, the Very Rev. the Dean of Westminster deli- 
vered a discourse at the afternoon service in Westminster Abbey upon 
archaeology in its religious aspect, from the text, ** See what manner of 
stones, and what buildings are here." (Mark xiii. 1.) ^ 

Monday, July 23rd. 

A meeting of the Historical Section was held in the Royal Institution, 
the Dean of Westminster in the chair. 

* Printed in the volume "Old Loudon." 

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An essay by Mr. £• Foss on the "Legal History of Westmbster Hall/' * 
was first read. 

Erected as an appendage to the Palace of Westminster by William Rufus^ 
Westminster Hall has been used for royal ceremonies and festivities, and 
for the decision of disputes in the presence of the king himself and of the 
barons and prelates constituting the king's court. But the king's presence 
came to be a rarity, aiyl was in time, as it is now, a fiction. A clause in 
Magna Charta remedied the inconrenience of the administration of justice 
being obliged to follow the court, and the "certain place " indicated for 
the holding of " common pleas " was Westminster Hall. In the reign of 
Edward I. the courts certainly met there^ and the chancellor sat in a marble 
chair orer against a marble table. 

The Hall was also occasionally used as a high court of crimmal justice 
for trials before peers, and of great delinquents impeached by the House of 
Commons ; the last being that of Lord Melnlle in 1806. 

There is OYidence that, in the reign of Edward III., stalls for mer- 
chandise were allowed within the Hall, and that there were stables under 
it. After its restoration in the reign of Richard II., higher prices were 
charged for the accommodation thus afforded. These traders were not 
remoTod till the eighteenth century. Their business must hare been a 
great interruption to the legal business of the Hall, although the courts 
were enclosed to a certain height. For the preparation of the coronation 
banquets the courts in the Hall were remored, and the shops and staUs 
boarded orer. 

Sereral inundations of the Thames are recorded as having flooded the 
Hall, giving occasion for the utterance of many legal witticisms; and the 
sittings of the courts were interrupted by the pestilences which occurred 
from time to time. But Westminster Hall is soon to be entirely dis- 
sociated from the law» and the worshippers will have to resort to another 
temple of justice. 

Mr. Cyril C. Graham then gave an account of the proceedings of the 
Palestine Exploration Fund, founded on Captain Wilson's report of the 
expedition. A large number of photographs and detailed maps of portions 
of the Holy Land were exhibited, and Mr. Layard, MP., Colonel Fraser, 
Mr. Beresford-Hope, Professor Porter, and others addressed the meeting 
upon the value of the explorations, and the need of continuing the work in 

Mr. BuRTT then read a paper upon the contents of the Public Record 

An archaological meeting in the metropolis would naturally look for an 
account of the national archives which were kept there. The main divi- 
sions of that collection were the ^' Legal," the "Historical," and the 
'* Miscellaneous ** records. The series of ** Chancery " records began 
early in the reign of John, but the writer doubted whether earlier had not 
existed. Of course the Domesday Book is the great gem of the collection. 
Then came the great rolls of the Exchequer, called the Pipe rolls, and 
much was said of their importance and value. Possibly they too had 
existed from the time of the Conquest The curious and remarkable boxes 
and other articles made in early times for the stowage and preservation of 
documents, and of which some still exist in the department of the Treasury 

* Printed at length in the volame "Old London." 
VOL. xxill. 3 E 

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of the Exchequer, were mentioned in some detail. The coUeotion of 
national muniments continued to increase, increasing yastlj in hulk as thej 
diminished in interest, during the eight centuries which have passed since 
the Domesdaj Book was compiled. M anj yerj special documents in the 
collection were remarked upon. These special documents came into the 
collection in the ordinary course of its formation. Some details illustrating 
the action of the Courts of " Star Ohamher," *' Requests," and '' Wards 
and LiTeries/' and the importance of their records were given. The 
greatest modern addition to the contents of the Office was that of the 
** State Paper V collection, of which excellent calendars were in course of 
puhlication. The building had lately been much added to and improred, 
and now comprised about eighty rooms, chiefly cubes of seventeen feet. 

At about 2 o'clock a large party of visitors, under the guidance of the 
Rev. £• Hill, assembled at Lambeth Palace« Here they were received bj 
the Rev. W. Stubbs on behalf of His Grace the Archbishop of Canterbury. 
After examining the Chapel, the Lollard's Tower, and the other chief ar- 
chitectural features of the Palace, Mr. G. Scharf discoursed upon the more 
remarkable paintings. A portrait of Archbishop Warren was specially 
referred to as having been very lately retrieved from a condition of extreme 
neglect. Thence the party proceeded to the Temple. In the church Mr. 
Parker gave a short discourse, pointing out the chief architectural beauties 
of the structure, and the judicious works that had been executed outside 
the walls. The difference of level caused by the accumulated soil was dis- 
tinctly marked. In the Hall of the Inner Temple, Mr. W. Bemhard Smith 
called attention to the fine specimens of armour that were exhibited. From 
the Temple the progress was continued to the fine church of St. Mary Overy, 
Southwark, where Mr. Freeman discoursed upon its remarkable construc- 
tion and great beauty, speaking in strong and well merited terms of indig- 
nation of the destruction of the nave in 1831, and the erection of the 
present structure in its stead. The church of St. Giles, Cripplegate, was 
the termination of the day's perambulation. The rector, the Rev. P. 
Gilbert, most courteously had every arrangement made for the convenience 
of the visitors, and showed them the many fine monuments, specimens of 
the parish records, &c. Mr. Parker referred to the chief points in the 
architecture of the church, and drew attention to the fine specimens of 
the Roman wall of the City, which formed the southern boundary of the 
churchyard. In several places the wall seemed to be in the soundest pos- 
sible condition. 

Tuesday, July 24th. 

A meeting of the Section of Primeval Antiquities was held in the theatre 
of the Geological Museum, at 10 a.k.. Sir John Lubbock, Bart., in the 

Mr. E. Deutsch read a paper "On Semitic Palssography and Epi- 
graphy,'' in which he described the progress of those sciences and discussed 
the state of our knowledge of them. 

This was followed by an essay « On the Flint-flakes found in Devon and 
Cornwall," by Mr. N. Whitley, in which the author combated the usually- 
received opinion of such flakes being the results of human manufacture, 
and contended that they were of natural origin. The Chairman was un- 
convinced by the esssyist. Mr. John Evans also objected to the conclu- 
sions arrived at by Mr. Whitley ; and followed up his remarks by exhibiting 

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a considerable Dumber of fine examples of flint implements found in the 
drift at rarious places, pointing out in a yerj conclusive chain of reasoning 
that their shape was the result of human agencj. The rounding of the 
ends of the larger instruments seemed as if they were intended for drilling. 
Mr. Mackie thought the pointed or pear-shaped form of instrument was pro- 
bably a weapon used as a pole-axe in the slaughter of large animals. 

A meeting of the Section of Antiquities was also held iu the Royal 
Institution, where the Rer. H. Joyce reported at considerable length the 
results of the operations that had now been carried on for some time in 
excavating the Roman city of Silchester in Hampshire. These operations 
were made by the directions, and at the expense, of His Grace the Duke of 
Wellington. A large collection of beautifully executed and coloured draw- 
ings of the principal buildings that had been met with in the course of the 
excavations, and of some of the rarer and more remarkable objects found, 
was also exhibited by the lecturer. 

At noon a special train on the South Western railway conveyed a large 
number of visitors to Hampton Court. The great feature in the excursion 
to this well-known and beautiful palace, was to hear Mr. Scharfs discourse 
upon the pictures, of which many of the usually-received accounts require 

In the Great Hall, hung about with the fine tapestry designed by Ber- 
nard van Orley, Mr. Scharf began his remarks upon the royal collection of 
pictures, and the changes they had nndergone as to location.* Recapitu- 
lating some of the heads of his previous lecture, Mr. Scharf addressed 
himself chiefly to the misnomers which had grown up, and to the individual 
histories of many of the paintings now in the Palace. Some of the adven- 
tures which these had undergone were very remarkable. Nos. 281 and 
282 of the catalogue were the juvenile portraits of two Austrian princesses, 
daughters of the Archduke Charles, whereas they were called those of the 
princesses Mary and Elizabeth. The series of portraits known as Charles 
II. 's Beauties was formed by the Duchess of York, and was kept at Wind- 
sor and known up to a late period as the ** Windsor Beauties." After a 
review of the characteristics of many of the more important paintings, Mr. 
Scharf expatiated on the importance of the details of dress and other 
accessories often represented. 

The visitors, on returning from Hampton Court, made a digression for 
the purpose of inspecting the palace and beautiful grounds of the Bishop 
of London at Fulbam. They were most courteously received by the 
Bishop and Mrs. Tait, and conducted over the courts, and through the 
more important apartments of the palace. But little of the original 
episcopal residence now remains ; the library, however, has traces of its 
13th century construction, and some of the offices have escaped the many 
' changes and alterations which the palace generally has undergone. An 
episcopal residence is said to have been built here in the 7th century. 
The great attractions of the place at the present time are the handsome 
grounds, the famous hickory and ''Judas" trees, among the fine collec- 
tion of noble trees planted by Bishop Compton, and which then contained 
many specimens quite new to this country. On the land sides, these 
grounds are encompassed by a moat or dyke, which may be of Danish 
construction. The fine series of portraits of the various emment bishops 

• Prmted at length in the volume " Old London." 

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who had occupied the see, were especially remarked upon, and manj inte- 
resting details furnished hj his lordship. With manj acknowledgments of 
the kind courtesy and hospitality of the hishop, the last excursion of the 
present meeting was brought to a close. 

Wednesday, July 25. 

The Annual Meeting of Members was held in the Council Chamber, 
Ouildhall, at 10 a.ic. The Marquis Camden in the chair. 

The proceedings commenced by reading the Annual Report, which 
congratulated the Institute ,on completing its majority in so healthy a 
state, the Committee pointing with satisfaction to the formation of a 
Section of Primieyal Antiquities as an evidence of the enlarged field of 
enquiry to which the Members had devoted their attention. 
. The past twelve months have been productive of many interesting 
discoveries, especially at Caerleon and Silcbester. At Salisbury an excel- 
lent museum had been formed ; and at Exeter a building for a similar 
purpose was in course of construction. The Committee congratulated 
the Members on the recognition of the claims of British Antiquities by 
the authorities of the Museum, and the appointment of their accomplished 
friend, Mr. Franks, as the first Keeper of that Section ; also, upon the 
vote of the House of Commons for the repair of the Chapter House, 
Westminster ; and concluded with an expression of deep regret at the 
threatened destruction of the establishment at Monte Cassino by the Italian 

The Report having been unanimously adopted, that of the Auditors, 
comprising the balance-sheet for the past year, was also read> and 

Announcement was then made of the proposed changes in the Central 
Committee ; when the following names were selected to go out in the 
customary rotation : — The Lord Talbot de Malahide, Vice-President ; the 
Hon. Robert Curzon ; Professor T. L. Donaldson ; the Rev. Gregory 
Rhodes ; Geo. Scbarf, Esq. ; J. Yates, Esq. ; and A. J. Beresford- 
Hope, Esq. 

The following gentlemen were recommended to supply the vacancies : — 
A. J. Beresford-fiope, Esq., as Vice-President ; W. D. Jeremy, Esq. ; 
the Earl of Dunraven ; Lieut-Col. A. H. Lane-Fox ; J. G. Nichols, Esq. ; 
Sir E. Lechmere, Bart., M.P. ; and G. T. Clark, Esq. 

As Auditors : — J. Stephens, Esq. ; and W. W. King, Esq. 

On the motion of Mr. Laing, these arrangements were carried unani- 

Communications were then made respecting the next place of meeting, 
and invitations from Hereford and Hull were read. After some discus- 
sion, Mr. Bei-esford-Hope moved that Kingston-upon-HuU be the next - 
place of meeting. This was seconded by Mr. Parker, and carried ; it 
being announced that his Grace the Archbishop of York would be the 
President of the Meeting ; Mr. Freeman remarking that there were 
two fine Cathedrals yet to visit, — Hereford and Exeter, and both had 
neighbourhoods rich in archseological objects. 

A paper was read ** On the Seals of MedisBval London," by G. W. De 
Gbat Birch. About 200 casts of seals (made by Mr. Ready) from originals 
in the Public Record Office, Duchy of Lancaster, British Museum, and 
the archives of the Cathedrals of St. Paul and Canterbury, were exhibited. 

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The writer gave a general introduction to the use of seals from the earliest 
times, with examples of their art, and modes of affixing or impressing 
them: that known as '' en placard ^^ heing the most ancient, prevailing 
to the 11th century. Manj references were given to the most curious or 
remarkahle examples of seals and sealing — especially to those of St. FauPs, 
London, and Westminster. 

The meeting of Members having terminated, a general concluding meet- 
ing was then held, when the following votes of thanks were passed most 
cordially : — 

Moved by Mr. A. J. Beresford-Hope, seconded by the Rev. E. Hill, — 

To the Mayor and Corporation of the City of London, for the use of the 
Guildhall, the Council-chamber, and other facilities for the meeting, and 
for the convenient arrangements made for holding it. 

By Sir John P. Boileau, seconded by the Rev. C. W. Bingham, — 

To the Contributors of papers and addresses to the meeting ; to which 
was appended a recommendation that a sub-committee be formed for the 
publication of the principal memoirs. 

By Mr. J. H. Parker, seconded by Mr. Burtt^ — 

To the Bishop of London, the Dean of Westminster, the President and 
Council of the Royal Institute of Architects, the Dean of Windsor, and 
the Provost of Eton, for the great kindness and hospitality with which 
the Institute had been welcomed. 

This vote was warmly responded to by the Dean of Westminster. 

By the Rev. R. P. Coates, seconded by Mr. Laing, — 

To the Constable of the Tower of London and Lord de Ros, the Com- 
missioners of Her Majesty's Woods, and Works, the Dean of Windsor, the 
Provost of Eton, the Incumbents of Waltham and other churches, and the 
proprietors of other places visited, for the facilities and attention shown to 
the Institute when inspecting the places under their direction. 

By the Rev. J. Allen, seconded by Mr. Nightingale, — 

To the Marquis Camden, for hb great courtesy, kindness, and attention 
during the meeting. 

The noble Marquis returned thanks for the warmth with which this 
acknowledgment had been conveyed. He expressed the satisfaction which, 
in common with so many of his friends, he had experienced from the 
proceedings of the meeting. The assembly then dispersed. 

In the afternoon a considerable party visited the Christy collection of 
antiquities at 103, Victoria Street, Westminster, to which Mr. A. W. 
Franks had issued invitations, with the kind permission of the Trustees of 
the British Museum. This fine collection — especially rich in the memorials 
of the pre-historic period collected over a very wide area, and in the curious 
appliances and productions of savage life — had only been lately arranged 
by Mr. Franks, who most hospitably received the visitors on the occasion. 

The Central Committee have great pleasure in acknowledging the 
following donations in aid of the London Meeting, and of the general pur- 
poses of the Institute : — The Marquis Camden, 51. ; Sir John P. Boileau, 
Bart., 51; Felix Slade, Esq., 10^.; C. T. Greaves, Esq., 51. 5s.; Mrs. 
Kerr, 51. fis. ;.Dr. Guest, 51. 5$,; O. Morgan, Esq., M.P., 51. ; J. 
Henderson, Esq., 5^. ; A. W. Franks, Esq., 51. ; A. J. B. Beresford-Hope, 
Esq., M.P., 51. ; H. Yaughan, Esq., 51; A. Way, Esq., 3^; Mrs. A. Way, 
21. ; E. Smirke, Esq., 21. 2s, ; Professor Westmacott, 1{. 1#. ; Dr. Kershaw, 
lOf. 6d. 

Digitized by VjOOQiC 

Digitized by VjOOQiC 

glojal ^rt^»al0gital Institute of dmt Britain anb 



APRII^ 1867. 



(L\fe Members, who have eompovndedfor their Annual SuiscripUanef are dieiinguished 
by * before their Names.) 

Should any errors or omissions be/ound in (his List, it is regtuested (hat notice 
thereof may be given to the Secretary, 

Acton, lirs.- Stackhoase, Acton Scott, 

Ackworth, Oeoi^ Brindley, Esq., Ro- 

Adair, Bart, F.aA., Sir R. Shafto, Adair 
House, 20, St. James's Square, S.W. 

Addiogton, Samuel, Esq., Sc Martin's 
Lane, W.C. 

Akroyd, Edw., Esq., M.P., P.a A., Bank- 
field, Halifax, 40, Lowndes Sq., S.W. 

Aldridge, John Petty, Esq., M.D., 
F.aC.a, Dorchester 

Allen, Rev. J^M.A., Castlemartin, Pem- 

Amherst^ The Earl, 48,OroBvenor Sq.,W. 
*AmhurBt» W. T. A.. Esq., Didlington 
Park, Brandon, Norfolk 

Anderdon, J. H., Esq., 23, Upper Oros- 
▼enor Street, W. 

Anderson, Sir Charles, Bart, Lea, 

♦Anson, Sir J. W. H., Bart, 65, Port- 
land Place, W. 

Anstioe, John, Esq., Madeley, Salop 
♦Anthony, John, Esq., M.D., Washwood 

Heath, Birmingham 
♦Antrobos, Sir Edmund, Bart., 146, Pic- 
cadilly, W. 

Appleton, John Reed, Esq., F.S.A., 
Western Hill, Durham 

Arnold, A. A., Esq., Rochester 

Ashbee, S. W., Esq., P.G.S., 17, Mor- 
nington Crescent, N.W. 

Astley, E. Ferrand, Esq., M.D., Dover 

Ash ton, John, Esq., Warrington 

Atkinson, H., Esq., Petersfield 

Austen, Rev. J. H., Ensbury, Wimbome 
Awdry, Sir John, Notion, Chippenham 

♦Babington, C. C, Esq.. M.A., P.Ra. 
F.aA., St John's College, Cambridge 

Bagot, Hon. and Rev. H., BUthfield, 

♦Bagshaw, W. Oreaves, Esq., Ford Hall, 

• Chapel-en-le-Frith, Derby 

Bailey, Mrs., Easton Court, Tenbury 

Bain, James, Esq., 1, Haymarket, S.W. 

Bain, Joseph, Esq., Oatlands, Wey- 
bridge, Surrey 

Baker, Rev. F. W., Beaulieu, Hants 

Barker, F., Esq., Bakewell 

Barclay, Robert, Esq., West Hill, High- 
gate, N. 
♦Barnard, John, Esq., F.aA., Sawbridg- 

Bamett, Miss Emma, 16, The Crescent, 

Barnwell, Rev. E. L., M.A., Melksham, 


♦Barttelot Brian B., Esq., Findon Manor, 

♦Batten, John, Esq., Yeovil 
Bascombe, Q. H., Esq., Chi«lehur8t Kent 
♦Bsylis, T. Henry, Esq., MA., 8, Paper 

Buildings, Temple, E.C. 
Beamont, W., Esq., Warrington 
Beck, Rev. J., Parham, Steyning' 
Beokwith, T. Perdval, Esq., 52, Eaton 

Place, aw. 
♦Bedford, C. D., Esq., Doctors' Com., E.C. 
Beevor, Sir T. R, Bart, Regent Road, 
Qreat Yarmouth 

Digitized by VjOOQiC 


Beloe, Ed. M., Esq., King's Lynn, Nor- 

Bell. Qeorge,E8q., 186, Fleet Street, E.C. 

BeU, Thomas, Esq., The Wakes, Sel- 
bome, near Alton, Hants 

Bergne, J. B., Esq., F.S.A., Foreign 
Office, S.W. 

Berington, Chas. M., Esq., Little Malvem 

Bevan, Beokford, Esq., Bury St Ed- 

Bigge, ReTtf H. J., Rockingham, Leicester 

Bingham, Rot. C. W., Bingham's Mel- 
combe, Dorchester 

Bird, Rev. Thos. Hugh, Tarkhill, Led- 
bury • 

Bisooo, Mrs. FVanoes, Holton Park, 

Blaekmore, H. P., Esq., M.D., Salisbury 

Blaauw, W. H., Esq., M.A., F.aA^ 
Beeohlands, Uckfield 

Blenoowe, Rob, W., Esq., The Hookey 

•Blore, Edwwfd, Esq., D.C.L., P.Ra, 
F.S.A., 4, Manchester Square, W. 

Blozam, Matthew H., Esq., F.aA., Rugby 

Bockett, Miss J., Bradney, Bui^hfield 

Bohn, Hen. G., Esq., Tork Street, 
GoTent Garden, W.G. 

BoUeau, Sir J. P., Bart, P.RS., V.P.S.A., 

20, Upper Brook Street^ W. 
*Bolding, W. J., Esq.,Weyboume, Norfolk 
*Bolton, F. S., Esq., Ashfield, Edgbasion 

Bond, E. A., Esq., British Museum, W.G. 

Bond, Rey. N., The Grange, Wareham 

Bond, Thomas, Esq., 6, Charles Street, 
Berkeley Square, W. 

Booth, W. J., Esq., Torquay 

Boreham, W. W., Eso. , Haverhill 

Boughton, Sir a H. Rouse, Bart, 
Downion Hall, Ludlow 

Bourne, William, Esq., Dudley 

Bowers, Miss, South Parade, Doncaster 
*Bowyer, Charles, Esq., M.A., 193, Pio- 

*firaby, Fred., Esq., F.G.S., Mount 
Henley, Sydenham Hi]l,S.E. 

Brackstone, R. H., Esq., Lyncombe Hill, 

Brackenbuiy, Capt. H., RA., Royal 
Military Academy, Woolwich 

Bradbury, James, Esq., Huddersfield 

Brandon, David, Esq,, 24, Berkeley 
Square, W. 

Brassey, Thos., Esq., jun., 56, Lowndes 
Square, S.W. 

Bridges, Sir Brook W., Bart., M.P., 
Gooduestone, Wingbam, Kent 

*Bridger, Edward K., Esq., 87, King 
William Street, E.G. 

Bright^ Benjamin, Esq,, The Mythe, 
Great Malvem 

Briggs, Rev. Thos., Capel Lodge, Folke- 

Brine, J. E., Esq., Shaftesbury 

Brooke, Francis, Esq., Ufiford, Wood* 

Brooke, Rev. J., Hanghton Hall, Shiffoal 
Browne, T. B., Esq., Council Office, 

Whitehall; and Mellington HaU, 

*Browne, Rev. John, Limber Magna, 

Bruce, Rev. J. C, LL.D., F.S.A., New- 

Buckler, O. A., Esq., 6, Hereford 

Square, S.W. 
Buck, W. B., Esq., Messrs. Baker and 

Brown, Solicitors, Warwick 
Burges, W., Esq., 15, Buckingham St, 

Burgees, J. Ynyr, Esq., Parkinore, Dun- 

gannon, and 22, Hul Street, Berkeley 

Square, W. 
Burrell, James, Esq., Denmsrk Hill, 

Gamberwell, a 
Burton, Thos. Jones, Esq., The Gnmg«^ 

Burtt, Joseph, Esq., Hon, See. Publio 

Reoord Office, E.C. 
Bury, T. Ttlbot, Esq., F.aA., 60, 

Welbeck Street, Cavendish Square^ W. 
*Buxton, Charles, Esq., M.P., 7, €trua- 

venor Crescent, aW. 

Calvert, Frank, Esq., Dardanelles 
Campbell, Sir H. Hume, Bart, 10, Hill 

Street, Berkeley Square, W. 
Cape, Rev. Jos., M.A., Birdbrooke, Hal- 
stead, Essex 
Cape, Rev. W., Peterborough 
Cardew, Rev. G., Helmingham, Suffi>lk 
Carrick, W., Esq., 1, Lonsdale Street, 

Carruthers, C. E, Esq., Old Spa House^ 

Norwood, a 
Garter, James^ Esq., Petty Cury, Cam- 
Carthew, G. A., Esq., Milfield, East 

Dereham, Norfolk 
Cartwright, Sam., Esq., jun, 82, Old 

Burlington Street, W. 
Caton, Rich. R, Esq., F.aA., Union 

Club, w.a 
Caulfield, H. C, Esq., aone House, St. 

Chambers, David, Esq., F.R.G.a, 47, 

Paternoster Row, E.G. 
Chantrell, F. D., Esq., 29, Chancery 

Lane^ E.C. 
Chantrell, R. D., Esq., 7, Park Place 

Grove, Gamberwell, S. 
Charlton, Edward, Esq., MD., 7, Eldon 

Square, Newcastle-on-Tyne 
Charrington, Spencer, Esq., Barking 

Side, Ilford 
ChetUr, Rev. Greville J., 1, West House, 

Bournmouth, Hants 

Digitized by VjOOQiC 


Chester, Henry, Esq., jun., 15, The 

Terrace, Camber well, S. 
^Chichester, Robt., Esq., The Hall, Barn- 
staple, Devon 
Clark, G. T., Esq., Dowlais House, 

Merthyr Tydvil 
Clarke-Jeryoise, Sir Jervoi^, Bart., 

M.P., Idaworth. Hants 
Claydon, Hot. £. A., 4, Ch. Tecraee, 

Lee, S.B. 
Clayton, John, Esq., F.S.A., Newcastle- 

Clements, Thos., Esq., Rochester 
Clutterbuck, Robert, Esq., UnlTeraity 

Club, Suffolk Street 
Coates, Rev. R. P., Vicarage, Darenth, 

Collison, F., Esq., 8, Laurence Pountney 

HiU, E.a 

Collison, Rer. H., East Bilney, Norfolk 

Collins, Rev. T., B.D., Enaresboroush 

Colquhoun, J. C, Esq., National Club, 


*Compton,The Rev. Lord Alwyne, M.A., 

Castle Aahby, Northants 
Consitt, Rev. Edward, St. Cuthberf s 

College, Darham 
*Cooke, P. B. Davies, Esq., 10, Harley 

Street, Cavendish Square, W. 
Cooke, W. H., Esq., 42, Wimpole St, W. 
Coombs, Thomas, Esq., Dorchester 
Coombs, Mrs., Dorchester 
Cooper, Lieut-CoL E. Cooper, M.P., 
5, Brysnfeton Squai-e, W. 
♦Cooper, Sir Daniel, Bart, 20, Princes 
Gardens, Knightsbridge, W. 
Cooper, W. Durrant, Esq., F.S.A., 81, 
Guildford Street, Russell Square, 
♦Corbet, A. G., Esq., The Grove, Ash- 
Comey, Bolton, Esq., 29, Barnes Terrace, 
Barnes, Surrey 
♦Comth waiter Rev. T., M.A., Waltham- 
stow, Essex 
Cowper, The Hon. F., 45, St. James's 

Square, S.W. 
Coxe, Rev. H. C, Bodleian Libraiy, 

Crabbe, W. R., Esq., East Wonford, 

Heavitree, Exeter 
Craig, J. Gibson, Esq., 24, York Place, 

Crosby, James, Esq., 8, Church Court, 

Old Jewry, E.C. 
Crotch, Rev. W. R., Uphill House, 

Crookes, J. F., Esq., Waterloo Crescent, 

Crisp, Henry, Esq., 21, Portland Square, 

Cunliffe, Henry, Esq., F.S.A., 30, Lom- 
bard Street, £.C. 
Cunnington, K, Esq., Dorchester 

♦Cum>n, The Hon. Robert, 24, Arlington 
Street, W. 

Dalrymple, C. E., Esq., Kinellar Lodge, 

Blaokbum, Aberdeen 
Dalton, E., Esq., D.QL., F.S.A., Nails- 
worth, Stroud 
Dand, Middleton H., Esq., Hawksley, 

Amble, Acklington 
Daniel, Mrs. Wright, Longford House, 

Damley, The' Earl of, Cobham Hall, 

Dashwood,Rev.G.H., M.A.,F.S.A.,Stow 

Bardolph, Downham Market, Norfolk 
•Davies, Robert, Esq., F.S. A«, TheMount, 

Davidson, M. a, Esq., 26, Porohester 

Square, W. 
Davifl^ J. Barnard, Esq., Shelton 
Dawnay, Hon. P., Beningbrough Hall, 

D'Aseglio, His Exoellency the Marquis, 

49, Grosvenor Street, W. 
Deane, Rev. J. B., M.A., St Martin's 

Outwich, City, E.C. 
Delagarde, Philip C, Esq., Exeter 
Delamotte, Philip H., Esq, F.S.A., 

King's CoUege, Strand. W.C. 
De Salis, J. F. W., Esq., HUlingdon 

Place, Oxbridge 
Dickens, C. a, Esq., Coolhurst, Horsham 
Dickenson, W. B., Esq., 6, Lanadowu 

Circus, Leamington 
Dickinson, Frs. H., Esq., M.A., F.aA., 

8, Upper Harley Street 
Dickson, WiUiam, Esq., F.S. A., Alnwick 
♦Dilke, Sir C. Wentworth, Bart., M.P.. 

F.S.A., 76, Sloane Street, aW. 
Dodd, Samuel, Esq., 27, Kentish Town 

Road, K W. 
Doe, G., Esq., Great Torrington, Devon 
♦Donaldson, T. L., Esq , 21, Upper Bed- 
ford Place, W.C. 
Drew, J. Pryce, Esq., Milford House, 

Newtown, Montgomery 
Drewe, E. Simooe, Esq., The Grange, 

♦Du Cane, Major, R.E., Ardley Lodge, 

Romford, ^ssex, E. 
Dunkin, A. J., Esq., Dartford 
Duuraven, The Earl o^ Adare, County 

Limerick, & 5, Buckingham Gate, S. W. 
Durlacher, Henry, Esq., 118, New Bond 

Street, W. 
Dyke, Rev. W., B J>., Bagendon Rectory, 

♦Dyne, Rev. J. B., M.A., Highgate, N. 

Earle, Rev. J., Swainswick, Bath 
Eddy, Chas. W., Esq., 8, Warwick Ter- 
race, Belgrave Road, S.W. 
Egerton, Sir Philip de Malpas Grey, 
Bart., M.P., 286, Albemarle Street, W. 

Digitized by VjOOQiC 



Egerton,The Hon. Wilbraham, M.P., 67, 
Lowndes Square, S.W. 

Ellacombe, Rev. H. T., M.A., F.S.A., 
ClUt St George, Topsham 

Elliott, F. H., Esq., Langley Lodge, 

Elated. W. P., Esq., Dover 

tEnnUkillen, The Earl of, Florence 
Court, Ireland, and 97, Mount St, W. 

Erie, Rt Hon. Sir William, 12, Prinoes 
Gardena, Kensington, W. 

Espinasse, Capt. J. W., 12th Regiment 

Essell, George E., Esq., Rochester 

Estcourt^ Rev. Edmund E, F.S.A., 
Bishops House, Birmingham 

Ewing, W., Esq., Brandon Place, 209, 
West George Street, Glasgow 

Evans, John, Esq., F.R.S., FB.A., Nash 
Mills, King's Langley, Hemel Hemp- 

Evans, Rev. L., Sandbacb, Cheshire 

Eyre, Very Rev. Monsignore C, St 
Mary's, NewcaEtle-on-Tyne 

Eyton, J. W. K^ Esq., F.a A., 46, Ports- 
down Road, Maida Hill, W. 

Fanshawe, J. G., Esq., 2, Halkin Street 

West, Belgrave Square 
Farrer, 0. W., Esq., Encombe, Wareham 
Faulkner, C, Esq., F.S.A., F.G.S., Ded- 

dington, Oxon 
Fanssett, Thos. Godfrey, Esq., M.A., 

F.&A., Canterbury 
Fellows, Lady, 4, Montague Place, 

Russell Square, W.C. 
Felton, W. V., Esq., Parrock, near 

*Fenton, James, Esq., M.A., F.S.A., 

Norton Hall, Mickleton, Broadway 
Ferguson, Robert, Esq., Moreton, Car- 
Fergusson, James, Esq., 20, Langham 

Place, W. 
Ferrey, Benj., Esq.,F.S.A., 42, Inverness 

Terrace, Kensington Gardens, W. 
Fetherston, John, Esq., jun., F.S.A., 

Packwood House, Warwick 
•Ffarington, Miss, Worden, Chorley 
Ffoulkes, W. Wynne, Esq., Stanley 

Place, Chester 
Filliter, Freeland, Esq., Wareham 
Fisher, Edw., Esq.. jun.. The Shrubbery, 

Overseale, Ashby-de-la-Zouch 
Fisher, R., Esq., 72, Kensington Gardens 

Square, Bayswater, W. 
Fitch, Robert, Esq., F.&A., F.G.S., 

Fletcher, Thos. W., Esq., F.S.A.,Lawnes- 

wood House, Stourbridge 
Fletcher, K Scott, Esq., Parker Street, 

Fletcher, Rev. W., D.D., Wimborne 
Floyer, J., Esq., MP., Stafford House, 


Forbes, J. Stewart, Esq., Chester House, 

Forster, William, Esq., Carlisle 

Fortnum, C. D. E., Esq., F.S.A., Chalbey 

Park, Slough 
Foss, Edw., EBq.,F.S. A.,Frensham House, 
Upper Addisoombe Road, Croydon 

*Foz, Lieut-Gen., Addison Uoad, Ken- 
sington, W. 
Fox, Lieut-Col. A. Lane Fox, F.SJL, 
Guards' Club, aW., 10, Upper PhiUi- 
more Gardens, Camipden Hil], W. 

*Fox. Robert, Esq. , Cowden, Edenbridge 

^Franks, A. W., Esq., M.A., F.aA., 65, 
Upper Seymour St, Portnuui Square, ' 

*Freeland, H., Esq., Chichester 

*Freeman, Edw. A., Esq., M.A., Somer- 
leaze. Wells 
Frere, R. Temple, Esq., .M.D., 148, 
Harley Street, W. 

*Fraeh6eid, W. D., Esq., 18, Taviton St, 
Gordon Square, W.C. 

*Freshfield, Edwin, Esq., 18, Taviton 
Street, Gordon Square, W.C. 
Frost, Meadows, Esq., Chester 
Freake, C. J., Esq., Cromwell House, 

Kensington, W. 
Freake, t^., Cromwell House, Kensing- 
ton, W. 

Gainsborough, The Earl of, Exton Park, 

Gardner, J. Dunn, Esq., 122, Park St, 

Grosvenor Square, W. 
•Gamier, The Very Rev. T., D.C.L., 

Dean of Winchester 
Gates, H. P., Esq., High Bailiff, Peter- 

Gibbs, H. H., Esq., St Dunstau's, 

Regent's Park, N.W. 
Gilling, The Rev. J. C, M.A., The 

Parsonage, Roeherville 
Glynne. Sir a K., Bart, F.S.A.,Hawarden 

Castle, Flintshire 
Godwin, E. W., Esq., F.aA., 28, Baker 

Street, W. 
Gk)ldsmid, Augustus, Esq., F.aA., 1, 

Essex Court, Temple, E.C. 
Gooden, J. CEsq., 88, Tavistock Square, 

*Gonue, W., Esq., Oxford and Cam- 
bridge Club, S.W. 
Gi-aham, Cyril C, Esq, 9, Clevehuid 

How, St James, S.W^ 
Grant, CoL E. Fitaherbert, Eltham, Kent 
Grenville, Ralph Neville, Esq., M.P., 

F.S.A., Butleigh Court Gkstoubury 
Grazebrook, H. S., Esq., Pedmore, Stour- 
Greatheed, J., Esq., 134, Piccadilly, W. 
Greaves, E., Esq., 8 Morpeth Ter., S.W 
Greaves, C. S., Esq., Q.C., ll,Blandford 

Square, N.W. 

Digitized by VjOOQiC 


.Greenway, C. Durnford, Esq, East 

Gate, Warwick 
Green, Rev. J. R., St. Philip's, Step- 
ney, £. 
Gresley, Sir Tho&, Bart, Cauldwell 

Hal], Burton-on-Trent 
Grioe, Rer. W., Leamington 
Griffith, Rev. T. T., M.A., Rochester 
^Griffiths, Rev. J^hn, M.A., 68, St. GUes, 

*Gae8t, Edwin, Esq., LL.D., Master of 

Caius College, Cambridge 
Gunn, Rev. John, M.A., Irstead, Cottis- 

haU, Norfolk 
Gnnnell, R P., Esq., Woodford, Thraps- 
ton, Northampton 
*Gumey, Daniel, Esq., F.S.A., Runcton, 
King^s Lynn 

Habenhon, W. G., Esq., 88, Bloomsbury 

Square, W.C. 
Hailstone, Edw., Esq., F.&A., Horton 

Hall, Bradford, Yorkshire 
Hailstone, Rev. J., M.A., Bottisham, 

Haines, Rev. Herbert, Hampden House, 

Hakewill, J. Henry, Esq., 50, Maddox 

Street, W. 
Hale, Yen. Archdeacon H., Charter 

House, RC. 
Hall, Spencer, Esq., F.S.A., The Athe- 

neum dub, S.W. 
Hamilton, Dr. E., 22, Grafton Street, 

Bond Street, W. 
Hamond, Captain Philip, Ashurst Lodge, 

East Grinstead 
Hamond, W. Parker, Esq., jun., Pampis- 

ford Hall, Cambridge 
Hammond, CoL Frederick, Lauriston 

House, Dover 
Hankey, S., Esq., 8, Laurence Pountney 

Hill, E.C. 
Hanson, S., Esq., 4,Upper Harley St, W. 
•Hnrdwick, Philip, Esq., R.A., F.S.A., 

21, Cavendish Square, W. 
♦Hardwiok, P. C, Esq., F.S.A., 21, 

Cavendish Square, W. 
Harding, Lieut..Col. W.,10, The Terrace, 

Mount Braciford, Exeter 
Hare, Mrs., 52, Claremoot Rd., Surbiton 
Harrison, Robt, Esq., 12, St James's 

Square, aW. 
*HArrison, W., Esq., F.S.A., Galligreaves 

Hall, Blackburn, and Conservative 

Club, aw. 

Harrod, Henry, Esq., F.S.A., 4, Victoria 

Street, Westminster, S.W. 
Hart, W. H, Esq., F.a A., Public Record 

Office, E.C. 
Hsrt, Charles, Esq., 54, Wych Street, 

Strand, W.C. 
Hawkins, E,, Esq., F.LS., F.S.A., 6, 

Lower Berkeley Street, W. 

Hawkins, M. Rohde, Esq., 15, Hyde 

Park Gate, Kensiogton 
^Hawkins, J. H., Esq., Bignor Park, 

Hawkins, George, Esq., 88, Bishopsgate 

Street Without, E.C. 
Hay ward, John, Esq., Beaumont House, 

Hayward, W. P., Esq., Wedhampton 

Cottage, Devizes 
Heathcote, Rev. Gilbert, Coleme, Wilts 
Heaihoote, J; M., Esq., Connington 

Castle, Peterborough 
Henderson, John, Esq., M.A., F.S.A., 

ffoTL Treas,, 8, Montague St, W.C. 
*Hepburn, J., Esq., Tovil Place, Maid- 

Heppel, William G., Esq., 76, Cambridge 

Street, aW. 
Herries, The Lord, Everingham Park, 

Herrick, W. P., Esq., Beaumanor, 

Hewitt, J., Esq., 12, Wood Street, 

*Hey wood, James^ Esq., Athensoum Club, 

Hey wood, S., Esq., 89, Stanhope Street, 

Hicks, John, Esq., Dorchester 
Hill, The Visct., Hawkstone, Shrewsbury 
Hill, Rev. J. Barwood, Cranoe, Market 

Hill, Rev. Henry T. Hill, M.A., Felton 

Rectory, Bromyard 
Hill, Henry, Esq., F.S.A. 2, Curzon St, 

May Fair, W. 
Hill, Miss, 16, Phillimore Gardens, 

Kensington, W. 
*Hill, Rev. E., M.A., Sheering, Harlow 
Hilton, James, lisq., 60, Montague 

Hine, J., Esq., Plymouth 
Hinde, J. H., Esq., Acton House, Felton 
*Hippesley, H., Esq., Lambome Place, 

Hoare, Capt. Ed., Cork 
Hoare, Richard Esq., 62, Harley St, W. 
Hodgkinson, S. £Bq.,9,Lau8downKoad, 

Netting Hill 
Hodg«on,Rev. J. P., Staindi*op,Darlington 
Holden, W., Esq., Keedley Hounc, 

HoU, H. F., Esq., 6, King's Road, Clap- 
ham Park 
Holmes, R. R., Esq., F.S.A., British 

Museum, W.C. 
Hook, The Very Rev. Walter P., D.D., 

F.RS., The Deanery, Chichester 
Hope, A. J. B. Bere«ford, Esq., LL.D., 

D.C.L., M.A., F.S.A., Arklow House, 

Hyde Park, W. 
♦Horner, Rev. J. S H., MA., MellsPark, 


Digitized by VjOOQiC 



Hoskyne, Chandoa Wren, Esq., 27, 

Berkeley Square, W. 
Hubbuck, Q. P^ Esq., Forty HUl, 

^Hudson, Qeoi^ge, Esq. 
Hughes, ThoB., Esq., 2, Grove Terrace, 

Hunt, John, Esq., 166, Bond Street, W. 
Hunter, H., Esq., F.R,S., F.S.A., High- 
gate, N. 
Hussey, R. C, Esq., F.S.A., 16, King 

William Street, Strand, W.C. 
Hussey, Edw., Esq., Sootney Oastle, 

Hutchings, Hubert, Esq., 81, Chester 

Street, Groevenor Place, W. 
Huyshe, Rev. John, Clyst-Hydon, 


Jackson, Rev. W. W., Normanby Hall, 

Jackson, Mrs. W., Hereford Square, 

Brompton, S.W. 
Jackson, Rev. W, M.A., P.S.A., 1, St. 

Giles', Oxford 
James, James. Esq.,F.S.A., The Cottage, 

Halton, Wendover 
James, Rev. S. B., Knowbury, Ludlow 
James. F., Esq., 45, Lincoln's Inn Fields, 


•James. Rev., T., F.S.A., Netherthong, 

Jarvis, Rev. Edwin G., Hackthorn, 

Jay, John L. Esq., Greenwich Hospital, 

Jeckyll, Thos., Esq., Queen St, Norwich 
Jefferson, Rev. J. D., Thicket Priory, 

. Jei-emy, Walter D., Esq., M.A., 10, New 

Square, Lincoln's Inn, W.C. 
Jewitt, Orlando, Esq., 20, Clifton Villas, 

Camden Square, N.W. 
Jewitt, Llewellyn, Esq., Derby 
Johnson, Edw. W., Esq., The PaUant, 

♦Jodrell, Rev. Sir Edwd. Repps, Bart, 

64, Portland Place, W., and Sail Park, 

Jones, Edw. T. D.^Esq., Hinton Charter 

House, Bath 
Jones. J. Cove, Esq., F.S,A., Loxley, 

Jones, J. Winter, Esq., F.S.A., British 

Museum, W.C. 
Jones, Sir Willoughby, Bart., Cranmer 

Hall, Fakenham 
Jones, W., Esq., St Loyes, Exeter 

Keane, Charles a, Esq., White Lodge, 

Hammersmith, W. 
Kell, Charles Pred.,E8q.,8, CastleStreet, 

Holbom, E.C. 

Eenrick, Rev. John, M.A., F.S.A., 

Museum, York 
*Kerr, Mrs. Alex., Messrs. Gledstanea 

& Co., 26, Austin Friars, City, E.C, 
Kershaw. W. W., Esq., M.D., Kiugston 
King, Rev. Chas. W., M.A., Trinity 

College, Cambridge 
King, Rev. Samuel W., M.A., F.S.A., 

Saxlingham, Norwic]^ 
King, W. W., Esq., 29, Queen Street^ 

Cannon Street West E.C. 
Kirby, Sir R, C, C.&, li, HarewoodSq., 

*Knill, Stuart^ Esq., The Crossleta in the 

Grove, Blackheath 
Knocker, Edw., Esq., Town Clerk, 

Kyrle, W. Money, Esq., Homme House, 

Dymock, Herefordshire 

Laing, David, Esq., Libraiy of the 

Signet, Edinburgh 
Langhorne, John B;, Esq., St Johns, 

Langton, W. Esq., Manchester 
*Leaf, C. J., Esq., F.S.A., The Rylands, 

Norwood, S. 
Lechmere. Sir E. H., Bart., M.P., Upton 

on Severn 
Lee, J. Edward, Esq., F.S.A.,The Priory, 

Lefroy, Brig. • General RA., F.RS., 

Grosvenor Housd. Blackheath 
Lefroy, Rev. Anthony, Church Crook- 

ham, Farnham 
Legh, J. Pennington Legh. Esq. 
Legb, G. C, Esq., M.P., 6, St James's PL, 

*Leigh, The Lord, Stoneleigh Abbey, 

Kenil worth 
Le Keux, J. H., Esq., Durham 
Lemon, Sir Charles, Bart, Carelew, 

*Lennard, CoL J. P., F.S.A,, Wiokham 

Court, Bromley, S.E. 
*Lingard, J. R., Esq., Stockport 
Livingstone, Rev. T. G., Carlisle 
Lloyd, Thomas, Esq., Villa Lloyd, 

Loch, G., Esq., 12, Albemarle Street W. 
*Long, Rob. K., Esq., Dunston Hall, 

Long, W., Esq., 22, Lansdown PL, Bath 
Longcroft, C. J., Esq., Havant 
•Lowndes, G. A., Esq., Barrington Hall, 

Lowther, Sir John, Bart, Park] Street, 

Grosyenor Square, W. 
Luard, Major, R.A., The Mote, Tun- 
•Lubbock, Sir J., Bart., F.R.S., F,8.A., 

15. Lombard Street 
Luck, Rev. Thomas, East Hendred, 


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•Lntwidge. R. W, S., Baq., 19, WhitelimU 

Place, 8.W. 
Lysons, Rev. S., 1CA.,F.&A., Hempstead 

Court, Qlouoester 
Lyttelton, The Right Hon. Lord, Hagley 

Paik, Worcester 

McCaul, ReT. Dr., Toronto, Canada, W. 

McKensie, John W., Esq., Royal Circus, 
^Maokinlay, D,, Esq., PoUokshields, Glas- 

Maclean, John, Esq., FJ3.A., Ordnance 
Office, Pall HaU, S.W. 

Kadean, William, Esq., 4, Qroye HUl, 

Camberwell, a 
*McPherBon, Duncan, Esq., M.D., ICadras 

Madden, Sir F., 25, St Stephen's Square, 
Bajswater, W. 

Maddison, Rev. G., M.A., Grantham 

Mair, Q«)ige J. J., Esq., F.S.A.,41, Upper 
Bedford Place, W.a 

Mijendie, Ashurst, Esq., Hedingham 
Castle, Essex 

Majendie, Lewis A.> Esq., Hedingham 
Castle, Essex 

Major, R. H., Esq., F.S.A., British 

Museum, W.C. 
*Maloolm, John, Esq., of Poltalloch, 7, 
Great Stanhope Street, W. 

Maltby, Rot. B., Whatton, Bingham, 

^Manchester, The Bishop of, Mauldeth 
Hall, Manchester 

Manning, Rot. C. R, Diss, Norfolk 

Manning, Fred., Esq., Byron Lodge, 

Mansfield, The Earl o^ Caen Wood, N. W. 

Marryatt, Joseph, Esq., Maeeydderwen, 

Marsh, J. Fitchett, Esq., Warrington 

Martin, Edw., Esq., Asherton House^ 

Massie, Kev. G., Gawsworth Rectory, 

Mathews, J. H., Eitq., 1, Essex Court, 
Temple, E.C. 

May, Thomas, Esq., Orford House, War- 

Mayer, Joseph, Esq., F.S. A., Lord Street, 

Meade, Rev. Canon, Castle-Cary, Somer- 

Meredith, Rev. R. F., All Sainto' House, 
Halesworth, Suffolk 

Mills, R., Esq., 81, Queen's Gate Ter- 
race, W. ^ 

Metcalfe. F. M., Esq., Wisbeach 

Miie5, William, Esq., Dix's Fields, Ex- 

Mioet, Charles, Esq., Castle Hill, Doiv 

Minty, R. G. P., Esq., PeUtsfield 

Mitchell, F. J., Esq., Newport, Mon- 
^Mitchell, Henry, Esq. .Stratheden House, 

Enightobridge, S.W. 
♦Moberly, Rev. G., D.C^L., Brighstone, 

Isle of Wight 
Monteith, James, Esq., 88, Duke Street 

St James's, aW. 
Moody, J. J. P., Esq., Scarborough 
Moorhou8e,Chri8topner,Esq., Congleton 
Morant, Alfred W., Esq.,PlumAteadRoad, 

Morgan, Octavius, Esq., M.P., M.A., 

F.R.a, F.S.A.,9, Pall Mall, S.W. 
Mcsaman, David, Esq., 74, Westboume 

Fvk Villas, Harrow Road, W. 
Mostyn, Hon. George, 98, Eaton Square^ 


Mundy, William, Esq., Markeaton, Derby 
Munster, Henry, Esq., 4, Paper Buildings, 

Murray, Alexander, Esq., 6, Stanhope 

Street, Hyde Park, W. 
Murray, John, Esq., Albemarle St., W. 
Musgrave, Rev. G., M.A., MR.I., % 

Sussex Gardens^ Hyde Park, W. 
Mylne, Robert, Esq., F.R.a, F.aA., 21, 

WhitehaU Place, aw. 

Nanson, John, Esq., Town Clerk, 

Nasmyth, Sir John M., Bart, Dalwich 

House, Stobo, N.B. 
Neaves,The Hon. Lord,CharlotteSquars, 

Nelson, Park, Esq., 11, Essex Street 

Strand, W.C. 
Neebitt, Alexander, Esq., F.S.A., 85, 

Upper Seymour Street, W., and 

Hatchford, Woking 
*Newton, C, Esq., M. A., British Museum, 

Niblet, JohnD. T., Esq., Tuffley Knoll, 

Nichol, Fred. J., Esq., 16, Upper Harley 

Street, W. 
*Nichols, John Gough, Esq., F.aA., 25, 

Parliament Street, aW. 
Nichols, Rev. W. L., MA., F.S. A., Keyn- 

sham House, Keynsham 
Nicholson, James, Esq., F.a A.,Thelwa]I 

Hall, Warrington 
Nightingale, James E., Esq., Wilton 
Norris, Thomas, Esq., Howick House^ 

North, T., Esq., Southfields, Leicester 
Norton, John, Esq., 24,01d Bond Street, 


*Oakes, H.P., Esq., Oxford and Cambridge 

Club, aw. 

*Oakes, Capt G. W., 18, Durham Terrace, 
Westboume Park, W. 

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O'Callaghan, P., Eiq., LL.D., D.C.L., 
F.S. A., Clarendon Square, Leamington 
. Odell, W., Esq., Coventry 

Okes, Rey. Rich., D.D., King's College, 
Cambridge . 

Oldfield, Edmund E8q.,M.A., F.S.A., 61, 
Pall Mall, S.W. 
^Oldham, Rey. J. Lane, H.A., F.G.a, 
Audlej End, Essex 

Oliyer, James, Esq., Windham Club, S.W. 

Oliyer, Rey. R. B., M.A., Whitewell, 
Niton, Isle of Wight 

Ofxslow, Rey. C., M.A., Wimbome, Dor- 
. Ormerod, Qeo., Esq., D.C.L., F.R.S., 
F.S.A., Sedbury Park, Chepstow . 

^Ouyry, F,, Esq., F.S.A., Treaa. 8oa Ant., 
12, Queen Ann St., Cayendish 8q., W. 

Oxford; The Lord Bishop of, F.^a, 
F.aA., 26, Pall Hall, S.W. 

Palliser, Hr^ Buiy, 18a, Upper Brook 

Street, W. 
. palmer, Rey. Q. F., 58, Lowndes Square, 

Parker, J. H., Esq., F&A., 877, Strand, 

♦Parker, R. D., ^q., Barham, Canterbury 
Pamell, Hugh, Esq., 8, New Square, 

Lincoln's Inn, W.C. 
Pamell, John, Esq., MJL., Hadham 

House, Upper Clapton 
Parry,T. Cam bier, Esq., Highnam Court, 

Parsons, Daniel, Esq., Stuart's Lodge, 

Malyem Wells 
Payne, Rey, E., Swaldiffe Vicamge, 

Pearson, F., Esq. 18, Cleyeland Square, 

Hyde Park 
Pearson, Rey. Hugh, Sonning Vicarage, 

Peckitt, Henry, Esq., Tbirsk 
Peckover, Wm.vEeq,. F.S. A., Wisbeach 
Peckover, Jonathan, Esq., Wisbeach 
^Pepys, Edmund, Esq.,. 1, Portland 

Place, W. 
Petit, Miss, 9, New Square, Lincoln's 

Inn, W.C. 
.Petit, Rey. J. L., M.A., F.S.A., 9, New 

Square, Lincoln's Inn, W.C. 
•Peto, Sir S. M., Bart., M.P., 9, Great 

Qeorge Street^ Westminster, S.W. 
Petrie. Captain F. W. H., late 11th 

♦Phillips, Robert, Esq.. 5, Queen's Road 

West, Regent's Park, W. 
Phil pot, Rey. W. D., B.A., HamUton 

House, Leamington 
Pierpoint, Benjamin, Esq., Warrington 
Pinney, CoL W., M.A., 80, Berkeley 
Square, W. 
♦Plowes, J. H., Esq., 89, York Terrace, 
Regent's Park, N.W. 

Plumptre, Rey. F. C, D.D., Uniyersity 
College, Oxford 

Ponsonby, Hon. Gerald, 22, Upper Gros- 
yenor Street, W. 

Pooley, Charles, Esq., F.RC.S., 1, Raglan 
Circus, Weston-super-Mare 

Potts, Frederick, Esq., Chester 
•Powell, Francis S., Esq., M.P., 1, Cam- 
bridge Square, W. 

Poynter, Ambrose, Esq., 8, BCarine Place, 

Prall, R., Esq., Town Clerk, Ro- 

Pritchett, R. T., Esq., FA A., The New 
Lodge, Esher, Surrey 

Pusey, B. Sidney B., Esq., 7, Green 
Street, Grosyenor Square, W. 

Ram, Stephen, Esq., 86, Prinoes Gate, W. 
*Kamsden, Sir John W., Bart., Byram, 

Randal, J. L., Esq., Shrewsbury 
Ratoliff, Charles, Esq., F.S.A., F.G..S. 

Wyddrington, Edgbaston, and Con- 

seryatiVe Club, S.W. 
Ravenhill, Rev. H. £., Backland New- 
ton, Dorchester ^ 
Redfem, C, Esq., Warwick 
lUynardson, Rey. J. Birch, Careby Rec- 

tory, Stamford 
Reynolds, Charles William, Esq., 2. 

Eaton Place, S.W., and Army and 

Nayy Club 
Reynolds, J., Esq., Cheddar Villa, 

Cotbam, Bristol 
Rhodes, Rey. Gregory, 8 Gloucester 

Crescent, Hyde Park, W. 
Richards, E. P., Esq., Cardiff 
Richardson, G. G., Esq., Garlands, Rei- 

Riddell, William, Esq., 9, Old Square, 

Lincoln's Inn, W.C. 
Riley, Henry T., Esq., M.A., 81. St. 

Peter's Square, Hammersmith, W. 
♦Risley, Rey. W. Cotton, Deddington, 

Riyin(i:ton, W., Esq., Hampstead Heath, 

Robinson, John Ryley, Esq., South 

Terrace, Dewsbury 
Robinson, C. B., Esq., Frankton Grange, 

Robinson, T. W. U., Esq., Houghton] 

Robson, J., Esq., M.D., Warrington 
Rock, The Very Rey. Canon, D.D., 17 

Essex Villas, Phillimore Gardens, W. 
Rogers, J. J., Esq., Penrose, Helston, 

Rolls, J. E. W., Esq., The Hendre 
I Monmouth 

I Roots, George, Esq., F.S.A., 2, Ashley 
i Pljice, Victoria Street, S.W. 

Digitized by VjOOQiC 



Bose, Rev. H. J., B.D., Houghton Con- 

Roaa, lienrjr, Esq., F.& A., Manojr House, 

Kowe, Sir Joehu*, C.R» 10, Queen Ann 

Street, CavendUh Square, W. 
Rudd, J. B^ Eaq., ToUeeby Hmll, Mid- 

Runell, Rev. J. Fuller, B.C.L., F.SJL, 

Rutiey, J. L., Eeq., 5, Great Newport 

Street, LeieeeUr Square, W.C. 
Rye, W. B., Esq., Britiah Muaeum, W.C. 

Salvin, Anthony, Esq., FJ3.A., 4, Adam 

Street, Adelphi, W.C. 
Say. F. R., Esq., The Tenraee, Upton 

Park, Slough 
Scarth, The Rev. Prebendary, M.A., 

Bathwiok Hill, Bath 
Sohar^ G., Ek}., F.aA., 29, Great Geoige 

Street, Weatminstor, B.W. 
Sooit, Lord Henry, S, Tilney Street, W. 
Soott, General, Thorpe House, Chertsey 
Scott, George G., Esq., R.A., F.S.A., 20, 

Spring Gardens, S.W. 
Soott, Sir J. Sibbald D., Bart., F.aA., 80, 

Hyde Park Square, W. 
*Sedgwiok, Rev. A., M.A., Cambridge 
ShsdweU, Cayley, Esq., 10, Blandford 

Square, N.W. 
Sharpe, Edmund, Esq., M.A., Lancaster 
Shaw, H., Esq., F.S.A., 37, Southampton 

Row, W.C. 
Shaw,Benj.,E»q., 8, Cambridge Square^ 

Hyde Park, W. 
Sheridan, K. Brinsley, Esq., MP., 48, 

Grosveaor Place, aW. 
Sherriff, A. C, Esq., Worcester 
Shirley, Evelyn P., Esq., Lower Eating- 
ton Park, 8tratford-on-Avon 
Shout, R. H.,£8q., 35, Coleman St E.a 
Sbum, R.. Esq., 8, King's Road, Bedford 

Row. W.C. 
Simpson, Sir James, Bart, M.D., 52, 

Queen Street. Edinburgh 
Sinclair, R., Esq., C.E., Great Eastern 

Railway, Stratford 
Skilbeck. John, Esq., Forty Hill,Enfield 
Skrine, Henry D., E»q., Warieiith, Bath 
*Slade, Felix, Esq., Walcot Place, Lam- 
beth, a 
Slater, W., Esq., 4, Regent Street, aW. 
Smirke, Edward, Esq., 18, Thurloe 

Square, S.W. 
Smirke, Sydney, Esq., R.A., F.S.A., 70, 

Grosvenor Street, W. 
Smith, Augustus, Esq., Tresco Abbey, 

Isle of Scilly, Cornwall 
Smith, Rev. A.C., Yatesbury,CaIne 
Smith, W. J. Bernhard, Esq., 1, Plow- 
t. den Buildings, Temple, E.C. ; and 8, 

Eaton Place, S.W. 
Smith, Mrs. Reginald, Dorchester 

Smith, T. Roger. Esq., 67, Strand, W.C 
Smith, Lady, 80, Berkeley Square, W. 
Smith, William, Esq., F.S.A., 20, Upper 

Southwick Street, Hyde Park, W. 
Smith, Miss, Snowfield, Bearstead, Maid. 

Smith, R. H. Soden, Esq., M.A., F.S.A., 

South Kensington Museum, W. 
Smithe, W. Forater, Esq., Staplefield 

Place, Crawley, Sussex 
Sneyd, Ralph, Esq., Keele HaU, Stafford- 
Sneyd, Rev. Walter, MA., Denton 

House, Wheatley, Oxfordshire 
Snow, Rev. Herbert, M.A., Eton College 
•Somes, Joseph, Esq., F.R.G.a, Fortis- 

mere, Muswell Hill, N. 
•Sopwith, T., Esq., F.R.S., 168, Victoria 

Street, S.W. 
Southey, Regmald, Esq., 82, Montsgu 

Place, W.C. 
Southgate, Rev. F., MA., Ticap of North- 
fleet, Gravesend 
*Spiers, Richard J., Esq., F.S.A., Oxford 
Spode, Josiah, Esq., Hawks^ard Park, 

Spurrell, Rev. Fred., ' Fanlkbourn, 

Staoye, Rev. John, M.A., Sheffield 
Stanley, Very Rev. A. P., D.D., F.S.A., 

The Deanery, Westminster 
Stanley, Hon. W. Owen, M.P., Ponrhos, 

Holyhead, and 40, Grosvenor PI., W. 
Stanton, Rev. T., Burbage, Marlborough 
Stephens, John, Esq., 5, Chester Terrace, 

Stevens, Edward T., Esq., Blackmore 

Museum, Salisbury 
Stevens, Very Rev. R,, D.D., Dean of 

Stokes, Miss, Tyndale House, CbeltenhAm 
Sullivan, J., Esq., Brunswick House. 

Swinton, A. C, Esq., Kimmerghame, 

Dunse, N.B. 
*Sykes, Chriittopher, Esq , M.P., Kedmere, 

Malton, Yorkshire 
Symonds, G., Esq., Town Clerk, Dor- 
Syms, W. K, Esq., Rochester 

*Talbot de Malohide, Lord, F.aA., Ma- 

lahide Castle, Dublin 
Talbot, Reginald, Esq., Rhode Hill, Lyme 
Taylor, James Molyueux, Esq., 37, 

Brunswick Square, W.C. 
Taylor, T. T., Esq., Rookleaze House, 

Stoke Bishop, Bristol 
Tempest, Col., Tong Hall, Leed<«, and 

Carlton Club, S.W. 
Teulon, a T., Esq., 9, Craig's Court, 

Charing Cross, S.W. 
Thompson, Rev. W. 0., Old Windsor, 


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Thome, James, Esq., 11, Fortess Terrace, 

Kentish Town, N. 
Thornton, Rev. W., M.A,, Nevill's Park, 

Tunbridge Wells 
Thorp, Yen. Archdeacon, Kemerton, 

Thurnam, John, Esq., M.D., F.S.A., 

♦Tite, William, Esq., M.P., F.R.S., F.S.A., 

42, Lowndes Square, S. W. 
Tregellas, Walter H., Esq., War Office, 

Pall Mali; S.W. 
♦Trevelyan, Sir Walter C, Bart., M A., 

F.aA., F.G.S., Wallington, Morpeth 
Trevor, Rev, G^oige A., 48, Queen's 

Gardens, W 
*Trollope, Right Hon. Sir John, Bart., 

P.O., M.P., Gaaewick, Stamford 
Trollope, Arthur, Esq., East Qate, 

TroUope, Ven. Archdeacon, F.S.A., Lea- 

singham, Sleaford 
♦Tucker, C, Esq., F.S.A., Bon, Sec,, 

Marlands, Exeter 
Tucker, Marwood, Esq., 9, Old Square, 

Lincoln's Inn, W.C. 
Turner, C, Esq., 12, Four Posts' Hill, 

Turner, Henry, Esq., Low Heolm Haugh, 

Turner, Robert S., Esq., 1, Park Square, 

Regent's Park, N.W. 
Turner, T., Esq., Guy's Hospital, S.E. 
Turner, Rev. & Blois, M.A., FAA.,. 
. Halesworth 
Tweddell, George M., Esq., Stokesley, 

Tylor, Alfred, Esq., Warwick Lane, 

Newgate Street, E.C. 
♦Tyrell, Edward, Esq., Birkin Manor, 

Horton, Slough, Bucks 

Uttermare, T. B., Esq., Langport, 

Utting, R B.,E8q., 47,CamdenRd., N.W. 

Yallance, Rev. W., M. A., South Church, 

Yarley, Miss Emma, 837, Kentish Town 

Road, N.W. 
Yane. Henry M., Esq., 74, Eaton Place, 

Yansittart, Miss, 52, Green Street, Park 

Lane, W. 
Vaux, W. S., Esq., M.A,, F.S.A., British 

Museum, W.C. 
Yenables, Rev. E., M.A., Canon of 

Lincoln, Bonchurch, Isle of Wight 
•Yemon, W. F., Esq., Hare6eld Park, 

Yincent, Rev. R., Woodlands Manor, 

Kempsing, Sevenoaks 
Yirtue, Yery Rev. Mens., East Hill, 


YuUiamy, Geo., Esq., Metropolitan 
Board of Works, Spring Gardens, 

Watte, 0. D., Esq., 8, Old Burlington 

Street, W. 
Walcott, Rev. Mackenzie fi. C, B.D., 

F.S.A., Oxford and Cambridge Club, 


Waldy, The Rev. J. C, 1, Keynsham 

Parade, Cheltenham 
Walford, W. S., Esq., F.aA., 2, Plowden 

Buildings, Temple, £.0. 
Walker, Rev. Henry Aston, New Uni- 

Tersicy Club, W. 
Walker, George J. A., Esq., Norton, 

Walmisley, W. E., Esq., House of Lords, 

Walters, Rer. H. L. M., National Club, 

Whitehall Gardens, S.W. 
Warburton, R. B. B., Esq., Arley Hall, 

Northwich, Cheshire 
Warden, James, Esq., Town Hall, 

Warrington, Thos., Esq., Orchard Street, 

Portman Square, W. 
Warner, Rev. J. Lee, Thorpland, Fa- 

kenham, Norfolk 
Warre, Rev. F., Bishop's Lydiard, Taun- 

Warren, R. H., Esq., Brunswick House, 

Redland Park, Bristol 
*Waterton, Edmund, Esq., F.aA, Walton 

Castle, Wakefield 
Watkins, W., Esq., Feltham, Hounslow 
Watson, C. Knight, Bsq., M.A., F&A., 

Sec. Soc Ant., Somerset House, W.C. 
*Way, Albert, Esq., M.A., Hon, Sec, 

Wonham Manor, Reigate 
Webb, Rev. B., M.A., 8,ChandosSt,W. 
Webb, John, Esq., 11, Grafton Street, 

Bond Street, W. 
Webb, H., Esq., Red Stone Manor 

House, Red Hill, Surrey 
Weir, Archibald, Esq., M.D., Link 

Lodge, Malveru Link 
Weld, Edward, Esq., Lul worth Castle, 

Wellesley, The Hon. and Yery Rev. G. 

Y., M.A., The Deanery, Windsor 

West, Charles, Esq., M.D., 61, Wimpole 

Street, W. 
Westmacott, Richard, Esq., R.A., F.R.S., 

1, Kensington Gate, W. 
Westminster, the Marquis of, 33, Upper 

Grosvenor Street, W. 
Western, Sir T. Burch, Bart., MP., Ri- 

venhall, Essex, and Brooks' CIub,a W. 
Weston, Rev. G. F., Sbap, WestaK>re- 

We-stwood, J. 0., Esq., M.A., Henley 

House, Summer Town, Oxford 

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Wbita, Edvnu^, Esq., 21, Cocktpur 

Street^ S.W. 
White, Key. J., Qrayingham, Kirion in 

•White, W., Esq., jun., Fulwood Par- 

Bonage, Sheffield 
Whitehead, Tho8. MtUler, Esq., 8, Duke 

Street^ St James's, &W. 
Whittle, ^., Esq., Rochester 
Wickham, H., Esq., Strood, Rochester 
Wike, Qeorge, Esq., Springside, Somer- 

seat, near Manchester 
Wilkinson, A., Esq., Clyde Villa, Queen's 

Road, S. Norwood, S. 
Wilks, Rey. Theodore 0., Hook, near 

^Williams, 0. H., Esq., The Mount, 

Williams, J., Esq., Regent Street, Lea- 
^Williams, Capt. Bigoe, 27, Waterloo 

Ci'esceaty Dover 
Williams, Herbert, Esq., Dorchester 
♦Waiis, Rev. Professor, 28, York Ter- 
race, Regent's Park,N.W. 
Wills, Rev. WUliam, Holoombe Rogus, 

Wilson, Rev. J., D.D., F.S.A., Rectory, 

Qarsington, Wheatley, Oxford 

Wilson, Rev. A. M,. M.A., Ainstable, 

Winwood, Rev. H. H., 4, Oavendiah Cres- 
cent, Bath 
Winnington,SirThos. Edw.,Bart.,M.P., 

Stanford Court, Worcester 
Wise, J. Ayshford, Esq., Clayton Hall, 

Newcastle, Staffordshire 
Wood, Rev. JohnRyle, MJL, The Close, 

Wood,Edw.,E8q.,Newbold Revel, Rugby 
•Wood, Richard Henry, Esq., F.S.A., 

Crumpsall, Manchester 

Esq., Librarian to the Queen, Bucking- 
bam Palace, S.W. 
Wright, Henry, Esq., Hatherby Lawn, 

Cheltenham ' 
Wyatt, Thos. H., Esq., 77, Great Russell 

Street, W.a 
Wyatt, M. Digby, Esq., 87, Tavistock 

PUoe, W.C. 
Wyatt, Rev. C. F., M.A., Forest Hill, 

Wynne, W. W. E., Esq., Peniarth, 

MaohynUeth, N. Wales 

Yates, James, Esq., F.R.S., Lauderdale 
House, Highgate, N. 

Digitized by VjOOQiC 


{The number of British Honorary and Corresponding Members is limited to Ten.) 

AlviD, M., CoDservateur en Chef de la Biblioth^ue Publique, et Membre de rAcadainie 

Boyale, Brussels. 
Bancroft, Hon. Q., Hon. F.S.A., New York. 
Barth^lemy, M. Anatole de, Paris. 
Birch, Samuel, Esq., LL.D., British Museum, W.C. 
Bock, The Very Rev. Dr. Franz, Hon. F.S.A.) Canon of Aix-la-Chapelle. 
Bonstetten, The Baron Qustaye de, Hon. F.S.A., Thun, and Berne, Switserland. 
Cameaina, M.,. Vienna, 

Caumont, M. de, President of the Society of Antiquaries of Normandy, Caen. 
ChabouUIet, M. Anatole, Hon. F.S.A., Consenraieur des Medaillss et Antiques, 

Biblioth^ue Imperiale, Paris, 
Cochet, M. TAbb^ Dieppe. 
Delepierre, M. Octave, LL.D., Hon. F.S.A., Secretary of Legation and Consul Qeneral 

for Belgium, London. 
Deloye, M. Augustin, Conserrateur de la Biblioth^ue et du Mus^e, Avignon. 
De Rossi, II Cavaliers O. B., Rome. 
Desor, M., NeuchateL 

Didron, M., Secretaire du Comity des Monuments, &c., Paris. 
Fiorelli, II Commendatore, Naples. 

Qarrucci, II Padre, Professor in the CoUegio Romans, ^me. 
Gerhard, Professor Eduard, Berlin. . 

Go8ch,M. Charles, R, Attach^ to the Legation of H. M. the King of Denmark, London. 
Gozzadini, Count Giovanni, Bologna. 
Greenwell, Rev. W., M.A., Durham. 
Grotefend, Dr. C. L., Hanover. 
Guizot, M. M. F., Membre de I'lnstitut, Paris. 

James, Colonel Sir Henry, R.E., Ordnanoe Survey Office, Southampton. 
Keller, Dr. Ferdinand, Hon. F.S.A., President of the Society of Antiquaries, Zurich. 
Laborde, Le Comte de, Directeur des Archives Imp^rialea, Paris. 
Lasteyrie, Le Comte Ferdinand de, Paris. 

Leemans, Dr. Conrad, Director of the Royal Museum of Antiquities, Leyden. 
Lindenschmit, Dr. Ludwig, Mayeooe. 
Longp^rier, M. Adrien de, Paris. 
Lepsius, Dr. Carl R., Royal Academy, Berlin. 
MaoLauchlan, Henry, Esq., F.G.S. Hod. Member of the Society of Antiquaries of 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 30, Ciapham Road Place, S. 
Marietta, M., Cairo. 

Maury, M. Member of the Institute of Frsnce, Paris. 
Iklignet, M. FraD9ois Augusts Alexis, Paris. 
Mommsen, Dr. Theodor, Royal Academy, Berlin. 
Monteroli, II Signer, Rome. 

MuUooly, Vei7 Rev. 0. P., Prior of San Clemente, Rome. 

Murchison, Sir R. I., Bart, K.C.B., G.C.St.S., D.C.L,, M.A., F.R.S., &c, 16, Bel- 
grave Square, S.W. 
Phillips, Professor, F.R.S., Oxford. 
Petrie, George, £Isq., Kirkwall, Orkney. 

Pettier, M. Andr^, Conservateur de la Biblioth^que Imperiale, Rouen. 
Reeves, Rev. W., D.D., Librarian, Armagh. 
St. Hilaire, M., Paris. 

Saulcy, M. Feliciende, Hon. F.S.A.,Seoateur, Membre de Tlnstitut, Paris. 
Smith, Charles Roach, Esq., F.S.A., Hon. Member of the Society of Antiquaries of 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne, and of Scotland, France, Spain, Normandy, kc, Temple 

Place, Strood. 
Squier, E. G., E«q., New York, U.S. 
Sommerard, M. £. du, Conservateur-Administrateur du Mus^ de THotel de Cluny, 

&c., Paris. 
Stuart, John, Esq., Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, Edinburgh. 

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TieeenhaoBen, M. W., Secr^Uire d« 1* Commiwion Imp^iiale Arch^ologique, St 

T^skiowicB, The Count ConBtaniine, Member of the Arohsdological Society of Wilna» 

Lohoinsk, near Minsk. 
Yuiftin, M. I'Abb^, Toumay. 

Von Sacken, Freiherr Edouard, K.K., Museum, Vienna. 
Waddington, W. H., Esq., Member of the Institute of France, Paris. 
Witte, The Baron Julee de, Membre de I'Academie dee Beaux Arts, de Belgique, Ao., 

V^orsaae, Professor J. J. A., Hon. F.S.A., Director of the Museum of Northern 

Antiquities, Copenhagen, 


BsDFOBSSHiBB Architeotoral and Arehssological Society. 

Bbibtol Library. 

CoBPOBLTioir or Londov, Library of. 

Lbkwstxb Literary Society. 

LnrooLK Diocesan Architectural Society. 

LurooiJf Library. 

Makobsbtbb Free Libraries. 

NiwoasTLS-OK-TTHi Philosophical and Literary Society. 

RoTAL Institotioh, Albemarle Street 

Shrxwbbubt Library. 

^Tbimitt CoLLBps, CAMBBiDaB, Library of. 

*YoBK Subscription Library. 

Subscriptions to the Institute (due annually, in advance^ on January 1st) are 
payable to the Bankers of the Society, Messrs. Coutts and Co., 59, Strand, or by 
post-office order on the Charing Oro$$ Office, addressed to W. R. Lodge, E«q., Secre- 
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Assistant Secretary, 
APARTMBim or THK Ikstitutb, London, 


Apbil, 1867. 


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Abingdon, Berks, fragments of pottery 
found near, 78. 

AwBiOA : — memoir on disooYeries on the 
site of Carthage, 149 ; iron shield 
and head-piece from Tangiers, 156. 

America, South, the ancient tombs of 
Ni^aragaa, by Mr. Frederick Boyle, 
41, 800. 

Amersweiler, vide Marivillier. 

Anglesey, notice of ancient interments 
at Carreglwyd, 800. 

Anglo-Saxon weapons and relics foand at 
Hartwell, Bucks, 78; cemetery at 
Melton Mowbray, Leicester, 800. 

Arohitkctubb : — in the East, remarks 
on MediffiTal, by the Rev. J. L. Petit, 
1,152,248; Church of St. Michael 
at St. Albans, 67 ; " Colston's House," 
Bristol, 150; documeot as to the 
repair of Waltham Abbey Church, 

Ames A.ND Armour :— jousting vamplate 
of the sixteenth century in the 
Woolwich Museum, 51; head of 
tilting lance of the sixteenth century, 
65; '^olingen" blade, mounted with 
guard of Indian work, 69; small 
cross-bow with inlaid stock, 70 ; In- 
dian " kuttar " daggers, 78 ; hand- 
mortar of the seventeenth century, 
73, 218 ; collar of mail of the fif- 
teenth century, 149 ; helmet of the 
fifteenth century, 155; iron shield 
and head-piece from Tangiers, 156 ; 
Grenadier of H. M. first regiment 
of Foot Guards in 1735, 222. 

Aulus Plautius, vide Plautius. 

Axbridge, Somerset, early hiBtorical doc- 
ument among the muniments of the 
town, 224. 


Balliurobe, county Mayo opaI of the con- 
ventofAustinPn '«^«*0C. 

Beck, Bey. James, exhibits pavement tile 
with a device, 74 ; enamelled locket, 
ib. ; oval watch, ib. ; portrait by Geo. 
Chinneiy, ib, ; design for copper 
coinage, ib, 

Bedfont^ Middlesex, mural paintings in 
the church of, 68. 

Beek, Sir Thomas, his seal, 70. 

Beldam, Mr. J., his memoir on the Icen- 
hilde Street, 231. 

Bkrks :— pottery found near Abingdon, 

Birch, Mr. W. de Gray, exhibits impres- 
sions of various seals, 77. 

Bloxam, Mr. M. H., exhibits seal of the 
convent of Austin Friars at Ballin- 
robe, county Mayo, 66. 

Bohn, Mr. H. G., exhibits painting in the 
style of the Flemish school, 74. 

Bowyer, Mr. C, exhibits ffesto of the Vir- 
gin and Child, 69. 

Boyle, Mr. Frederick, his memoir on the 
ancient tombs of Nicaragua, 41, 800. 

Bradbuiy, Mr. J., communicates account 
of excavations at Slack, near Hud- 
dorsfield, 66. 

Bradford Abbas, Dorset, flint Implements, 
&c., found at, 800. 

Bristol, pigs of lead found in the river 
bank at, 62; Colston's House at, 
remarks of Mr. Godwin on threatened 
destruction of, 150 

British antiquities found in the Isle of 
Portland, 149. 

Buckman, Professor James, describes ves- 
tiges of early occupation found in 
the Isle of Portland, 149; flint im- 
plements, &c., in Dorset^ 800. 

Bucks : — Anglo-Saxon weapons and relics 
found at Hartwell, 78 ; mural paint- 
ings in Whaddou church, ib. 

Burtt, Mr. J., communicates charter of 
Henry VII. to the Franciscan Friars 
at Qreen^vich, 54 ; contributes doc- 
ument as to the repair of Waltham 
Abbey church, 293. 
Bush, Mr. Arthur, secures for the British 

3 p 

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Museum a Roman pig of lead found 
at Bristol, 63. 


CaerleoD, Monmouthshire, mosaic pave- 
ment found at, 74. 

Calyerhall, William de, his seal, 70. 

CAHBRiDassHiiiB :— proposed destruction 
of part of the chancel screen of Em- 
neth chiirch, 161. 

Cahbos .-—exhibited by Mr. F. Potts, 
151 ; on onyx, eidiibited by Capt 
£. Hoare, 151. 

Canwick Common, Lincoln, Roman relics 
found at, 804. 

Carminow Barton, Cornwall, a Swedish 
" dalar " found in a building at». 236. 

Carminow family, effigies of persons of 
the, in Mawgan church, Cornwall, 

Carreglwyd, Anglesey, notice of ancient 
interments at, 800. 

Carthage, memoir on discoYeries on the 
site of, 149,270. 

Caton, Mr. R. R., exhibits silver matrices 
of seals of "Jano le Rice" of the 
thirteenth century, and of the city 
of Marivillier, dep. Upper Rhine, of 
the fifteenth century, 162. 

Charles I., first great seal of, 77. 

Chester, the Rev. Greville J., communi- 
cates memoir of di«coveries on the 
site of Caitbage, 149, 270. 

Child's Ercall, Salop, William of, his seal, 

China, maps of, exhibited, 804. 

Chini, Signer Bartholomeo,hi8 comments 
on the proposed destruction of the 
monastery of Monte Cassino in Italy, 

Christohurch, Hanto, remonatranoe 
against threatened destruction of 
the rood-screen in the Priory church 
at, 69. 

Coates, the Rev. R. P., describes his visit 
to Othona, at St. Petei-'s Head, Es- 
sex, 60. 

Coins :— design for copper coinage of 
1788, 74 ; crown pieces of Edward 
VI. and Charles I., ib.; found in 
Portland, 76, 78; the mints of Dor- 
setshire, 122 ; ** denarius" of Domi- 
tian found in Hampshire, 236; a 
Swedish *' dalar" found at Carminow 
Barton, Cornwall, 286. 

Cornwall : — grave, effigies, &c., in Maw- 
gan church, 76 ; a Swedish " dalar " 
found at -Carminow Barton, 236; 
metallurgical relics in, 277. 

Cowling Castle, Kent, account of an 
enamelled plate in front of, 233. 


Denmark : — the antiquities of South Jut- 
land or Sleswick, by J. J. A. Wor- 
saae, 21, 96, 181, 291. 

Devonshire: — Roman relics foimd at 
Exeter, 68. 

Dod, Mr. Whitehall, early documents in 
his possession relating to Stafford- 
shire and Shropshire, 70; contributes 
indulgence by the "Minister" of Tri- 
nitarian Friars near Enaroeborough, 

Dodd, Mr. S., exhibits representation of 
Edward the Confessor firom Romford 
chapel, 78 ; exhibits two MSa of the 
fourteenth century, 285. 

Documents :— charter of Henry VII. to 
the Franciscans at Greenwich, 54; 
collection relating to Staffordshire, 
Shropshire, and parts of Walee^ 70; 
«* Declaration" published by the 
House of Commons, June, 1660, 74 ; 
document temp. Charles I., ib.; in- 
dulgence granted in 1491 by the 
" Minister " of Uie Franciscan Friars 
near Knaresborough, 145 : early his- 
torical document from the muni- 
ments of Axbridge, Somerset, 224 ; 
as to the repair of Waltham Abbey 
church, 298; roll of possessions in 
the Marches of Walos, 804. 

Dorchester, Oxfordshire, Roman pottery 
and a lamp found near, 73. 

Dorsetshire: — discoveries in Portland, 
75, 78, 149; flint implements and 
weapons found in, 300; numismaticB 
of, 122, 

Drohitchin, Poland, huUcB found at, 62. 

Dunraven, the Earl of, exhibits three 
silver dishes found near the Abbey 
of Fore, co. Westmeath, 235. 

Duustan, St, vide Axbridge. 


East, remarks on mediaeval architecture 
in the, by the Rev. J. L. Petit, 1, 

Elizabeth, Queen, Mr. Q. Scharf's account 
of a picture of her procession to 
Blackfriars, 181 ; Mr. J. G. Nichols ; 
remarks on same, 302. 

Elsted, Mr. W. P., exhibits impression of 
counterseal of John le Furmager, of 
the thirteenth century, found on the 
beach at Dover, 151. 

Emneth, Cambridgeshire, proposed de- 
struction of part of the chancel 
screen in the church of, 151. 

Enamels ; — locket, 74 ; a circular plnr^ue, 
with portrait, a dish by S. Coiirtoig, 

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and an oblong plaque, 156 ; plate in 
front of Cowling Castle/ Kent, 233. 

EssBX : — St. Petot^a Head, diacoveriea in 
connection with Othona, 60 ; murul 
paintinga in West Ham church, 63 ; 
silver betrothal ring found at Qains 
Colue, 65 ; painted glasa at Romford 
chapel, 73 ; document as to the re- 
pair of Waltham Abbey ohurah, 293. 

Erane, Mr. John, his account of coins 
found in Portland, 75. 

Exeter, Roman relics found at, 63. 


Ffarrington, Miss, exhibits drawings of 
low arch in Leyland church, Lan- 
cashire, 70. 

Flint, antiquitieB of, $ee Stone. 

FsANoi : g oa l of Marivillier, dep. Upper 
Rhine, exhibited, 152. 

Furmager, John le, seal of, 161. 


Qermany, portrait of Antony Kress, Pro- 

Tost of St. Laurence's, Nuremberg, 

78 ; casts from Imperial buUcB OMrea, 

Qlass, painted, in Romford Chapel, Essex, 

Glastonbury Abbey, Professor Willis's 

architectural history of, 287. 
Gltptio Art: — cameos, exhibited by 

Mr. F. Potto, 161; by Captain E. 

Hoare, t6. ; glass paste found in 

Rome, with inscriptions, 166; in- 
taglio on jacinth, exhibited by the 

Rev. Gregory Rhodes, 285. 
Godwin, Mr. E. W., his remarks on 

"restorations," aod on the threatened 

destruction of Colston's House, 

Bristol, 150. 
GoBch, Ch. C. A., his translation of M. 

Worsaae's essay on the antiquities of 

South Jutland or Sleswiok, 21, 96, 

181, 291. 
Graves, the Rev. J., contributes seal of 

the Warden of the Franciscan Friars 

at Greenwich, 64. 
Greaves, Mr. C. Spreugel, his remarks on 

the punishment of lepers, 68 ; further 

remarks thereon, 73. 
Greaves, Mr. E., exhibito three specimens 

of Limoges enamel, 166. 
Greenwich, charter of Heniy YII. to the 

Franciscan Friars at, 64. 
Greville, the Hon. Fulke, exhibito roll 

of possessions in the Marches of 

Wales, 304. 
Giimani breviary at Venice, photographs 

of illuminations in, 74. 

Guest, Dr., his discourse on the campaign 
of Aulus PUutius, 159. 

Hailstone, the Rev. J., exhibito silver 
betrothal ring found at Gains Colne, 
Essex, 66. 

Hampshirs : — remonstrance against 
threatened destruction of rood- 
screen at Christdiurch, 69 ; " dena- 
rius " of Domitian found in, 236. 

Hartwell, Bucks, Anglo-Saxon weapons 
and relics found at, 78. 

Hawkins, Mr. Edw., on Dorsetshire 
numismatics, 122. 

Henderson, Mr. J., exhibito Persian 
hunting-horn of ivory, sculptured, 
69 ; Indian ^'kuttar" da^ers, 78. 

Henry YIL, charter of, te the Frandsoans 
at Greenwich, 64. 

HiRTFORDBHiRB : — account of the church 
of St Bflchael at St Albans, 67. 

Hewitt) Mr. J., his remarks on a joustmg 
yamplate in the Woolwich Museum, 
61 ; on a hand-mortar of the seven- 
teenth century, 73, 218 ; on a collar 
of mail of the fifteenth century, 149 ; 
exhibito two maps of China, 804. 

Hind, Mr. Lewis, exhibito photographs 
of the Grimani breviary at Venice, 

Hoare, Capt E., exhibito cameo on onyx, 
151; silver seal of the sixteenth 
century, with his family arms, 156. 

Holland: — a Dutch silver prise- whip 
exhibited, 235. 

Hutchinson, Rev. B., his account of the 
church of St Michael at St Albans, 


Irbland : — ^seal of the Austin Friars at 
Ballinrobe, co. Mayo, 66; impres- 
sion of Irish Exchequer seal, tempore 
Henry VL, 77 ; CoL A. Lane-Fox's 
account of Roovesmore Fort, county 
Cork, 149 ; silver dishes found near 
the Abbey of Fore, co. Westmeath, 

Italt: — remarks on the contemplated 
destruction of the monastery of 
Monte Cassino, 152, 299 ; Rome, Mr. 
Parkei^s discourse on the fortifica- 
tions of, 231 ; piece cf ironwork ob- 
tained from, 236. 

IvORT, SouLFTURES IK !— mirror cases of 
the fourteenth century, 66 ; Persian 
hunting-horn, 69; 13th century ta- 
blet, 151. 

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Jarvis, the Rev. Edwin, exhibits pieoeB 
of mediosval ironwork, 235. 

Jervoise, Sir J. C. Clarke, Bart, M.P., ex- 
hibits ''denarius" of Domitiaa found 
in Hampshire, 235. 

Jutland, South, or Sletwick, the anti- 
quities of, by J. J. A« Worsaae, trans- 
lated by Ch. C. A. Goech, 21, 96, 
181, 291. 

Kendrick, Dr., exhibits ooUection of 
documents relating to Staffordshire 
and Shropshire, 70 ; series of casts 
from Imperial btUUe aurecBj 156. 

Kent: — charter of Henry VII. to the 
Franciscans at Greenwich, 54 ; seal 
of John le Furmager found at Dover, 
151; enamelled plate in front of 
Cowling Castle, 233. 

Kerr, Mrs. Alexander, sends photographs 
of examples of art at Vienna, 74. 

King, Mr. C. W., on the signet of Q. 
Cornelius Lupus, 79. 

, Mr. H. W., his account of mui-al 

paintings in the church of West 
Ham, Essex, 63. 

Kress, Antony, Provost of St. Laurence's, 
Nuremberg, portrait of, 78. 


Lancashire : — drawings of low arch in 
Ley land Church, 70. 

Lane- Fox, Col. A., his account of Rooves- 
more Fort, in Ireland, 149. 

Le Bas, the Rev. H. V., his account of 
mural paintings in the church of 
Bedfont, Middlesex, 63. 

Lefroy, Brigadier-General R. A., exhibits 
steel head of tilting-lance, tenip. 
Henry VIII., 65 ; his remarks on a 
helmet of the fifteenth century from 
the Woolwich Museum, 155 ; exhi- 
bits iron shield and head-piece ob- 
tained from Tangiers, 156. 

Leicester: — Roman remains found in 
the town of, 70 ; Anglo-Saxon ceme- 
tery at Mellon Mowbray, 300. 

Leylaud Church, Lancashire, low arch 
in, 70. 

Lincolnshire : — Hospital of the Holy In- 
nocents, near Lincoln ; notice of a 
Ecpulchi*al slab discovered on the site 
of the, 212 ; piece of ironwork found 
near Hackthorne, 235; Roman relics 
found at Lincoln and on Canwick 
Common, 304. 

Lomlon, Mr. G. Scharf s account of the 

picture of Queen Elizabeth's proces- 
sion to Blackfriars, 131 ; remarks 
on, 802; report of annual meeting 
in, 306. 

London, the origin of, vide Plautiua, Aulus. 

Lowndes, the Rev. Charles, exhibits 
Saxon weapons and relics found at 
Hartwell, Bucks, 78. 

Lubbock, Sur John, Bart, his addresg to 
the Section of "Primieval Anti- 
quities" at the London Meeting, 

MaoLaiiohlan, Hr., his survey of the East- 
em Watling Street in Northumber- 
land, 73. 

Maeshowe, Orkney, tumulus of, 72. 

Malahide, Lord Talbot de, iee Talbot 

Mariviilier, dep. Upper Rhine, matrix of 
seal of, 162. 

Melton Mowbray, Leicester, Anglo-Saxon 
cemetery at, 300. 

Metcalfe, Mr. F. M., his remarks on the 
proposed destruction of part of the 
screen of Emneth Church, Cam- 
bridgeshire, 151. 

Middlesex :— mural paintings in the 
Church of Bedfont, 63 ; picture of 
Queen Elizabeth's procession to 
Blackfriars, 131, 302. 

Mokmouthshirb : — Mosaic pavement 
found at Caerleon, 74. 

Monte Cassino, Italy, the contemplated 
destruction of the monasteiy o^ 152, 

Morgan, Mr. Octavius, M.P., his observa- 
tions on Roman hypocausts, 67 ; hb 
description of mosaic pavement at 
Caerleon, 74 ; exhibits a Dutch silver 
prize-whip, 235. 


Newman, Mr., exhibits ivory miiror-cases 
of the fourteenth century, 66 ; head 
of terra cotta, ib. 

Nicaragua, memoir on the ancient tombs 
of, by Mr. Frederick Boyle, 41, 800. 

Nichols, Mr. J. G., his observations on 
the picture representing Queen 
Elizabeth's visit to Blackfriars, 302. 

North, Mr. Thomas, his account of an 
Anglo-Saxon cemetery at Melton 
Mowbray, Leicester, 3u0. 

Northumberland : — survey of the East- 
em Watling Street in, 73. 

North Wales, see Wales. 

Nuremberg, portrait of Antony Kress, 
provost of St. Laurence's, 79. 

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Orkney, tumulus of Maeshowe iu, 72. 
Otboua, see St. Peter's Uoad. 
OxFuiiDsuiRE : — liouiau pottery and a 
lamp found near Dorchester, 73. 

Paintings :— in Bedfont Church, Middle- 
sex, 63; in West Ham Church, 
Essex, ib.; in the style of the. 
Flemish school, 74 ; portrait by 
'^ Geoi^ge Chinuery, ib.; in Whaddon 

Church, Bucks, 78 ; portrait of the 
Provost of St. Laurence's, Nurem- 
l>orgi lb. ; picture of Queen Eliza- 
beth's procession to Black friara, 131, 
302 ; portrait, said to bo Chaucer's, 

Parker, Mr. J. H., his discourse on the 
primitive fortifications of Rome, 231. 

Pepys, Mr. E., exhibito the '* Declara- 
tion " published by the House of 
Commons, June 1660 ; and crown 
pieces of Edward V I. and Charles I., 

Petit, the Rev. J. L., his remarks on me- 
diseval architecture in the East, 1, 
152, 243. 

Pigott, the Rev. William, exhibits draw- 
ings of mural paintings in Whaddon 
church, Bucks, 78. 

Plautius, Aulus, Dr. Quest's discourse on 
the campaign of. 159. 

Poland, btUlcB found at Drohitchin, 62. 

Portland, disco verios in, 75, 149. 

PoTTBRT : fragments found near Abing- 
don, Berks, 73 ; Roman pottery found 
near Dorchester, Oxfordshire, ib. 

Potts, Mr. F., exhibits a cameo and agate 
ornament, 151. 

Primroval Antiquities; address of Sir 
John Lubbock, Bart., to the section 
of, at the London meeting, 190. 

Publications, Archsdological : — '* Contri- 
butions towards the History of Old 
London," 158; the Runic Monuments 
of EngUnd and Scandinavia, ib. ; M. 
Engelhardt's '* Denmark in the early 
Iron Age," ib. ; Mr. Shaw's Hand- 
book of Illuminations, 158, 239 ; Pro- 
fessor Willis's Architectural History 
of Glastonbury Abbey, 237 ; Mr. Doll- 
man's Ecclesiastical and Domestic 
Architecture in England, 242. 

Reynolds, Mr., exhjku ..,^ear-head found 

atRusIial], Wi].^%^> 
Rhodes, the Rev. /f » ^^' ^ exhibite a 

Greek gem, the head of Sappho, 

Rings : — silver betrothal ring found at 
Gains Colnc, Essex, 65; gold ring 
with engraved ruby, and massive 
gold ring of English work, ib. 

Rock, the Very Rev. Canon, his remarks 
on paintings in Bedfont church, 63 ; 
on the proposed destruction of the 
monastery of ftlonte Cassino, in 
Italy, 153; on a shield, &c., from 
Taugiers, 156. 

Rogers, Mr. J. Jope, communicates notice 
of a mural grave, effigies, &c., in 
Mawgan church, Cornwall, 76 ; ex- 
hibits copper coin, said to be a Swe- 
dish "dalar,** found in Cornwall, 

Roman Antiquities :—discoverie8 at St. 
Peter's Head, Essex, 60 ; bullso 
found at Brough, Westmoreland, 
62; pig of lead found at Bristol, 63 ; 
found at Slack, near Huddersfield, 
66; Mr. Morgan's remarks on hypo- 
cau^ts, 67 ; relics found at Exeter, 
68 ; remains found in the town of 
Leicester, 70; found in Portland, 
75, 78, 149 ; pigs of lead and metal- 
lurgical relics, 277; relics found in 
Lincolnshire, 804. 

Rome, Mr. J. H. Parker's discourse on 
the fortifications of, 231. 

Romford, Essex ; painted glass in the 
chapel of, 73. 


St. Albans, Herts; account of the church 
of St. Michael, at, 67. 

St. Peter's Head, Essex ; the Rev. R. P. 
Coates's visit to 0th ona, at, 60. 

Scharf, Mr. Geo., on a picture of Queen 
Elizabeth's procession to Black- 
friars, 131, 302 ; on an ancient 
interment in Westminster Abbey, 

Scarth, the Rev, Canon, his account of 
the discovery of pigs of lead at 
Bristol, 6'2 ; further remarks on, 

Scotland : — symbols on the pillar stones 
of, 7L 

Seals:— of the convent of Austin Friara 
at Ballinrobe, county Mayo, 66 ; of 
John de Verdon, Thomas Talbot, 
William of Cliild's Ercall, Salop ; 
William dc Calverhall, and Sir Tho- 
mas Beek, 70 ; CJroat Seal of Charles 
I., 74; impressions of Irish Exche- 
quer seal, temp. Henry VI. ; of seal 
attributed to Gilbert do Scmpiiii'; 
ham ; of first Great Seal of Charles 

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L ; 77 ; signet of Q. Cornelius Lu- 
pus, 79 ; seal of Johu le Funnager, 
151 ; of John le Rice, and of the 
city of Marivillier, dep. of Upper 
Rhine, 152; of the family of Captain 
Hoare, 156 ; impressions from Impe- 
rial bvlUe aurcce, 156 ; of Waltham 
Abbey, 295. 
Sempringham, Gilbert de, impression of 

seal attributed to, 77. 
Sepulchral Antiquitibs :— the ancient 
tombs of Nicaragua, 41, 800 ; sepul- 
chral Tosael found at Leicester, 70 ; 
the Pillar Stones of Scotland, 71 ; 
tumulus of Maeshowe, 72; grave, 
effigies, &o. at Mawgan Church, Corn- 
wall, 76 ; slab found near Lincoln, 
212 ; cemetery at Ifelton Mowbray, 
800; interments in Anglesey, id.; in- 
terment in Westminster Abbey, 803. 
Shaw, Mr. Henry, exhibits illuminated 
portrait of Anthony Kress, provost 
of St. Laurence's, Nurembei^, 78; 
his handbook of illumination, 289. 
Shbofsbibb : — documents relating to, 70. 
Black, near Huddersfield, account of 

excavations at, 66. 
Sleswick, vide Jutland, South. 
Smirke, Mr. E., communicates docu- 
ments relating to lepers, 68 ; further 
remarks on, 72 ; communicates early 
historical document among the mu- 
niments of the town of Axbridge, 
Smith, Mr. R. H. Soden, exhibits gold 
ring with ruby inscribed in Arabic ; 
a massive gold ring of English work; 
a pair of book-olaspe of silver gilt, 
with enamel ; and sword-guard and 
pommel of steel gilt, 65; Roman 
pottery, and a lamp found near 
Dorchester, Oxon, 78 ; his observa- 
tions on the jewellery and decora- 
tions of the portraits at South Ken- 
sington, 152. 
Smith, Mr. W. J. Bemhard, exhibits 
** Soliugen " blade, mounted with 
cross-guard of Indian work, 69 ; small 
cross-bow, lb. ; fmgments of pottery 
found near Abingdon, Berks, 73. 
SoMEiiSET : — Romnn pig of lead found at 
Bristol, 63, 69 ; early historical do- 
cument among the muniments of 
Axbridge, 224. 
South Jutland, see Jutland. 
Spurrell, the Rev. F., his remarks on 
discoveries in connection with 
Othona, 62 
Staffordshire — documents relating 

to, 70. 
Stanley, the Hon. W. Owen, his ac- 
couut of ancient interments in An- 
glesey, 300. 
Stone, Antiquities of : — the Pillar 

Stones of Scotland, 71 ; Sir John 
Lubbock's remarks on, 194 ; flint 
implements found at Bradford Ab- 
bas, Doi-sct, 300; tracings of stone 
monuments, 304. 
Stuart, Mr. J., his observations on the 
incised symbols on the pillar stones 
of Scotland, 71. 

Talbot, Thomas, seal of, 70. 

Talbot de Bfalahide, Lord, his remarks ^ 
on the Maeshowe, and sculptured 
stones of Scotland, 72. 

Tangiers, iron shield and head-pieoe ob- 
tained from, 156. 

Tempest, Col, exhibits a portrait, said 
to be of Chaucer, 286. 

TregelUs, Mr. W. H., communicates me- 
moir on ** CsBsar^s Camp," at Wim- 
bledon, 74, 261. 

TroUope, Mr. Arthur, exhibits Roman re- 
lics found in Lincolnshire, 804. 

TroUope, the Rev. Edward, his notice of 
a sepulchral slab discovered on the 
site of the Hospital of the Holy In- 
nocents, near Lincoln, 212. 

Tucker, Mr. Charles, his account of 
Roman relics found at Exeter, 68. 

TysskievicE, the Count, his account of 
bulla found at Drohitchin, 62. 

Vamplate of the 16th century, from the 
Royal Artillery Museum, Woolwich, 
Mr. J. Hewitts remai-ks on, 51. 

Vknice: — photographs of the Qrimani 
Breviary at, 74. 

Verdon, John de, seal of, 70. 

Vernon, Mr. W. F., exhibits a glass paste 
found at Rome, 155. 

Vienna : — photographs of examples of 
art at, 74. 

Virtue, the Very Rev. Mons., exhibits 
psalter of the thirteenth century, 
65 ; embroidered chalice-vail, 66, 


Walcot, the Rev. Mackenzie E. C, exhi- 
bits leaves of a French MS. of the 
thirteenth century, 66 ; silver reli- 
quary, 74. 

Wales, H.R.H. the Prince of, consents 
to be Honorary Presidout of the 
Annual Meoting in Loudon, 74. 

Wales (Xokth) : — documeuta relating 

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to, 70; roll relating to possessionB in 
the Marches of, 304. 

Walker, the Rev. H. Aston, exhibits a 
thirteenth century tablet of ivory, 

Waller, Mr. J. Q., his account of the 
enamelled plate on Cowling Castle, 
Kent, 233. 

Waltham Abbey, Essex, document as to 
the repair of the church there, 298. 

Waring, Mr. J. B., exhibits tracings from 
publications illustrating stone monu- 
ments, 804. 

Way, Mr. Albert, his notes on Charter 
of Henry VII. to the Franciscans at 
Greenwich, 54 ; his remarks on per- 
forated leaden pellets or buUte, 62 ; 
on Roman pigs of lead and metal- 
lurgical relics, 277. 

Weatherhead, Mr. J., his description of 
Roman remains found at Leicester, 

Westminster Abbey, account of an ancient 
interment in, 808. 

WillUms, Mr. B. T., exhibito the Hon. 
Fulke Qreville's roll of possessions 
in Wales, 804. 

Wilts :— spear-head found at Rushall, 

Winnington, Sir T. E., Bart., M.P., exhi- 
bits document temp. Charles I., with 
Great Seal, 74. 

Woolwich Museum; jousting vamplate 
from, 51 ; st'Oel head of iiltiug lance 
from, 65 ; collar of mail from, 149 ; 
helmet of the fifteenth century from, 
155 ; iron shield and head-piece ob- 
tained in Tangierii, from, 156. 

Worsaae, J. J. A., on the antiquities of 
South Jutland, or Sleswick, 21, 96, 

Wray, Major, R. E., his account of dis- 
coveries of Roman remains in Port- 
land, 75, 78. 

Tates, Mr. James, calls attention to the 
contemplated destruction of the 
monastery of Monte Caasino in 
Italy, 152. 

YoBKBHiRB : — account of excavations at 
Slack, near Huddersfield. 66 ; Indul- 

fenoe by the "minister" of the 
'ranciscan Friars, near Knares- 
borough, 145. 


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